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Патент USA US3026102

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Mal‘Ch 20, 1952
L. c. PELLEGRINI
3,026,092
HEAT EXCHANGER
Filed Aug. 18. 1958
92
4 Sheets-Shed'l 1
90
94
5f.'
£7/
t
ATT'K
March 20, 1962
|_. c. PELLEGRINI
3,026,092
HEAT EXCHANGER
Filed Aug. 18. 1958
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
March 20, 1962
L. c. PELLI-:GRNy
3,026,092
HEAT EXCHANGER
Filed Aug. 18, 1958
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
Mardi 20, 1962
3,026,092
|_. C. PELLEGRINI
HEAT EXCHANGER
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
Filed Aug. 18. 1958
/70
/74
/84
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F/qlz
Bf
United States Patent 'Ü ” ice
3,026,092
Patented Mar. 20, 1952
2
3,926,692
Vention to provide a steam-heated, air-heating, heat ex
changer wherein the steam is introduced into perforated
tubes telescoped within imperforate tubes and wherein
Louis C. Pellegrini, St. Louis, Mo., assigner to Marlo
Coil Company, St. Louis, Mo., a corporation oi‘
the steam is introduced at both ends of said heat ex
HEAT EXCHANGER
changer.
Missouri
The introduction of the steam at both ends of the heat
Fiied Aug. 18, 1958, Ser. No. 755,607
10 Claims. (Cl. 257-50)
'Ihis invention Arelates to improvements in heat exchang
er. More particularly, this invention relates to improve
ments in steam-heated, air-heating, heat exchangers.
exchanger is additionally advantageous where the steam
is throttled. Ordinarily the throttling of steam in a steam
heated, air-heating, heat exchanger leads to the existence
10 of cold spots at the far end of the heat exchanger, and to
the issuance of unheated air from that end of the heat
exchanger. With the heat exchanger of the present in
vention, all parts of the heat exchanger will be hot even
when the steam is throttled.
changer.
Other and further objects and advantages of the present
lt is frequently desirable in the manufacture of steam 15
invention should become apparent from an examination
heated, air-heating heat exchangers to make those heat
of the drawing and accompanying description.
exchangers so they have the tubes thereof alined in rows,
lt is therefore an object of the present invention to pro
vide an improved steam-heated, air-heating, heat ex
and so the rows of tubes are laterally spaced apart. It
would be desirable to mount all of the tubes oi the various
rows of tubes in just one set of iins because such an ar
In the drawing and accompanying description several
preferred embodiments of the present invention have been
shown and described but it is to be understood that the
drawing and accompanying description are for the purpose
rangement would obviate any and all of the misalignment
of illustration only and do not limit the invention andy
of fins that always occurs when individually-finned rows
that the invention will be defined by the appended claims.
of tubes are set in face-to-Íace relation. By obviating
In the drawing:
that misalignment, it is possible to decrease the accumu
FiG. 1 is a partially-broken, plan view of one embodi
lations of lint and dirt in the heat exchanger and thereby 25
ment of steam-heated, air-heating, heat exchanger that is
decrease the pressure drop across that heat exchanger.
made in accordance with the principles and teachings of
While it long has been recognized that it would be de
the present invention,
sirable to mount all of the tubes of the various rows of
FIG. 2 is a partially-broken, plan view of another em
tubes in just one set of iins, it has heretofore been re
garded as impractical to mount more than two rows of 30 bodiment of steam-heated, air-heating, heat exchanger
that is made in accordance with the principles and -teach
tubes in just one set of tins of a steam-heated, air-heating
heat exchanger, particularly where that heat exchanger op
erates intermittently.
ings of the present invention,
FIG. 3 is a partially-sectioned, plan view of part of an
other embodiment of steam-heated, air-heating, heat ex
35 changer that is made in accordance with the principles
more than two rows of tubes in just one set of fins of a
and teachings of the present invention,
steam-heated, air-heating heat exchanger because of the
FlG. 4 is another partially-sectioned, plan View through
warping of the heat exchanger as the hot steam rushes
the heat exchanger of FIG. 3, and it is taken through the
into the tubes and the cold air engages the fins and the
tube immediately above the tube shown in FIG. 3,
exteriors of the tubes. Under some extreme circum
40
FlG. 5 is a sectional plan view of another embodiment
stances, the temperature of the steam can be as high as
of steam-heated, air-heating, heat exchanger that is made
three hundred and eighty seven degrees Fahrenheit and
in accordance with the principles and teachings of the
the temperature of the air can be as low as thirty degrees
lt has heretofore been regarded as impractical to mount
below zero. The contractions of certain parts of the heat
present invention,
FIG. 6 is a plan view of another embodiment of steam
exchanger caused by the impingrnent of the very cold air 45
heated, air-heating, heat exchanger that is made in ac
on th-ose parts of that heat exchanger coact with the ex
cordance with the principles and teachings of the present
pansions of the tubes of that heat exchanger caused by
the inrush of the very hot steam into those tubes to cause
invention,
a working and warping of the heat exchanger that is de
structive. The present invention obviates this destructive 50
of FIG. 6,
exchangers which have at least four rows of tubes mount
ed in just one set of tins. lt is therefore an object of the
is taken along the plane indicated by the line 8-8 in
FIG. 7,
working and warping of the heat exchanger and thereby
makes it possible to make steam-heated, air-heating, heat
FIG. 7 is a front elevational view of the heat exchanger
Y
FEG. 8 is a sectional plan view, on an enlarged scale, of
a portion of the heat exchanger of FIGS. 6 and 7, and it
FIG. 9 is a partially-broken, elevational view of the left
present invention to provide a steam-heated, air-heating, 55
hand end of the heat exchanger of FIGS. 6 and 7,
heat exchanger which has at least four rows of tubes
FiG. l0 is a partially-broken elevational view of the
mounted in just one set of tins.
right-hand end of the heat exchanger of FIGS. 6 and 7,
The present invention reduces the contractions and ex
and
pansions of the heat exchanger by mounting imperforate
FIG. 1l is a diagrammatic, plan view of still another
tubes in the iins and by introducing the steam into perfor
embodiment of steam-heated, air-heating, heat exchange
ated tubes telescoped into those imperforate tubes. The
that is made in accordance with the principles and teach
present invention further reduces the contractions and ex
ings of the present invention.
pansions of the heat exchanger by introducing part of the
Referring to the drawing in detail, the numeral 2% >gen
steam at one end of the heat exchanger and by introduc
ing the rest of the steam at the other end of that heat ex 65 erally denotes the frame of a steam-heated, air-heating,
heat exchanger that is made in accordance with the prin
changer. The telescoping of the perforated tubes within
ciples and teachings of the present invention. While that
the irnperforate tubes minimizes the temperature gradient
frame could be made in many different Ways, -it is shown
alc-ng the face of the heat exchanger, and the introduc
tion of the steam from both ends of the heat exchanger
as being made of a series of channel-like structural mem
also minimizes that temperature gradient. Fihe overall 70 bers. The frame 20 extends laterally outwardly beyond
the edges of, and thereby protects, heat-exchanging fins
result is that working or warping of the heat exchanger
v 22. Each of those fins has been punched to provideiour
is minimized. It is therefore an object of the present in
spaanse
3
laterally-spaced, vertically-directed rows of openings; and
those tins will preferably be made from a metal having a
high thermal conductivity such as copper, aluminum or
the like. Imperforate~wall tubes 24, 26, 28 and 3&3 of
metal having a relatively high thermal conductivity are
disposed within the uppermost openings in the ñns 22;
and a number of identically similar tubes are within those
openings in tins 22 which are below, butin vertical aline
ment with, those uppermost openings. As a result, four
4
pipe 52 extends between that header and the header 42 to
supply steam to that latter header.
In the operation of the heat exchanger shown in FIG.
1, steam is introduced into the header 4S by the supply
pipe 50, and some of that steam is introduced into the
header 42 by the supply pipe 52. Part of the steam
introduced into the header 48 will pass through the tubes
44 and 46, and their counterparts, and pass through the
openings 38 to enter the tubes 26 and 28 and their
laterally-spaced, vertically-directed rows of tubes are 10 counterparts. The perforated tubes 44 and 46, and their
mounted in the fins 22. Those varous tubes will be suit
counterparts, tend to distribute the steam along the
ably iixed within those openings in one of the ways known
to those skilled in the art.
A condensate header 32 is provided at the left-hand end
of the heat exchanger of FIG. 1; and the tubes 24, 26, 28
and 30 and their counterparts incline downwardly from
lengths of the imperforate tubes 26 and 28 and their
counterparts; and that steam will engage the inner walls
of the tubes 26 and 28 and their counterparts and thereby
transfer its heat to those walls. As the steam transfers
its heat it will condense, and the resulting condensate will
right to left in FIG. l so the lowermost ends thereof are
ilow toward the lowermost ends of tubes 26 and 28 and
adjacent the condensate header 32. The tubes 24, 26, 28
enter condensate header 32. The steam introduced into
and 30 »and their counterparts extend into appropriate
the header 42 will pass into the tubes 36 and 40, and
openings in the wall of the condensate header 32 so the 20 their counterparts, and will pass through the openings 38
condensate which forms in those tubes can readily drain
into the tubes 24 and 30 and their counterparts. That
into that header.
A condensate return line 34 is con
steam will engage the inner walls of the tubes 24 and
nected to the condensate header 32 adjacent the bottom
30, and their counterparts, and will transfer Vits heat to
thereof, and that return line inclines downwardly from
those Walls. As the steam transfers its heat to those
its connection with header 32 to provide ready drainage 25 walls it will condense, and the resulting condensate flow
of the condensate.
toward the lowermost ends of tubes 24 and 30 and enter
A tube 36 which has a ninety degree bend intermediate
condensate header 32. The condensate formed in tubes
the ends thereof and which has a number of openings or
24 and 30, and their counterparts, will flow in the same
perforations 38 in one arm thereof extends through the
direction in which the steam within tubes 36 and 4G,
right-hand end of the tube 24. The left-hand end of 30 and their counterparts, ñows; whereas the condensate
the perforated arm of tube 36 is closed, and the right
formed in tubes 26 and 28, and their counterparts, must
hand end of the tube 24 ñts tightly around the right
ñow in the opposite direction to which the steam within
hand end of the perforated arm of tube 36 and is sealed
tubes 44 and 46, and their counterparts, ñows.
to that arm of that tube. The openings or perforations
It will be noted that one half of the steam supplied
38 are distributed both axially and circumferentially 35 to the heat exchanger is introduced at the left-hand end
along the length of the said arm of the tube 36. A tube
of that heat exchanger, and that the rest of that steam is
40 which has a ninety degree bend intermediate the ends
introduced at the right-hand end of that heat exchanger.
thereof and which has one arm thereof provided with
This means that the temperature gradient along the face
openings or perforations 38 extends through the right
of the heat exchanger will be very small, and that the
hand end of tube 30. The left-hand end of the perforated 40 temperatures of most parts of the heat exchanger will
arm of tube 40 is closed, and the right-hand end of the
be held within a completely workable and practical range.
tube 30 closely fits around the tube 40 and is sealed to
Further, this will still be the case when the steam is
it. The other arms of the tubes 36 and 40 extend to
throttled. In prior, steam-heated, air-heating, heat ex
and communicate with a steam header 42. That header
changers, the steam has been introduced at just one end
supplies steam to the tubes 36 and 4i), and that steam 45 of the heat exchanger; and throttling of the steam per
will issue from the openings or perforations 38 and enter
mitted the opposite end of the heat exchanger to become
the imperforate tubes 24 and 30. A series of tubes,
cool. Consequently, the air issuing from that end of the
identically similar to the tubes 36 and 40, are mounted
heat exchanger was not heated adequately, and could
below but in vertical registry with the tubes 36 and 40,
produce a cool draft rather than a Warm flow of air.
any they extend through the right-hand ends of the tubes 50 With the heat exchanger provided by the present in
which are below but in vertical registry with the tubes
vention, all of the air issuing from that heat exchanger
24 and 30.
~
will be warmed, even when the steam has been throttled.
A tube 44 which has a ninety degree bend intermediate
It will be noted that there is no misalignment of the
the ends thereof passes through an opening in the left
heat-exchanging tins for the adjacent rows of tubes be
hand side of the condensate header 32, and the junction 55 cause all of the rows of tubes are mounted in just one
between that opening and that tube is hermetically sealed.
set of tins. Hence, there is not the usual interruption
One arm of the tube 44 extends through the header 32
to the smooth ñow of air through the heat exchanger,
and extends into the tube 26. That arm has a number of
there is not the usual frictional losses, and there is not
perforations 38 disposed along its length but its right
the usual pressure drop.
hand end is closed. A tube 46 which has a ninety degree 60
Referring to FIG. 27 the numeral 60 denotes the frame
bend'intermediate the ends thereof passes through an
of a heat exchanger, and that frame protects and supports
other opening in the left-hand side of condensate header
tins 62. Each of those Vtins has been punched to pro
32, and the junction between that opening and that tube
vide four rows of aligned openings, and those openings
is hermetically sealed. One arm ofthe tube 46 extends
accommodate four laterally-spaced, vertically-aligned
through the header 32 and extends into the tube 2S. 65 rows of imperforate tubes. The uppermost tubes of those
That arm has a number of openings 38 disposed along
rows of tubes are denoted by the numerals 64, 66, 68
its length, .but its right-hand end is closed. The other
and 70. The tubes 64 and 66, and theirrcounterparts,
arms of the tubes 44 and 46 extend to and communicate
incline downwardly from right to left in FïG. 2, and their
with a steam header 48. A number of tubes, identically
lowermost ends are connected to and communicate with
similar to the tubes 44 and 46, are disposed below but in 70 the condensateV header 72. A condensate Yreturn 74 in
vertical registry with the tubes 44 and 46; and those tubes
clines downwardly and away from the lower part of
extend between the header 48 and thosetubes which are
the header 72. The tubes 68 and 70, and their counter
below but in vertical registry with the _tubes 26 and 28.
parts, incline downwardly from right to left in FIG.V 2
A main steam supply pipe 50 extends to the header 48
and their lowermost ends are connected to and com
and supplies steam thereto;-> and a smaller steam supply
municate with the condensate header 76. A condensate
3,026,092
6
5
return 78 inclines downwardly and away from the lower
end of the header 76. if desired, one large condensate
header could be used instead of the two headers 72 and
76; and, if desired, some of the rows of tubes could be
set to drain toward a condensate header at the right
hand end of the heat exchanger while the rest of the
rows of tubes drained toward a condensate header at the
and circumferentially along those arms. The short arms
of the tube 108 and its counterparts extend to and corn
municate with the steam header 120; and the long arms of
those tubes telescope through and are sealed to the open
ings in the left-` and ends of the tube 102 and its counter
parts. The right-hand ends of the tube 102 and its
counterparts extend to and communicate with the con
Because of the
densate header 122. That condensate header is provided
possibility of using different numbers and arrangements
with a condensate return 124 which inclines downwardly
and away from the bottom of the header 122.
left-hand end of the heat exchanger.
of condensate headers, it will be understood that when
ever the phrase condensate header is used herein or in
the claims hereof it will be understood, unless expressly
or impliedly indicated otherwise, to mean one or more
condensate headers.
Tube §26 und its counterparts >have ninety degree
bends intermediate the ends thereof, and the long arms
of those tubes extend through openings in the right side
of the condensate header 122 and telescope into the tube
194 and its counterparts. The right-hand ends of tube
‘iti-t and its counterparts extend to and communicate with
A tube 89 has a ninety degree bend intermediate the
ends thereof, and one arm of that tube has perforations
the condensate header 122. The other arms of the tube
3S therein. That arm of that tube extends through the
126 and its counterparts extend to and communicate with
right-hand end of the tube 64 and is sealed to that latter
the steam header 130. That steam header is connected
tube. identically similar tubes are disposed below but
in vertical registry with the tube Si?, and the arms of 20 with the steam header 1Z0 by a steam pipe 134; and
the steam header 130 is supplied with steam by a steam
those tubes extend into the tubes which are the counter
supply pipe 132.
parts of tube 64. The left-hand ends of tube 30 and its
In the operation of the heat exchanger shown in FiGS.
counterparts are closed. The numeral 82 denotes another
3 and 4, part of the steam from supply pipe 132 passes
tube with a ninety degree bend intermediate its ends,
and one arm of that tube has perforations 38. That 25 into the header 136 and then into the tube 126 and its
counterparts. That part of the steam passes outwardly
arm of that tube extends through the right-hand end
through the openings 38 and enters the imperforate tube
of the tube 68 and is sealed to that latter tube. Other
1b?.- and its counterparts. The rest of the steam passes
tubes, identically similar to the tube 82, are below but in
through supply pipe 134 to header 126 and then into
vertical registry with that tube and extend into the tubes
which are the counterparts of the tube 68. rIhe other 30 die tube 108 and its counterparts. Thereafter, the said
rest ot the steam passes through the openings 38 and en
arms of the tubes St? and 82 and their counterparts ex
ters the imperforate tube 1912 and its counterparts. The
tend to and communicate with the steam header 84.
steam which enters the imperforate tubes 102 and îtì4
The numeral 86 denotes a generally J-shaped tube
and their counterparts will engage the inner surfaces of
which has the long arm thereof provided with perfora
those tubes and transfer their heat to those tubes. In do
tions 38. That arm, which has its right-hand end closed,
ing so, that steam will condense; and the resulting con
extends through an opening in the left side of the header
densate will flow toward the lowermost ends of tubes 102
72 and extends into the tube 66. A number of tubes
and 104 and their counterparts and enter the condensate
identically similar to the tube 86 are disposed below
header 122. Thereafter, that condensate will drain
but in vertical registry with that tube, and they extend
through other openings in the left side of header ’72 and 40 through the condensate return 124. The operation of
the heat exchanger of FIGS. 3 and 4 is similar to the op
lodge within the tubes which are the counterparts of
eration of the heat exchangers of FIGS. 1 and 2; the
tube 66. The numeral 88 denotes another J-shaped
principal differences being that the heat exchanger of
tube which has its long arm provided with openings 38.
FÍGS. 3 and 4 is a single row heat exchanger and that
That arm has its right-hand end closed, and it telescopes
through an opening in the left side of header 76 and 45 the tubes 162 and 104 and their counterparts `are verti
cally interleaved.
lodges in the tube 70. The counterparts of tube SS also
Referring to FIG. 5, the numeral 140 denotes a num
extend through openings in the left side of header 76
ber of heat-exchanging ñns which are punched to provide
and lodge in the counterparts of tube 70. The short arms
two laterally-spaced rows of alined openings. Those
of the tubes S6 and 33 are connected to and communi
openings accommodate imperíorate tubes 142 and 144 and
cate with the steam header 9b. That steam header is
their counterparts; and those tubes incline downwardly
connected to the steam header S4 by a steam supply
pipe 94, and it receives steam from steam supply pipe 92.
The construction and operation of the heat exchanger
shown in FiG. 2 is similar to that of the heat exchanger
shown in FIG. l; the principal diíerences between the two
heat exchangers being in the interleaving of the oppositeiy
fired or fed tubes of the heat exchanger of FlG. 2, and the
use of two, rather than just one, condensate header. In
from left to right in FIG. 5.
The right-hand ends of
those tubes extend to and communicate with a condensate
header 150. A tube 1:74 and its counterparts have ninety
degree bends intermediate the ends thereof, and the long
arms of those tubes extend through and are sealed to the
ends 146 of the tube ido; and its counterparts. The right
hand ends of the long arms of tube 3.54 and its counter
parts are closed, but those arms have openings 33 along
each heat exchanger, two rows of tubes are tired or fed
from the right-hand end of the heat exchanger and two 60 the lengths thereof. The other arms of tube 154 and its
counterparts extend to and communicate with the steam
rows of tubes are fed from the left-hand end of the heat
header 156.
exchanger.
The tube 144 and its counterparts have ciosure 14S at
Referring to FÍGS. 3 and 4, the numeral $.60 denotes
the left-hand ends thereof. Tube îrSä and its counter
the heat-exchanging hns of a single row heat exchanger.
parts have ninety degree bends intermediate the ends
Those tins support a number of tubes 1&2 and ldd and
thereof, and the long arms of those tubes extend through
their counterparts; and those tubes incline downwardly
openings in the right side of the condensate header Itâ-3
from left to right in FiGS. 3 and 4. The tubes 162 and
and lodge within the tube 144 and its counterparts. The
E04, and their counterparts, are interleaved vertically; and
left-hand ends of tube §58 and its counterparts are closed,
the tube ftd-t and its counterparts have closed left-hand
ends 12S. while the tube 162 and its counterparts have 70 but the long arms of those tubes have openings 3S along
the lengths thereof. The junctions between the long arms
openings in the left-hand ends 1&6 thereof.
of tube 158 and its counterparts and the openings in the
A Tube ltìSand its counterparts have ninety degree bends
right side of header 15% are hermetically sealed. The
intermediate the ends thereof; and while the right-hand
short arms of tube îSS and its counterparts extend to and
ends of the long arms of those tubes are closed, a num
communicate with the steam header 16€). A steam sup
ber of perforations or openings 38 are distributed axially
v
3,026,092
ply pipe 164 extends between the header 168 and the
header 156, and a main steam supply pipe 162 is con
nected to the header 160.
8
When desired, the valve 286 can be set to reduce the
amount of steam introduced into the right-hand end of the
heat exchanger.
in each of the heat exchangers shown by the draw
ing, heat-transferring ñns have been provided on the im
perforate heat exchange tubes. However, the present in
two rows and has all of the tubes in one row fed at their
vention is not restricted to use with heat exchangers utiliz
left-hand ends and has all of the tubes in the other row
ing finned tubes; that invention being usable with steam
fed at their right-hand ends. The steam that passes
heated, heat exchangers that utilize bare tubes.
Whereas the drawing and accompanying description
through tubes 154 and 158 and enters tubes 142 and 144 10
have shown and described several preferred embodiments
will condense; and the resulting condensate will flow
downwardly to the condensate 4header 150 and drain out
of the present invention, it should be apparent to those
_ The heat exchanger shown in FIG. 5 is similar to the
heat exchanger shown in FIGS. 3 and 4; the principal
difference being that the heat exchanger of FIG. 5 has
through the condensate return 152.
Referring to FIGS. 6-10, the numeral 17€) denotes a
frame for a heat exchanger, and the numeral 172 de
notes a steam supply pipe. That pipe is connected to the
steam header 174, and a steam supply pipe 176 ex
tends from the header 174 to the steam header 178. As
skilled in the art that various changes may be made in
the form of the invention without affecting the scope
thereof.
What I claim is:
l. A steam-heated, air-heating, heat exchanger that
comprises a frame, a plurality of heat-exchanging fins
indicated particularly in FiG. 7, the steam pipes 172 and
disposed within said frame, each of said heat-exchanging
176 are located approximately midway between the top 20 tins having a plurality of openings therein, said openings
being grouped and alined to define at least four laterally
and bottom of the heat exhanger. A condensate return
spaced rows of openings, a plurality of imperforate-wall
180 is provided, and that return communicates with the
tubes mounted in said openings in said heat-exchanging
bottom of condensate header 182.
v A number of heat-exchanging ñns 171 are mounted in
hns to `form at least four laterally-spaced rows of im
the frame 170; and those ûns are punched to provide two 25 perforate-wall tubes, said imperforate-wall tubes being in
laterally-spaced rows of openings. Imperforate tubes
clined to the horizontal and each of said imperforate
wall tubes having its lower end adjacent one end of said
184 and 188 and their counterparts are mounted in those
openings to define two laterally-spaced rows of tubes.
frame, a condensate header that is adjacent said one end
Those tubes incline downwardly from right to left in
of said frame and that is connected to and communicates
FIGS. 6 and 7, and the lowermost ends of those tubes are 30 with the lower ends of said imperforate-wall tubes, a
steam header adjacent said one end of said frame, a
connected to and communicate with the condensate header
second steam header adjacent the opposite end of said
182. The right-hand ends of the tube 184 and its counter
frame, a steam pipe communicating With and extending
parts are closed, and the right-hand ends of the tube 188
between said steam headers, a plurality of perforate
and its counterparts are partially closed. Tube 198
and its counterparts have ninety degree bends intermedi 35 wall tubes that communicate with and extend from the
first said steam header and that telescope into and
ate the ends thereof, and the long arms of those tubes have
through the lower ends of some of said imperforate-wall
their ends closed and have openings 38 along the lengths
thereof. A tube 1S6-and its counterparts have bends of
tubes, a second plurality of perforate-wall tubes that
approximately two hundred and ninety degrees therein;
communicate with and extend from said second-steam
and the long arms of those tubes have the ends thereof 40 header and that telescope into and through the upper
closed and they extend through openings in the left side
ends of the rest of said imperforate-wall tubes, each of
said perforate-wall tubes having a bend therein interme
of header 182 and lodge within tube 184 and its counter
diate its steam header and its imperforate-wall tube, a
parts. The junctions between the tube 186 and its
portion of said perforate-Wall tubes being sealed to and
counterparts and the openings in the left side of header
182 are hermetically sealed. The other Varms of tube 45 extending through said condensate header to telescope
into their imperforate-wall tubes, said steam headers and
190 and its counterparts extend to and communicate with
said perforate-wall tubes directing steam into the oppo
steam header 178, and the other arms of tube 136 and
site ends of said heat exchanger, the perforations in each
its counterparts extend to and communicate with steam
said perforate tube being spaced throughout its length
header 174. The heat exchanger of FIGS. 6~10 is similar
to the heat exchanger shown in FIG. 5, but the steam . within the imperforate tube to provide uniform heating
headers and the interconnecting steam supply pipe 176
of said heat exchanger even when said steam is throttled,
said bends in said perforate-Wall tubes accommodating
have been protected by the frame 176.
expansion and contraction of said` perforate-wall tubes
Referring to FIG. 1l, the numeral 2% denotes a steam
and of said imperforate-wall tubes, the upper ends of
supply pipe which is connected to a steam header 282.
A steam supply pipe 284 extends from the header 202 to 55 said some imperforate-wall tubes being closed, the upper
ends of said rest of said imperforate-wall tubes being
the header 298, and that pipe has a shut oí valve 286
sealed to said second plurality of perforate-wall tubes,
intermediate the ends thereof. The heat-exchanging fins
said frame extending laterally outwardly beyond the sides
210 of the heat exchanger of FIG. il are punched to pro
vide two laterally-spaced rows of openings, and tubes
and end-s of said headers, the condensate in said some
212 and 216 and their counterparts are mounted in those 60 imperforate-wall tubes flowing in a direction opposite to
the direction of flow Vof the steam in the ñrst said plu
openings. Tube 212 and its counterparts extend between
rality of perforate-Wall tubes, the condensate in said
the steam header 202 and the condensate header 214;
rest of said imperforate-wall tubes iiowing in the same
and tube 216 and its counterparts extend from the steam
direction as the tlow of the steam in said second plu
header 208 to the condensate header 218. The two head
ers 214 and 218 are connected together by a condensate 65 rality of perforate-wall tubes.
line 220, and a condensate return 222 extends down
2. A steam-heated, air-heating, heat exchanger that
wardly and away from the lower end of the header 218.
comprises a frame, a plurality of heat-exchanging tins
disposed within said frame, each of said heat-exchanging
In operation, the valve 206 can be opened to supply
iins having a plurality or' openings therein, said open
steam to the heat exchanger at both ends; and where that
is done, part of the steam will pass from steam header 70 ings being grouped and alined to deñne laterally-spaced
282 through tube 212 and its counterparts to the con
rows of openings, a plurality of imperforate-wall tubes
' densate header 214, and the rest of the steam will pass
from steam header 288 through tube 216 and its counter
parts to the condensate header 218. In the heat ex
mounted in said openings in said heat-exchanging fins
to form laterally-spaced rows of imperforate-Wall tubes,
said imperforate-Wall. tubes being inclined to the hori
changer of FIG. 1l, perforated inner tubes are not used. 75 zontal and each of said imperforate-wall tubes having
3,026,092
its lower end adjacent one end of said frame, a con
densate header that is adjacent said one end of said
frame and that is connected to and communicates with
the lower ends of said imperÍorate-wall tubes, a steam
header adjacent said one end of said frame, a second
steam header adjacent the opposite end of said frame,
a steam pipe communicating with and extending between
4. A steam-heated, air-heating, heat exchanger that
comprises a plurality of heat-exchanging tins, each of
said heat-exchanging tins having a plurality of openings
therein, a plurality of imperforate tubes mounted in said
openings in said heat-exchanging tins, said impertorate
tubes being inclined to the horizontal to drain to the
same end- OÍ the heat exchanger, said imperforate tubes
projecting outwardly beyond both ends of said plurality
said steam headers, a plurality of perforate-Wall tubes
of heat exchanger tins, a condensate header that is con
that communicate with and extend from the iirst said
steam header and that telescope into and through the 10 nected to the lower ends of said imperforate tubes, a
steam header, a second steam header, a steam pipe com
lower ends of some of said impertorate-wall tubes, a
municating with and extending between said steam head
ers, a plurality of perforate tubes that communicate with
second plurality of perforate-wall tubes that communi
cate with and extend from said second steam header and
and extend from the first said steam header and that tele
that telescope into and through the upper ends of the
rest of said imperforate-wall tubes, each of said per 15 scope into and through the lower ends of some of said
imperforate tubes, the upper ends of said some imper
Íorate-wall tubes having a bend therein intermediate its
forate tubes being closed, said perforate tubes being con
steam header and its imperforate-wall tube, a portion
nected in parallel with each other, a second plurality of
of said perforate-wall tubes being sealed to and extend
perforate tubes that communicate with and extend from
ing through said condensate header to telescope into
their imperforate-wall tubes, said steam headers and said 20 said second steam header and that telescope into and
through the upper ends of the rest of said imperforate
perforate-wall tubes directing steam into the opposite
tubes, the ends of said imperforate tubes through which
ends of said heat exchanger, the perforations in each
said second plurality of perforate tubes telescope being
sealed to said perforate tubes, said perforate tubes of
of said heat exchanger even when said steam is throttled, 25 said second plurality of perforate tubes being connected
in parallel with each other, some of said perforate tubes
Said bends in said perÍorate-wall tubes accommodating
extending through said condensate header, each of said
expansion and contraction of said perforate-wall tubes
perforate tubes having a bend therein intermediate its
and of said imperforate-wall tubes, the upper ends of said
steam header and its said impertorate tube, said steam
some imperforate-wall tubes being closed, the upper ends
of said rest of said imperforate-wall tubes being sealed to 30 headers and said perforate tubes directing steam into the
opposite ends of said heat exchanger, the perforations in
said second plurality of perforate-wall tubes, the conden
each said perforate tube being spaced throughout its
sate in said some impertorate-wall tubes ñowing in a di
length within the impertorate tubes to provide uniform
rection opposite to the direction of iiow of the steam in
heating of said heat exchanger even when said steam is
the ñrst said plurality of perforate-wall tubes, the con
densate in said rest of said imperforate-wall tubes flow 35 throttled, said bends in said perforate tubes accommo
dating expansion and contraction of said tubes and of
ing in the same direction as the ñow of the steam in
said imperforate tubes.
said second plurality of perforate-wall tubes.
5. A steam-heated, air-heating, heat exchanger that
3. A steam-heated, air-heating, heat exchanger that
comprises a plurality of heat-exchanging tins, each of
comprises a frame, a plurality of heat-exchanging tins
disposed within said frame, each of said heat-exchanging 40 said heat-exchanging tins having a plurality of openings
therein, a plurality of imperforate tubes mounted in said
tins having a plurality of openings therein, said open
openings in said heat-exchanging fins, said imperforate
ings being grouped and alined to define at least four
tubes being inclined to the horizontaltto drain to the
laterally-spaced rows of openings, a plurality of imper
same
end of the heat exchanger, said imperforate tubes
forate-wall tubes mounted in said openings in said heat
projecting outwardly beyond both ends of said plurality
exchanging tins to form at least four laterally-spaced
or" heat-exchanging tins, a condensate header that is con
rows of imperforate-wall tubes, said imperforate-wall
said perÍorate tube being spaced throughout its length
within the imperforate tube to provide uniform heating
nected to the lower ends of said imperforate tubes, a
tubes being inclined to the horizontal to drain to the same
end ot the heat exchanger, a condensate header that is
adjacent said frame and that is connected to and com
steam header, a second steam header, a steam pipe com
municating with and extending between said steam head
municates with the lower ends of said imperforate-wall 50 ers, a plurality of periorate tubes that communicate with
and extend from the íirst said steam header and that
tubes, a steam header adjacent one end of said frame,
telescope into and through the lower ends of some of
a second steam header adjacent the opposite end of said
said irnperforate tubes, the upper ends of said some im
trame, a steam pipe communicating with and extending
perforate
tubes being closed, a second plurality of per
between said steam headers, a plurality of perforate-wall
tubes that communicate with and extend from the ñrst 55 forate tubes that communicate with and extend from said
second steam header and that telescope into and through
said steam header, and that telescope into and through
the upper ends of the rest of said imperforate tubes, the
the ends of some of said imperforate-wall tubes, a sec
upper
ends of said imperforate tubes through which said
ond plurality of perforate-wall tubes that communicate
second plurality of perforate tubes telescope being sealed
with and extend from said second steam header and that
telescope into and through the ends of the rest of said 60 to said perforate tubes, some of said perforate tubes ex
tending through said condensate header, each of said per
imperforate-wall tubes, each of said perforate-wall tubes
forate tubes having a bend therein intermediate its steam
having a bend therein intermediate its steam header and
header and its said imperforate tube, said steam headers
its imperforate-Wall tube, a portion of said perforate
and said perforate tubes directing steam into the oppo
wall tubes being sealed to and extending through said
site
ends of said heat exchanger, the perforations in each
condensate header to telescope into their imperforate 65
said perforate tube being spaced throughout its length
wall tubes, said steam headers and said perforate-wall
within the imperforate tube to provide uniform heating
tubes directing steam into the opposite ends of said heat
of said heat exchanger even when said steam is throt
exchanger, the perforations in each said perforate tube
tled, said bends in said perforate tubes accommodating
being spaced throughout its length within the imper
forate tube to provide uniform heating of said heat ex 70 expension and contraction of said tubes and of said im
períorate tubes, the tirst said and said second steam head
changer even when said steam is throttled, said bends
ers being displaced laterally from said imperforate tubes
in said perÍorate-wall tubes accommodating expansion
and being disposed outward-ly beyond said ends of said
and contraction of said perforate-Wall tubes and of said
plurality of heat-exchanging tins.
imperforate-wall tubes, said frame extending laterally
outwardly beyond the sides and ends of said headers.
75
6. A steam-heated, air-heating, heat exchanger that i
11
3,026,092
Y
comprises a plurality of imperforate tubes, said imper
12
adjacent one end of said heat exchanger and being
directed toward and terminating adjacent the iirst said
end of said heat exchanger, said second plurality of per
forate tubes starting adjacent the said opposite end of
said heat exchanger and being directed toward and termi
nating adjacent the first end of said heat exchanger, and
forate tubes being inclined to the horizontal to drain to
the same end of the heat exchanger, a condensate header
that is connected to the lower ends of said imperforate
tubes, a steam header, a second steam header,»a plu
rality of perforate tubes that communicate with and
extend from the ñrst said steam header and that tele
scope into and through the lower ends of some of said irn
perforate tubes, the upper ends of said some imperforate
a source of steam for said perforate tubes, said perforate
tubes directing steam into the opposite ends of said heat
exchanger, the perforations in each said perforate tube
tubes being closed, a second plurality of perforate tubes 10 being spaced throughout its length within the imperforate
that communicate with and extend from said second
tube to provide uniform heating of Said heat exchanger
steam header and that telescope into and through the
upper ends of the rest of said imperforate tubes, the
upper ends of said imperforate tubes through which said
even when said steam is throttled.
9. A steam-heated, air-heating, heat exchanger that
comprises a plurality of imperforate tubes, each of said
second plurality of perforate tubes telescope being sealed 15 imperforate tubes being elongated and extending substan
to the perforate tubes, some of said perforate tubes ex
tiaily the full length of the air heating portion of said
tending through said condensate header, each of 4said
heat exchanger, said tubes each having an open end to
perforate tubes having a bend therein intermediate its
steam header and its said imperforate tube, said steam
headers and- said perforate tubes directing steam into the
opposite ends of said heat exchanger, the perforations
in each said perforate tube being spaced throughout its
length within the imperforate tube to provide uniform
heating of said heat exchanger'even when said steam
is throttled, Ysaid bends in said perforate tubes accom
modating expansion and contraction of said tubes and
of said imperforate tubes.
7. A steam-heated, air-heating, heat exchanger that
comprises a plurality> of imperforate tubes, said imper
the same end of the heater and a closed end at the other,
each of said imperforate tubes being inclined downwardly
to the open ends to facilitate drainage, a steam header at
one end of saidheat exchanger, a second steam header
at the opposite end of said heat exchanger, a îirst plurality
of perforate tubes approximately equal in number to
one half the imperforate tubes extending from said one
25 steam header through the open ends of said imperforate
tubes toward the said opposite end of said heat exchanger,
and a second plurality of perforate tubes equal in number
to the balance of the irnperforate tubes extending from
said second steam header through the closed ends of said
imperforate tubes toward the said one end of said heat
exchanger, whereby steam is introduced into said heat
exchanger at .the opposite ends thereof, the perforations
forate tubes being inclined to the horizontal to drain to
the same end of the heat exchanger, each of said irn
perforateV tubes being elongated and extending substan
tially the full length of the air heating portion of said
heat exchanger, a plurality of perforate tubes that tele
scope into and through the lower ends of some of said
-trnperforate tubes, the other ends of said some imper
forate tubes being closed, a second plurality of perforate
tubes that telescope into and through the ends of the
rest of said imperforate tubes, the ends of said imper
forate tubes through which said second plurality of per
forate tubes telescope, being sealed to the perforate tubes,
the first said plurality of perforate tubes starting adja
in each of said perforate tubes being spaced throughout
its length within the imperforate tube to assure even
steam distribution.
10. A steam-heated, air-heating, heat exchanger that
comprises a steam header at one end .of said heat ex
40
changer, a second steam header at the opposite end of
said heat exchanger, a plurality of perforate tubes extend
ing from said one steam header toward and terminating
adjacent the said opposite end of said heat exchanger,
and a second plurality of perforate tubes extending from
said second steam header toward and terminating adja
second plurality of perforate tubes starting adjacent the 45 cent the said one end of said heat exchanger, whereby
steam is introduced into said heat exchanger at the oppo
said opposite end of said heat exchanger and being di
site ends thereof, a plurality of imperforate tubes equal
rected toward- the lirst said end of said heat exchanger,
in number to the perforate tubes, all said imperforate
and a source of steam for said perforate tubes, each of
tubes being open at one end and closed at the other, said
said perforate tubes having a bend therein intermediate
its imperforate tube and said source of steam, said per 50 imperforate tubes having their open ends to the same
end ot' said heat exchanger and inclined to the horizontal
forate tubes directing steam into the opposite ends of
to drain to the open ends, each of said perforate tubes
said heat exchanger, the perforations in each said per
being disposed within and encased by an imperforate
forate tube beingspaced throughout its length within
tube, said iirst plurality of perforate tubes extending
the imperforate tube to provide uniform heating of said
heat exchanger even when said steam is throttled, said 55 through the open ends of the encasing imperforate tube
and said second plurality extending through the closed
bends in said perforate tubes accommodating expansion
endof the encasing imperforate tube, said imperforate
»and contraction of said tubes and of said imperforate
tubes.
tubes being aligned to form a row of'tubes, the said first
and said second plurality of perforate tubes being inter
8. A steam-heated, `air-heating, heat exchanger that
leaved Whereby alternating imperforate tubes are tired
comprises a plurality of heat-exchanging tins, each of said
cent one end of said heat exchanger and being directed
toward the opposite end of said heat exchanger, said
heat exchanger tins having a plurality of openings therein,
a plurality of imperforate tubes, said imperforate tubes
from opposite ends Vof said heat exchanger, the perfora
tions in said perforate tubes being spaced throughout their
being inclined to the horizontal to drain to the same end
encased length to assure even steam distribution.
of the heat exchanger, each of said imperforate tubes be
ing elongated and extending through the openings in said
heat exchanger tins from one end of said heat exchanger
to the other, each of said imperforate tubes being open
at its lower end and closed at its upper end, a plurality
of perforate tubes that telescope into and through the
lower ends of some of said imperforate tubes, a second 70
plurality of perforate tubes that telescope into and
through the closed ends of the rest of said imperforate
tubes, the first said plurality of perforate tubes starting
References Cited in the tile of this> patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
978,49()
2,626,783
2,816,738
Sauerbrei ____________ __ Dec. 13, 1910
Fritzberg __.; __________ __ Ian. 27, 1953
McElgin _____________ __ Dec. 17, 1957
FOREIGN PATENTS
173,827
435,266
Great Britain _________ __ Ian. 19, 1922
Germany ____________ __ Oct. 11, 1926
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