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Патент USA US3026229

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March 20, 1962
3,026,219
R. o. PETERSON
BRUSI-IING METHOD AND APPARATUS
Filed‘ May 4, 1956
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March 20, 1962
R. o. PETERSON
3,026,219
BRUSHING METHOD AND APPARATUS
Filed May 4, 1956
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
INVENTOR.’
RUBf/V Q'PETERSON
BY
/
.
'
‘
A TTORNEYé .
March 20, 1962
R. o. PETERSON
3,025,219
BRUSHING METHOD AND APPARATUS
Filed May 4, 1956
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
INVENTOR. RUBEN O. PETERSON
mowwrmw Domzllg
ATTORNEYS
United States Patent 0 "ice
3,026,219
Patented Mar. 20, 1962
2
1
3,026,219
BRUSHING METHOD AYD APPARATUS
Ruben 0. Peterson, University Heights, Ohio, assignor to
The Osborn Manufacturing Company, Cleveland, Ohio,
a corporation of Ohio
Filed May 4, 1956, Ser. No. 582,806
28 Claims. (Cl. 134-9)
a few of the various ways in which the principle of the
invention may be employed.
In said annexed drawing:
FIG. 1 is a diagrammatic side elevation of the intro
ductory portion of a continuous strip treating line in ac
cordance with my invention;
FIG. 2 is a continuation of the view of FIG. 1 showing
the principal brush stands;
FIG. 3 is a similar view showing the terminal portion
This invention relates as indicated to a novel brushing
method and apparatus, and more particularly to a method 10 of the line;
FIG. 4 is a diagrammatic top plan view of the portion
and means for surface conditioning and bene?ciating
of the line shown in FIG. 2 indicating the manner in
metal strip, such operations including the removal of
which the brushing stands may be swiveled at an angle
scale and other closely adherent coatings, small slivers
to the path of travel of'the work; and
and the like, the rounding of the sharp edges of small
FIG. 5 is an elevational view of a double brush as
pits and scratches, reducing differences in hardness and 15
sembly adapted to engage opposite sides of a traveling
associated physical qualities of small adjacent surface
steel strip, together with means for reciprocating such
areas and small adjacent subsurface component forma
brushes tranversely of the work.
tions, cleaning and polishing the surfaces, and reducing
Referring now more particularly to said drawing and
surface tension.
It has previously been appreciated that certain bene 20 especially FIGS. l—3 thereof, such ?gures illustrate a con
tinuous strip bene?ciating and conditioning line commenc
?ts may be obtained by brushing the convexly ?exed sur
face of a continuously traveling work-piece such as steel
strip, and reference may be had to Pecsok Patent No.
ing with an uncoiler 1 from which the strip S passes along
conveyor 2 to a stand journalling pinch rolls 3 and power
driven strip feeding rolls 4. The next stand 5 journals
2,335,196 and Peterson Patent 2,666,282 for disclosures
of particular devices for this purpose. As also taught in 25 a pair of power driven cylindrical “duster” brushes be
tween which the traveling strip passes for removal of
my co-pending application Serial No. 404,431, ?led Jan
loose particles from its surfaces prior to passage through
uary 18, 1954, now Patent 2,757,486, certain important
advantages may be obtained by brushing the concave sur
face of a ?exed continuously traveling strip°or like elon
gated work-piece. As pointed out in such application,
this arrangement is particularly suited to the concurrent
application of various types of abrasives and also the
brush may be brought into engagement with the work
a roll stand 6 operative to ?ex and work the strip to frac
ture surface scale and regularize its cross-section. This
roll stand will desirably be of the type disclosed and
claimed in the application of John C. Bongiovanni Serial
No. 513,641, ?led June 7, 1955. The strip now passes
through another duster brush stand 7 similar to stand 5
to clean the surfaces prior to passage of the strip through
periphery, greatly increasing the amount of work done at 35 roll stand 8 similar to stand 6 but operative to ?ex the
strip in the opposite direction as explained more in de
any particular rate of work-piece travel and brush rota
tail in such application of John C. Bongiovanni. After
tion.
passing through a third duster brush stand 9, the strip
It is an object of the present invention to provide brush
is gripped by pinch rolls 10 and passes through a leveler
ing apparatus adapted to brush both sides of a continu
throughout a very considerable arcuate portion of the
ously traveling elongated work-piece such as steel strip 40 11 which assists in preparing the strip for operation there
and the like and to brush both sides where both convexly
and concavely ?exed, the brushes engaging the concave
ly ?exed surfaces also serving as back-up rollers for the
on by the main brushing stands which follow. A brush
ing stand 12 precedes pinch rolls 13 and slitter 14 which
may be utilized to slit the strip into desired widths prior
to the performance of the principal brushing operations.
brushes engaging the convexly ?exed surfaces.
45
Referring now speci?cally to FIG. 2, strip S passes
Another object is to provide brushing apparatus and
through successive brushing stands 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 and
a method of brushing effective to operate upon the travel
20 which may desirably be of the type disclosed and
ing work-piece at an angle to its path of travel, this of
claimed in my prior application Serial No. 491,992, “Re—
course also being at an angle to the direction in which
the work-piece was previously processed as by rolling and 50 ciprocating Surface-Finishing Mechanism and Method,”
?led March 3, 1955, or in application Serial No. 524,115
the like. I have discovered that it is unexpectedly ad
of John C. Bongiovanni, “Brush Unit and Drive Means
vantageous thus to brush the work-piece surface diagon
Therefor,” ?led July 25, 1955. These brush strands are
ally Where it is convexly and concavely ?exed.
mounted for reciprocation axially of the brushes jour
A further object is to provide such brushing apparatus
so arranged that while the axes of the power driven rotary
brushes are diagonally related to the path of travel of
the work-piece and such work-piece is ?exed ?rst in one
direction and then in the other direction, a straight line
pass may nevertheless be achieved.
nalled therein, and are also adapted to be swiveled so that
also slowly reciprocated axially thereof transversely of
accordingly follow a slightly Zigzag path as viewed from
above. This undesirable consequence is readily avoided
such brush axes extend diagonally of the path of travel of
the strip S, as discussed more in detail below. In view of
such diagonal disposition in the brush axes and the fact
that alternate stands are arranged in alternate higher and
Still another object is to provide such method of brush 60 lower positions, there will be a tendency for the strip to
angle ?rst to one side and then to the other as it is ?exed
ing the work-piece wherein the direction of rotation of
over brushes in such alternate stands. The strip would
the brushes is periodically reversed and such brushes are
the traveling work.
Other objects of the invention will appear as the de 65 by mounting such stands or the brushes thereof on a slight
tilt to compensate therefor. In fact, with the adjustable
scription proceeds.
arrangements provided for the pairs of opposed cylindrical
To the accomplishment of the foregoing and related
rotary brushes, it is ordinarily feasible merely to adjust the
ends, said invention then comprises the features herein
bearing chocks slightly to incline the brush axes without
after fully described and particularly pointed out in the
claims, the following description and the annexed draw 70 thus inclining the entire brushing stand.
It will be seen that the strip S is ?rst ?exed about upper
ing setting forth in detail certain illustrative embodiments
brush 21 in stand 15, with the lower brush 22 engaging the
of the invention, these being indicative, however, of but
3,026,219
3
4
convexly curved under surface of the strip. Such strip
instead of the well-known but much less effective conventional scale breakers utilized in advance of the customary pickling tanks. This new apparatus may comprise a
power driven back-up roll or rolls supporting a very much
smaller diameter work roll thereagainst for free rotation.
is then ?exed over lower brush 23 of stand 16, such lower
brush serving as a back-up roll for upper brush 24 engag
ing the convexly ?exedupper surface of the strip. Upper
brushes 25 and 26 in stands l?and 20 respectively ‘cor
respond to such brush 24 in stand 16 with lower brushes
and a pair of parallel larger work rolls slightly spaced
from such smaller work roll and asymmetrically posi-'
27 and 28 corresponding to brush 23. Intermediate the
stands 16. and 18 the traveling strip is ?exed about the
cylindrical upper brush 29 of stand 17 with lower brush
tioned of such back-up roll assembly, with power means
operative to drive such larger work rolls. The strip passes
30 engaging the convexly curved under surface. of the 10 over the smaller work roll between the same and two
strip. In stand 19, similarly, the strip is ?exed about upper
larger work rolls, being forced to ?ex about a radius‘
brush 31 with lower brush 32, engaging the convexly
preferably at least as small as that of such smaller work
curved under surface of the strip.
roll. This controlled ?exing is very effective in fracturing
and loosening the scale v‘and in improving the physical
qualities of the base metal, and the strip will desirably be
,
Referring now to FIG. 3, the strip continues from
stand 20 through pinch roll stand 33 to conveyor 34, re
15
coiler 35 and delivery conveyor 36. Ordinarily, the lead
ing end of a following length of strip will be welded to the
trailing end, of a preceding length so that operation of the
?exed ?rst in one direction and then in the other in such
stands 6 and 8.
'
The roller leveler 11"'will,preferably employ a large
number of rollers in order that the traveling strip may be
brushing line may be substantially continuous. A parting
shear (not shown) will then be required ahead of coiler 20 well leveled after the preceding ?exing operations, a sub
stantially ?at surface (only very slightly wavy) being of
35. Of course, other equipment such as a squaring shear,
advantage in the subsequent brushing operations. Al
welder, coil opener and accumulator may also be included
though their inclusion in the line is optional, when includ
at the entry end of the line. Except for the accumulator
hereinafter described, such equipment may be of stand
ard design well known in the art.
As shown in FIG. 4, which is a diagrammatic top plan
view of FIG. 2, the brushing stands 15, 16, 17, 18, 19
ed, thev duster stands 5, 7 and 9 clean the strip surfaces of
25 relatively loosely adherent dirt and scale but are not relied
upon to remove tight scale. These stands may desirably
be mounted for reciprocation transversely of the path of
travel of the strip in the manner explained in my prior
application Serial No. 491,992, the cylindrical brushes be
ing of somewhat greater axial extent than the width of
and 20 may be swiveled in either direction as desired in
order that the axes of the cylindrical brushes of such
stands may extend at least somewhat diagonally of the
path of travel of the strip S rather than at right angles
thereto.
the strip engaged and the reciprocation being regulated
to bring each'end of the brush in to the adjacent edge of
the strip and then out again alternately. The brush
Preliminary Treatment
It has been general practice in‘ the past to remove scale
from steel strip and the like by passing such strip through
stands may, if desired, be arranged somewhat diagonally
35 of the path of travel of the strip with their axes inclined
at angles of from about 5° to 45° from a directly trans
a scale breaker and then through a long and wasteful
verse position (i.e. from a position with their axes at
pickling operation. Acid pickling methods’ are quite ef
fective inv removal of oxide scale, but they also involve the
right angles to such path of travel). Alternate brush
stands may be thus inclined in opposite or different
directions so as to brush the strip at different angles. The
principal purpose of the duster brushes is to remove loose
removal of some good metal (frequently more than one
percent) unless so inhibited as greatly to slow the opera
tion and do not assist in reducing slivers, burrs, and other
particles from the strip surface which might otherwise
surface irregularities. The pickling acids preferentially
be pressed into and damage such surfaces when passing
through the devices such as the scale fracturing stands
objectionable pits and sharp etchings, and hydrogen 45 6 and 8, the leveler 11, and the pinch rolls. To avoid
excessive duling of cutters of slitter 13, 14, brushing
liberated as the acid does its work is absorbed into the
stand 12 is placed therebefore.
‘
'
steel or other metal to a considerable extent with some
If the strip is to be slit, it is preferred to perform this
resultant embrittlement of the metal and other detrimental
operation at the point indicated in the line since a con
effects. Despite subsequent washing operations, minute
amounts of the pickling solution and resultant salts and 50 siderable amount of the scale and other material likely to
harm or cause undue wear of the slitting mechanism will
other water-borne materials, after drying, tend to remain
already have been eliminated at this point. Also, by
in such small pits and surface irregularities where they
attack certain portions of the metal‘ surface, thus produc
ing and‘ exaggerating numerous weakening and otherwise
slitting the strip prior to the performance of the principal
may subsequently cause considerable trouble. Sulphuric
brushing operations thereon, the slit edges of the several
acid is the acid most usually employed, and the supply is
resulting strips may be e?ectively brushed in a manner
not always as stable as might be desired.
55
explained in some'detail in my prior application Serial
Of course, the pickling operation does not entirely use
No. 491,992.
up the acids supplied to the pickling tank, and frequently
more than half the acid and the salts must in due course
be discarded or salvaged. Disposition of the partially
spent solutions containing mixtures of acids and metal
salts is both a troublesome and a costly problem.
In
9
'
l
The Principal Brushing Operation
60
The principal power driven brush stands 15—20 (FIG.
2) are generally comparable to those shown and de
creasingly severe pollution control laws are making such
scribed in my prior application Serial No. 491,992, pre
problem even more severe. Salvaging operations do not
ferably being arranged diagonally of the path of travel
of the work and providing for axial reciprocation of the
While the present invention relates primarily to a 65 brushes. The principal, difference in such FIG. 2 ar
rangement of the brushing stands resides in the fact that
novel method and apparatus ‘for brushing continuously
traveling elongated metal articles such as steel strip, it ' the pairs of brushes of alternate stands are. at different
will be appreciated from the preceding general descrip
levels so that the strip is ?exed ?rst in one direction and
return their cost.
‘
tion of the complete line that several preliminary opera
then the other about one brush of each pair. According
tions are important to place the strip in best condition for 70 ly, one brush of each stand serves as a backiupiroll sup
effective action thereon by the main brush stands 15, 16,
17, 18, 19 and 20. More particularly, I very much prefer
to employ a scale loosening and strip bene?ciating ap
paratus of the type disclosed in the aforesaid Bongiovanni
porting thestrip for the ‘associated brush which may en
gage 'and brush the‘convexly ?exed surface of the strip.
Also, the back-up brush itself power brushes the con
cavely ?exed surface engaged thereby. When the strip
application Serial No. 513,641 (stand? 6. and 3 herein) 75 being brushed is less than a'certain minimum’ thickness
3,026,219“
however, it may generally be preferred that such associ
ated brush engage the strip surface immediately in ad
vance of or immediately following the arc of ?exing
where such strip surface is relatively ?at.
My cylindrical rotary brushes make excellent supports
over which to ?ex the traveling strip. It is well known
that slivers and abrasive particles embed in and adhere to
the surface of most solid rolls. The softer such rolls,
the greater the tendency to hold such particles. Slippage,
unavoidable in systems of the type in question, between
the strip and the surface of -a supporting roll therefore
6.
convexly ?exed surface and three brushes on each side
(usually on the order of about one-sixteenth of an inch),
engaging the concavely ?exed surface), and also the
power driven brush stand 12 operative to perform an ef
fective brushing operation in advance of slitter 13, this
ordinarily being adequate when the strip is traveling at a
rate of from 100 to 150 feet per minute, I will ordinarily
desire to employ about ten brush stands arranged as in
FIG. 2 with such brushes engaging each side when the
strip is to travel from about 250 to about 300 feet per
10 minute. Of course, it will be appreciated that certain
is inclined to mar the surface, and especially after such a
system has been in operation for some time. In contrast
types of strip are more readily cleaned and descaled than
others, and much will also depend upon the e?iciency of
the preceding scale fracturing method and apparatus which
may be of the type above identi?ed or of other types Well
to this, such slivers and abrasive particles sink deep into 15 known in the art such as shot blasting, for example.
In a typical operation, hot rolled steel strip having a
the brush face on the support side, and fall out on the op
thickness of from .060 to .148 inch and a width of from
posite side. The numerous points of brush bristles, even
6 to 54 inches, or of greater width, may be threaded
though they be made of the hardest of wire, do not scratch
deeply. Such scratching as takes place in limited to a
burnishing action which is bene?cial rather than detri
mental.
A further important feature in association with
the foregoing is the arrangement or disposition of
through the line at 20 feet per minute and thereafter sub
stantially continuously processed at from 100 to 300 feet
per minute. A typical coil may weigh about 750 pounds
per inch of width. The scale removing brushes using wire
brush material may be operated at speeds on the order of
10,000 surface feet per minute and their directions of
these brush stands diagonally of the path of travel of the
strip S so that the direction of brushing is likewise diagonal 25 rotation should periodically be reversed after about three
minutes of brushing time, for example. When brushes
and, moreover, diagonal to the direction in which the
substantially larger than the width of strip being brushed
strip was previously processed when rolled. Small surface
are used and reciprocated transversely of the strip as de
irregularities and slivers which were pressed into the
scribed above, then the time between reversals of brush
surface of the strip during such rolling operation normally
lie in directions parallel to the direction of strip travel 30 rotation can be lengthened proportionately. The cutting
and wearing qualities of the brush material of which the
(i.e. directly longitudinally of the strip) and are far
brush is made will, of course, also affect the length of
more effectively engaged by the brush bristle material if
the period between reversals. As taught in my aforesaid
the direction of brushing is at least partially laterally
application Serial No. 491,992, the length of the brush
thereof and applied subsequent to processing by the scale
breaking and bene?ciating device described above.
35 face should desirably be substantially greater than the
effective width of the work (as much as 25 to 100%
This combined arrangement of alternately higher and
greater) and the brush slowly oscillated transversely of
lower pairs of brushes together with the diagonal disposi
the work to bring the respective ends of the brush alter
tion of such brushes introduces certain problems. In
nately closely approaching the corresponding side edges
the ?rst place, it is desirable that alternate pairs of brushes
be thus diagonally disposed an equal amount in opposite 40 of the work. This ensures that the usually more heavily
scaled edge portions will be brushed by brush material
directions in order that the strip may not be diverted
which is not in engagement with the work at all times and
laterally from a straight pass line although, of course, its
therefore on the average less dulled prior to brush rever—
path does not lie in the same horizontal plane throughout.
sal. Furthermore, the usual edge burrs are more eifec—
To accomplish this end, it is further desirable slightly to
tilt the stands or the brushes thereof tranversely of the 45 tively acted upon.
I have found that brushing the same surface both when
path of travel of the strip by raising the rearward end of
it is concavely ?exed and also when it is convexly ?exed
each stand or pair of brushes slightly. The slight zigzag
is unexpectedly effective in the removal of scale and slivers
path or irregularity of tension which would otherwise be
and more so than when brushing the same surface an
produced is thus avoided.
equal number of times only where convexly ?exed or
Referring now more speci?cally to FIG. 4 of the draw
where not ?exed. It appears that the brushing of the
ing, I have found it advantageous ordinarily to dispose the
convexly ?exed surface, involving a relatively small area
endmost stands of a series, in this case stands 15 and 20,
of contact, achieves a picking action effective by impact
at relatively small angles to a position directly normal to
to lift off scale particles and slivers whereas the brushing
the path of strip travel, such as approximately 5 °, for
example. The intermediate stands may desirably be 55 of the concavely ?exed surface, involving a relatively large
area of contact, achieves a more intense surface brushing
placed at somewhat larger angles such as from about 10°
action while adhering scale particles and base metal adja—
to about 30° from such normal position, and the angle
may be as much as 45°. In addition to thus arranging
the brush stands so that the directions of brushing are
cent thereto and surrounding the small slivers are sub
brushing action by preventing undue rounding and dulling
co-pending application Serial No. 491,992, ?led March 3,
jected to compressive force which tends to pry outwardly
angularly related to the path of travel of the strip, it will 60 the scale particles and small slivers and weaken their bond
at the time of brushing. Each type of brushing action
be seen that such directions of brushing are also desirably
better prepares the surface for the other type of brushing
angularly related to each other so that each point of the
action and the combination of such features, including the
surface area of the work is brushed in several different
plurality of directions of brushing, results in complete
directions, preferably at least three or four. This action
removal of the fractured surface scale and most of the
can be facilitated and enhanced by rotating the brushes in
similarly angularly disposed stands in opposite directions. 65 small slivers.
Suitable means for reciprocating the brushing stand
The directions of rotation of these brushes should be
transversely of the traveling strip is disclosed in my prior
periodically reversed as required to maintain uniform
of the wire brush material bristle ends. The brushes may 70 1955, for “Reciprocating Surface-‘?nishing Mechanism
also (or alternatively) be sharpened by periodically or
and Method,” to which reference may be had for a de
continuously dressing the same.
While I have shown six brushing stands in FIG. 2,
providing six power driven brushes engaging each side of
the strip (three brushes on each side able to engage the 75
tailed description of such mechanism. As shown in FIG.
5 of this application, however, a carriage 37 may be
mounted upon a pair of parallel rails such as 38 by means
of wheels such as 39, 40, 41 and 42. Both the brushing
3,020,219
1
unit and the power drive unit are supported on such car
riage for adjustable positioning therealong. The power
'unit may comprise a double decked support carrying plat
forms 43 and 44 on which are mounted reversible motors
45 and 46 respectively. Motor 45 is operative to drive
the lower of the two cylindrical brushes described below,
and motor 46 is operative to drive the upper brush of such
8
eliminating major irregularities and the leveler 11 further
assists in affording a true surface. There will neverthe
less ordinarily be certain slight waves, ripples and slight
widthwise curvature in the strip which would result in
somewhat uneven brushing if such strip were not ?exed at
or closely adjacent the region where actually engaged by
the brush. Even relatively slight ?exing transversely of
the strip is quite effective to displace such waves or rip
The brushing unit comprises a frame formed of two
ples and present a smooth local area for engagement with
open rectangular end members 47 and 48 mounted on 10 the brush. The tensioning of the strip over alternately
ways on the carriage and connected by a headpiece 49.
higher and lower brushes as shown in FIG. 2 further
Their lower ends are connected by tension rods and spacer
assists in achieving this highly desirable result.
sleeves 50 (shown partly broken away in FIG. 5).
Instead of arranging the opposed brushes of each pair
A pair of opposed roller brushes 51 and 52 are jour
directly opposite each other as shown in FIG. 2, the brush
nalled within housings 53 and 54 respectively. Such 15 axes may be slightly relatively o?set along the pass line
brush and housing assemblies may desirably be of the
so that the brush on the convex side of the strip engages
general type shown and described more in detail in my
the latter approximately at an end of its are of flexure,
prior Patent No. 2,800,677. The ends of housing 53 are
i.e. immediately before or immediatelyafter it is ?exed
supported by vertical screws threadedly engaging the same
about the supporting brush. Tensioning of the strip about
and adapted to be driven in unison through motor 55,
such latter brush serves to ensure that the strip surface
worm gear reduction unit 516, shaft 57, and worm gear
is ?at in the region thus engaged by the opposed brush.
units 58 and 59. A clutch 60 is provided whereby unit
This slightly modi?ed arrangement is often desirable when
59 may be disengaged to permit individual drive for cor
relatively thin strip is to be processed and helps in avoid
rection of axial canting of the brush.
ing generation of excessive heat and possible interference
The ends of upper housing 54 are similarly supported 25 between the opposed brushes. Thus, when steel strip is
by vertical screws such as 61 threadedly engaging the
only 1132 inch thick, for example, the two regions of con
same and adapted to be driven in unison through motor
tact with the respective brushes of the pair may be sep
62, worm gear reduction unit 63, shaft 64 and worm gear
arated by as much as eight times the distance they would
units 65 and 66. By means of such screw drive means,
be separated if the strip surface were engaged where con
the housings and thereby the brushes may be moved to 30 vexly ?exed.
V
ward and away from each other as may be required.
In general, the strip will be ?exed as shown in FIG. 2
Means is provided for adjustably reciprocating carriage
so as to deviate from a straight line by forming included
37 back and forth on the track such as 38 comprising a
angles on the concave side of from about 179° to about
hydraulic cylinder 67 mounted on a rigid base intermedi
120*” or even less.
ate and parallel to the rails such as 38, and having a piston 35
It will be seen that I have provided a method and
pair.
reciprocable therein, the rod 68 of which is connected
to a cross-member of carriage 37. The cylinder is of the
double-acting type whereby carriage 37 may be caused to
apparatus for processing metal strip and the like to modify
the surface of the same and to remove small islands of
scale and debris left after the scale breaking operation
as well as to remove small slivers which have been dis
reciprocation of the brushing stand and brushes 51 and 52. 40 placed
from their pressed-in positions in the surface of
The power driven brushes which engage the surfaces
the
strip
during the scale breaking and regularizing oper
of the strip at or closely adjacent the regions where con
reciprocate back and forth on the track with consequent
vexly ?exed will ordinarily be moved out of effective
brushing engagement with the strip whenever the line is
ation.
The brushing operations furthermore serve to
eliminate the sharp corners representing irregular edges
of small pits and other super?cial blemishes including the
momentarily stopped to provide for reversal of such
depressions left in the surface from displacement of small
brushes and the pressure of the strip against the brushes 45 slivers. Certain of these objectionable features which it
engaging the concavely ?exed surfaces may likewise de
is desired to remove are oriented in a manner affording
sirably be reduced to render such latter brushes ineffec
only one best angle of attack, and it is accordingly im
tive when they are thus stopped and their directions of
portant that‘ the strip surface‘ be power brushed in a
rotation are reversed. If heavy strip is being brushed,
variety of different angularly related directions to ensure
lifting rolls may be provided adjacent such brush stands
effective action thereon. By my new strip processing
temporarily to hold the strip away from the respective
method, I am enabled to produce a scale-free and superior
brushes. During this brief interval it will also usually
metal surface without at the same time objectionably
be found advantageous to back up the strip (i.e. return 1
abrading such surface to remove any consequential
it several feet in the reverse direction) before again effec 55 amount of the base metal.
tively engaging it under normal operating pressure with
As indicated above, there are practical considerations
such power driven brushes, now rotating in the other di
such
as the periods of deceleration and acceleration of
rection, and simultaneously again accelerating the strip to
the brushes prior and subsequent to reversal of direction
normal speed in a forward direction. Reference may be
rotation of the same which render it desirable to move
had to the aforesaid Bongiovanni application Serial No. 60 of
the strip a short distance in a backward direction during
524,115 for one type of such controlled brush reversing
the, period such brushes are decelerated and after such
means. Although my new brushing line may thus be
brushes have been withdrawn from contact with the strip
maintained in substantially continuous operation, it is
or their contact pressures at least e?ectively reduced. The
nevertheless one of its advantages that it may be stopped
strip should not be stopped at any time when the brushes
when desired without damage to the work, whereas a 65 arein frullpressure contact therewith and rotating at full
proper rate of travel through the pickling tanks of course
speed since this would result in over-brushing a line trans
requires to be maintained to avoid over- or under-pickling.
versely of the strip. Accordingly, the strip should con
'Ihe brushed strip may also pass directly to other work
tinue to move in its forward direction until effective con
stations for performance of other operations thereon,
tact with all of the operating brushes has been substan
such as galvanizing, instead of passing directly to coiler 35. 70 tially reduced. This, however, obviously creates a situa
It will be appreciated that for best results the metal
tion tending to afford under-brushed portions transversely
strip where engaged by the brushes should be as free of
of the strip and it is therefore desirable to move the strip
waviness as practical to ensure uniform contact of the
a short distance in a rearward direction so that such under
brushes with the entire strip surface. The preferred scale
brushed portions will again be power brushed. When the
fracturing mechanism brie?y described above assists in 75 brushes are up to their operating speed in their new‘ direc
3,026,219
9
10
tions of rotation, the strip will start moving in its forward
direction before the brushes re-contact it. The strip is
accordingly already in movement at the time the brushes
e?ectively re-contact the same. By this arrangement, both
or described since they comprise no part of the invention
and are well understood by those skilled in the art.
In addition to the improved quality of steel strip proc~
essed in accordance with my invention, there is a ?exibility
to the brushing line which constitutes yet another advan
tage over the usual pickling operation. Thus, a hot rolling
over-brushing and under-brushing of local areas are
avoided. Simple idler rolls may be provided to each side
of the brushes engaging the concavely ?exed strip sur
mill characterized as a 60-inch mill will roll strip to a
maximum width of 56 inches and will ordinarily be op
erated to produce strip of an average width considerably
When it is desired to maintain generally uniform ten
sion on a strip being processed, it will often be best to 10 less than this. Such a mill may ordinarily produce about
100,000 tons of strip averaging about 4 feet in width and
rotate the brushes of each pair in the same direction (so
1739 inch in thicknes in one month’s time. About 70%
that they engage the strip in opposite directions) but it
of such product may go to a subsequent pickling or other
will normally be desirable when threading a new strip to
scale removing operation so that the pickling or scale re
rotate both brushes of each pair in the direction to pull
in the leading end of the strip. Of course, this problem 15 moving facilities must be capable of handling about
70,000 tons of strip in any given month if it is associated
can largely be avoided by employment of a leader strip.
with a 60-inch mill as described above. Ordinarily, how
The cylindrical rotary brushes which I will normally
ever, a single pickling line of even the most advanced
employ for my purpose in the FIG. 2 brush stands will be
faces to engage the strip when such brushes are retracted.
on the order of 24 inches to 30 inches in diameter and
modern design cannot handle this much product in a one
will be well balanced for high speed operation. The 20 month period and accordingly two pickling lines are usual
ly required to process the product of one 60-inch hot
brush bristle material will ordinarily be crimped tool steel
rolling mill. With my new brushing method, however, it
wire which may additionally be provided with a coating
becomes possible to arrange a single line capable of hand
of a plastic such as nylon. (See my prior Patent No.
ling the product of such a mill although two smaller lines
2,682,734.) Such brush bristles or ?laments will normal
ly protrude from the brush back which retains them a 25 may, of course, be provided if preferred. The faster line
will require an increased number of brushing stands for
distance of about 2 to 3 inches when the brushes are
the obvious reason that strip moving rapidly through the
new. While the diameter of the brush ?laments will vary
line will not receive as much brushing at any one station
depending upon the material being brushed, the wire used
as would strip moving less rapidly.
therein will ordinarily range from about .005 inch to
.015 inch in diameter. A very dense ?ll is desired, this
Likewise, the number of brushes to be utilized in my
being somewhat controlled by the depth of the crimp in
new accumulator will depend to a considerable extent on
Such forces may, for example, be the pressure of the
work against the brush or centrifugal force applying an
outward pull on the ?laments. Accordingly, brushes of
this type are adapted to withstand considerable working
when my new method is employed, this usually amount
ing to about 1% (plus or minus 1A%) of the weight of
the strip processed. Obviously, in the case of the 60-inch
the rapidity with which the strip is processed through
the wire and each individual ?lament or bristle will have
the line.
freedom of movement to a limited extent. The crimp in
I have found that a considerable amount of good metal
the wire provides a certain amount of spring action radial
ly of the brush when forces are exerted in that direction. 35 which is usually removed by pickling methods is saved
pressures and yet the component wire bristles tend to ex
tend somewhat radially to ensure brushing contact even
hot rolling mill taken as an example, this would consti
tute a saving of approximately 700 tons of good steel per
‘month. Of course, the disposal of spent pickling liquor
is rapidly becoming a very serious and expensive problem,
and a further consequential saving is thus achieved by
elimination of the pickling process.
Other modes of applying the principle of the invention
as back-up rolls for the work where such work is engaged 45
may be employed, change being made as regards the de
by power driven brushes operating on or closely adjacent
tails described, provided the features stated in any
the convexly ?exed region of the strip surface is superior
of the following claims or the equivalent of such be
to employment of conventional cylindrical steel back-up
employed.
rolls in several respects, particles of scale and the like
I therefore particularly point out and distinctly claim
not being pressed into the strip surface thereby and there 50
as my invention:
being no tendency to develop deep gouges and markings
in local regions of relatively low pressure (e.g. slightly
recessed regions in the surface of the work-piece).
I have found that the employment of cylindrical brushes
in such surface as often occurs with conventional rolls.
1. Apparatus for brushing a length of metal strip or
the like comprising a pair of opposed rotary wire brushes
adapted to engage opposite sides of such strip passing
surfaces are also driven at high rates of speed relative to
the rate of travel to the strip to perform a further and 55 therebetween, means operative positively to ?ex such strip
concavely over one said brush, and means operative to
especially effective brushing operation thereon as ex
drive the other said brush at a speed effective to power
plained above.
brush the convexly ?exed surface of such strip.
As shown in my Patent No. 2,680,938, for example,
2. Apparatus for brushing a length of metal strip or
the rotary brushes themselves may be provided with an
internal feed for fluids and abrasives which may thus be 60 the like comprising a pair of opposed rotary dense wire
brushes adapted to engage opposite sides of such strip
delivered to the work surface from the interior of the
passing therebetween, means operative to advance such
brush by the action of centrifugal force. When such
strip, means operative positively to ?ex such strip con
means are employed, it will also ordinarily be desirable
Of course, such brushes supporting the concavely ?exed
to provide suitable adjacent suction hoods to carry away
the abrasive particles after they have served their pur
pose as well as the material removed from the work.
Associated suction hoods may also ordinarily be provided
for collecting the scale particles removed by the fractur
ing and brushing mechanisms when no such auxiliary ?uid
or abrasive is used, the scale particles being of value for 70
several purposes, notably powder metallurgy. Many
types of work may be brushed in accordance with my in
vention, including ferrous and non-ferrous strip, rod and
cavely over one said brush to present a concave surface
thereto while presenting a convex surface to the other
said brush, and means operative to drive said brushes at
effective brushing speeds much in excess of the speed at
which such strip is thus advanced, thereby simultaneously
brushing both said convexly ?exed and said concavely
?exed surfaces.
3. Apparatus for brushing a length of metal strip or
v the like comprising at least three successive pairs of op
posed rotary brushes adapted to engage opposite sides of
such strip passing therebetween, the intermediate said pair
wire. Side guides for laterally positioning the work and
other conventional auxiliary devices have not been shown 75 of brushes being offset ‘from said other two pairs to en
3,026,219
11
force a zigzag path of travel on ‘such strip, means op
erative to tension such strip to ?ex it about one brush
of each of said pairs and to advance such strip, and means
12
1y ?exing such advancing strip diagonally of its longitudi
nal center line, and simultaneously power brushing both
the convex and concave surfaces of such strip where thus
?exed in directions at right angles to the axis of ?exing.
operative to drive said brushes at e?ective brushing speeds
16. The method of treating continuous elongated work
much in excess of the speed at which such strip is thus
such as metal strip and the like which comprises con
advanced, thereby simultaneously brushing both said con~
tinuously longitudinally advancing such strip, transversely
vexly ?exed and said concavely ?exed surfaces.
?exing such advancing strip diagonally of its longitudi
4. Apparatus for brushing a length of metal strip or
the like comprising a succession of pairs of opposed rotary
nal center line, and power brushing the convex surface
brushes offset to ?ex such strip passing therebetween in 10 of such strip where thus ?exed in ‘a direction at right
a zigzag path, means operative to advance such strip, and
angles ‘to the axis of ?exing.
17. The method of treating continuous elongated work
means operative to drive said brushes to brush both the
convexly ?exed and the concavely ?exed portions of such
such as metal strip and the like which comprises con
strip.
5. The apparatus
brushes are disposed
line of such strip.
6. The apparatus
brushes are disposed
tinuously longitudinally advancing such strip, transverse
of claim 4 wherein said pairs of 15 ?exing such advancing strip diagonally of its longitudinal
diagonally of the longitudinal center
center line, and power brushing the concave surface of
such strip where thus ?exed in a direction at right angles
of claim 4 wherein said pairs of
to the axis of ?exing.
diagonally of the longitudinal center
18. The method of treating continuous elongated work
line of such strip, alternate pairs being relatively angled 20 such as metal ship and the like which comprises con
successively to brush the same portion of such strip in
tinuously longitudinally advancing such strip, transverse
substantially different directions.
ly ?exing such advancing strip ?rst in one direction and
7. The apparatus of claim 4 wherein the axes of said
then in the opposite direction, and successively power
brushes are generally horizontal and disposed diagonally
brushing the same surface of such strip where thus con
of the longitudinal center line of such strip, said axes be 25 vexly ?exed and concavely ?exed.
ing slightly tilted from the horizontal su?iciently to com
19. The method of treating continuous elongated work
pensate for such diagonal arrangement to produce a
such as metal strip and the like which comprises continu~
straight pass as viewed in top plan.
ously longitudinally advancing such strip, transversely
8. The apparatus of claim 4 wherein the axes of said
?exing such advancing strip diagonally of its longitudinal
brushes are generally horizontal and disposed diagonally 30 center line ?rst in one direction and then in the opposite
of the longitudinal center line of such strip, said axes be
direction, and successively power brushing the same sur
ing slightly tilted from the horizontal su?iciently to com
face of such strip where thus convexly ?exed and con
pensate for such diagonal arrangement to produce a
cavely ?exed in directions at right angles to the vaxis of
straight pass as viewed in top plan, alternate pairs being
?exing.
relatively angled successively to brush the same portion 35
20. In the processing of continuous elongated work
of such strip in substantially different angularly related
directions.
9. The apparatus of claim 4 wherein the axes of said
such as metal strip and the like, continuously longitudi
nally advancing such strip, directing such strip in a zig
zag path by passing the same about rotary brushes, and
biushes are generally horizontal and disposed diagonally
tensioning such strip to support the same entirely upon
of the longitudinal center line of such strip, said axes be 40 such brushes where thus engaging the latter, wherein such
ing slightly tilted from the horizontal su?iciently to com
brushes are also driven to power brush the opposed con
pensate for such diagonal arrangement to produce va
cavely ?exed surfaces of such strip and the correspond
straight pass as viewed in topplan, alternate pairs being
ing convexly ?exed surfaces ‘are simultaneously power
relatively angled successively to brush the same portion
brushed.
of such strip in'substantially different angularly related 45 21. The method of surface bene?ciating an elongated
directions, and including means operative slowly to re
metal article which comprises longitudinally advancing
ciprocate said brushes transversely of such strip.
the same, progressively locally transversely ?exing such
10. In a line for processing elongated articles such as
advancing article at at least four successive stations to
metal strip and the like, means operative to ?ex such
provide at least two concave regions and at least two con
strip in a zigzag path, power driven brushes arranged suc 50 vex regions of each side of such article, such ?exing be
cessively to brush both concavely ?exed and convexly
ing diagonal of the longitudinal center line of such article
?exed portions of the same strip surface, and means op
erative to advance such strip along such path.
11. In apparatus for treating elongated articles such as
metal strip and the like, means for longitudinally ad
vancing such strip, means operative to ?ex suchadvancing
strip diagonally of its longitudinal center line, and brush
means operative to power brush the convex surface of
such strip where thus ?exed.
and at a different angle at each such station, power brush
ing such concave and convex regions with rotary brushes
arranged with their axes parallel to the corresponding axes
of ?exing, periodically interrupting effective brushing ac
tion while brie?y reversing the direction of travel of
such article, and then again resuming advance of such
article in the original direction while resuming effective
brushing action but with such brushes now driven in di
12. The apparatus of claim 11 wherein said brush means
60 rections opposite to [that in which they were originally
is a power driven cylindrical rotary brush having its axis
rotating, thereby achieving ‘a plurality of brushing ac
of rotation disposed parallel to such diagonal ?exure.
tionson any speci?ed surface area in a plurality of differ
13. In apparatus for treating elongated articles such as
ent angularly related directions, the brushes engaging
metal strip and the like, means for longitudinally ad
such convex regions making a relatively narrow line of
vancing such strip, means operative to ?ex such advancing
contact therewith and the brushes engaging such concave
strip diagonally of its longitudinal center line, and brush 65 regions making contact therewith over a relatively large
means operative to power brush the concave surface of
area of such article and over relatively large proportions
V such strip where thus ?exed.
of the brush peripheries.
14. The apparatus of claim 13 wherein said brush
22. In a method of surface bene?ciating an elongated
means is a power driven cylindrical rotary brush having 70 metal article such as strip and the like wherein such
its axis of rotation disposed parallel to such diagonal
article is longitudinally advanced while being subjected
?exure.
to high speed power brushing by a rotary brush in en
15. The method of treating continuous elongated work
such as metal strip and the like which comprises con
gagement therewith, ‘the steps of periodically reversing
the direction of travel of such article while substantially
tinuously longitudinally advancing such strip, transverse 75 simultaneously ceasing effective brushing thereof, revers
3,026,219
13
ing the direction of rotation of such brush, and resum
ing effective brushing of such article thereby While sub
stantially simultaneously resuming advance of such article
in the original direction.
'
23. The method of surface bene?ciating an elongated
metal article such as hot rolled steel strip and the like
which comprises successively power brushing the same
surface of such strip in a plurality of di?erent directions
diagonally related to the longitudinal center line of such
14
said brushes are generally horizontal and disposed di
agonally of the longitudinal center line of such strip, said
axes being slightly tilted from the horizontal suf?ciently
to compensate for such diagonal arrangement to produce
a straight pass as viewed ‘in top plan.
28. The method of treating continuous elongated work
such as metal strip and the like which comprises con
tinuously longitudinally advancing and tensioning such
stn'p, transversely ?exing such advancing strip over a
strip, and ?exing such strip to present such ‘surface in 10 transverse support to produce a convexly curved surface
convex form to the brush at one station and ?exing such
strip to present such surface in concave form to the brush
region, and power brushing a ?at region of the same sur
face of such strip closely adjacent such convexly curved
surface region where such strip is substantially supported
at another station where performing such brushing oper
ations.
by such transverse support and ?attened by such tension
24. Apparatus for power brushing a length of metal 15 adjacent such ?exed region, wherein such transverse sup
strip or the like comprising a succession of pairs of gen
port is disposed thus to ?ex such strip diagonally of its
erally opposed parallel cylindrical rotary brushes, said
longitudinal center line.
pairs of brushes being offset relative to adjacent pairs to
?ex such strip passing therebetween in a zigzag path,
means operative longitudinally to advance and tension 20
such strip, those of said brushes of each said pair op
posed to said brushes over which such strip is thus ?exed
being positioned to engage the strip surface in ‘a ?at re
gion closely adjacent the respective convex region of
such strip surface, and power means operative to drive 25
said brushes to brush both such ?at regions and the con
cave regions engaged by said brushes over which said
strip is ?exed.
25. The apparatus of claim 24 wherein said brushes
are. disposed diagonally of the longitudinal center line 30
of such strip.
26. The apparatus of claim 24 wherein said pairs of
brushes are disposed diagonally of ‘the longitudinal center
line of such strip, alternate pairs being relatively angled
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
197,265
Camp ______________ __ Mar.
Lewis ______________ __ Dec.
Hughes _______________ __ Oct.
Hershey et al. ________ __ Nov.
Wood ______________ __ Apr.
2,297,976
2,543,657
2,680,938
2,709,142
2,757,486
Nachtman __________ __ Oct. 6,
Brown _______________ __ Feb. 27,
Peterson ____________ __ June 15,
Durst ______________ __ May 24,
Peterson _____________ __ Aug. 7,
2,759,301
2,784,432
Valette et a1. ________ __ Aug. 21,
Whaley ____________ __ Mar. 12,
successively to brush the same portion of such strip in 35
23,
17,
22,
12,
14,
1880
1918
1940
1940
1942
1942
1951
1954
1955
1956
1956
1957
FOREIGN PATENTS
substantially different directions.
27. The apparatus of claim 24 wherein the axes of
Graham ____________ __ Nov. 20, 1877
225,796
1,288,064
2,218,913
2,221,348
2,279,608
736,217
Great Britain ________ __ Sept. 5, 1955
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