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Патент USA US3026629

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March 27, 1962
J. w. SQUILLACE ETAL
3,026,614
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MAKING ARTIFICIAL DENTURES
Filed Jan.
‘
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FIG. 2
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1,2
15 , 1958
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United States Patent O??ce
1
3,026,614
METHQD AND APPARATUS FOR MAKTNG
ARTEFHCIAL DENTURES
Joseph W. Squillace, Ezio Alleva, and Mario A. Monti
celli, all of 1530 Chestnut St., Suite 714-22, Philadel
phia 2, Pa.
Filed Jan. 13, 1958, Ser. No. 708,591
5 Claims. (Cl. 32—19)
This invention relates to dental ‘apparatus and more
particularly to a method and apparatus for making arti
?cial dentures.
The extent to which a patient is satis?ed with his arti?
3,®Z6,6l4
Patented Mar. 27, 1962
2
FIG. 6 is a bottom view of the lower bite rim con~
s‘tructed and arranged according to the invention; and '
FIG. 7 is a vertical sectional view taken longitudinally
through the central portion of the upper and lower bite
rims of this invention and the upper and lower base plates
to which they are respectively attached. ‘Inwardly facing
surface portions of the bite rims and base plates are shown
in elevation.
Referring now to the drawings, and especially to FIG.
7, for a detailed description of the invention, the dental
apparatus for making arti?cial dentures includes upper
and lower base plates, designated by reference numerals
1t) and 11, respectively. The base plates 10‘ and 11 are
cial dentures depends not only on the appearance of
constructed to ?t the patient’s dental arches in a manner
the dentures in the mouth, but also on the comfort with
which they can be worn and used. The relative position 15 well known in the dental art, and preferably of sheets of
thermoplastic material, but can be made of other suitable
of the upper and lower dentures to each other, as well
material. Also included in the dental apparatus are
as the ?t of the dentures on the patient’s dental arches,
means, to be used with the base plates 10 and 11, for
determines their comfort during mastication. ‘Unless the
determining and recording the bite registrations and other
upper and lower dentures are aligned in centric relation,
it is impossible to set up the teeth in centric occlusion, 20 registrations of the patient’s mouth, which mean-s com
prises upper and lower bite rims, 12 and 13, respectively.
and the patient will experience discomfort when wear
Preferably, the latter are made of a hard, rigid plastic
ing them.
material capable of resisting deformation at temperatures
Prior to the construction of the dentures it is desirable
equal to or below the temperature of molten wax or such
to appraise their ultimate appearance in the patient’s
month. More speci?cally, the problem involves the 25 other heated matter as may be used to secure the rims
12. and 13 to their associated base plates 10 and 11. For
determination of the centric relationship of the patient‘s
temporarily attaching a bite rim to a base plate, pads 14
jaws and other bite registrations at the time a preliminary
appearance appraisal is made; and, further, the transfer
of the determined relationships to a dental articulator.
An articulator is a device which mechanically simulates
the patient’s jaw movements for the laboratory technician
with su?icient accuracy to permit mounting of the in
dividual teeth in such a way that the assembled dentures
produce the correct centric occlusion after insertion into
of yieldable, adhesive material such as soft wax are em
ployed.
The method of utilizing the dental apparatus
will be described hereinafter, following a more detailed
description of the bite rims 12 and 13.
Each of the bite rims 12 and 13, in the embodiment
selected for illustrating the invention, comprises an arcuate
series of twelve members which are shaped and positioned
35 so they resemble the twelve forwardmost natural teeth.
the patient’s mouth.
(See FIGS. 1 to 6.) Each tooth-like member is in
In accordance with the present invention, there is pro
dividually formed and ‘fused to its neighbor so that the
vided novel apparatus and a simpli?ed method for readily
arcuate series extends from the left ?rst molar ‘at one
and accurately determining the registrations previously
described, and which permits the preliminary testing of 40 end to the right ?rst molar at the other end. However,
the invention can be practiced by forming the bite rims
the appearance and comfort of the proposed dentures.
12 and 13 integrally. In order to use the dental appa
It is to be understood, however, that such preliminary
ratus for preliminarily appraising the appearance of the
testing is accomplished with the dental apparatus de
dentures, the bite rims are given the color and shade of
scribed herein, and not, in the conventional manner, with
provisionally mounted dentures. The invention also per 45 natural teeth. To determine the bite registrations, how
ever, the occlusal and incisal surfaces are given a natural .
mits the determined positional relationship to be ?xed
shape, with mating pits and cusps, so that the bite rims
and transferred to a dental articulator, from whence the
patient’s dentures are constructed.
The various objects, features and advantages will ap~
i2 and 13 can interdigitate in the manner of natural teeth
when they contact in the occlusal plane. Disposed in
teriorly of each bite rim, to provide reinforcement, is an
pear more fully from the detailed description which fol
lows, taken with the accompanying drawings, in which: 50 arcuate metal wire or rod 16 which extends through all
the members, thus improving the rigidity of the structure.
FIG. 1 is a top view of the upper bite rim constructed
(Donnected to opposite, outwardly facing sides of the
and arranged according to the invention, and showing a
lower bite rim 13, and projecting outwardly therefrom,
reinforcing rod disposed interiorly of the rim;
are projections or lugs 17 which provide means for con
FIG. 2 is a side view of the upper bite rim of FIG. 1.
The phantom line indicates the approximate relative posi 55 veniently gripping and manipulating the lower bite rim
tion of the natural gum line with respect to the upper sur
13 with the ?ngers of one hand.
This feature is espe
cially helpful to the user when the lower base plate 11
is being attached to the lower bite rim 13 within the
patient’s mouth, as will become apparent after the method
FIG. 3 is a bottom view of the upper bite rim of vFIG.
1, but not showing the reinforcing rod for the purpose 60 of utilizing this apparatus is described. The lugs 17 are
preferably constructed of rigid metal wire or rod and
of more clearly illustrating the tooth-like occlusal sur
extend between the ?rst molar region and the ?rst bicuspid
faces;
region of the lower bite rim 13, in close, spaced relation
FIG. 4 is 1a top view of the lower bite rim constructed
ship with the outwardly facing sides thereof. Chromium
and arranged according to the invention, showing the
tooth-like occlusal surfaces and the lugs, but not showing 65 alloy material is well suited for the lugs 17.
While the bite rims ‘12 and 13 have been described
the reinforcing rod included in FIG. 6;
face of the upper bite rim. The reinforcing rod is
omitted from this view for the purpose of clarity.
vFIG. 5 is a side View of the lower bite rim of FIG. 4,
herein as being formed to resemble natural teeth, some
slight departure from natural proportions is desirable to
again omitting the reinforcing rod for the purpose of
clarity, and including a phantom line to indicate the ap 70 compensate for the vertical space, occupied by the wax
pads 14, between a base plate and a bite rim. (See FIG. 7.)
proximate position of the natural gum line relative the
In FIGS. 2 and 5 a phantom line represents the natural
lower surface of the lower bite rim;
gum line which substantially coincides with the attaching
3,026,614
3
surfaces of the base plates 10 and 11. The letter A desig
nates the vertical distance occupied by the pads 14 be
tween the attaching surfaces of each base plate and its
associated bite rim. Accordingly, the distance desig
nated by the letter A also indicates the extent to which
the vertical dimensions ‘of the bite rims 12 and 13 have
been reduced ‘from natural tooth proportions in order to
4
and a ?nal check of the bite registrations and appearance
is made. Since the dental apparatus of this invention
simulates both the appearance and action of the proposed
dentures, this step serves as a preliminary try-in prior to
the ‘actual construction of the dentures. If the ?nal
check of the apparatus proves satisfactory the apparatus
is sent to the dental laboratory where the determined
Ipositional relationships are transferred to a dental articu
position their occlusal surfaces in a natural occlusal plane
lator ‘and the teeth are set up ‘for a ?nal try-in. If the
relative the gum line. By this ‘arrangement, the bite rims
12 and 13 have been reduced approximately twenty-?ve 10 ?nal check with the dental apparatus does not prove
percent in height from natural tooth proportions, this
reduction being made at the gingival or gum end.
In practicing this invention it is desirable to have sev
eral sets of bite rims in a variety of sizes so that a set
satisfactory the lower bite rim can be repositioned until
satisfactory bite registrations are obtained.
The bite rims 12 and 13 are removed from the base
plates 10 and 11 after the positional relationships have
can be selected which suits the size of the individual 15 been transferred to the articulator. As has been pointed
out previously herein, the bite rims 12 and 13 can be re
patient’s dental arches. After each use the bite rims can
used after they have been washed and sterilized.
be prepared for re-use by washing and sterilizing them in
From the foregoing it will be apparent that this inven
a cool sterilizing liquid, such as a seventy percent alcohol
tion provides novel apparatus and a simpli?ed method
solution.
for readily and accurately determining bite registrations
The following steps are followed in making full arti 20
?cial dentures with the above-described apparatus:
(a) Upper and lower base plates 10 and 11 are made
to ?t the patient’s dental arches in the conventional man
and also for appraising the appearance of the proposed
dentures prior to their construction. The invention also
permits the determined positional relationships to be
transferred to a dental articulator.
ner.
While the invention has been shown in but one form,
(b) The upper bite rim 12 is positioned on the upper 25 it will
be obvious to those skilled in the art that it is not
base plate 10 and lightly attached thereto by means of
so limited, but is susceptible of various changes and
three pads 14 of soft, pliable wax. The pads 14 are
modi?cations without departing from the spirit thereof.
sandwiched between the parts being assembled and lo
What is claimed is:
cated in the regions where the central incisors and both
1. Upper and lower bite rims for use in making arti
30
?rst molars are normally found.
?cial
dentures, each of said bite rims comprising tooth
(c) The temporarily assembled upper bite rim 12 and
upper base plate 10‘ are inserted into the patient’s mouth.
shaped members connected one to the other in an arcu
(d) The position of the upper bite rim ‘12 on the upper
base tray 101 is adjusted until the upper bite rim 12 is in
proper position with respect to the patient’s facial anat
omy.
(e) The upper base plate 10 and upper bite rim 12
are removed from the patient’s mouth as a unit without
structed and having occlusal surface portions which mate
with the occlusal ‘surface portions of the other rim when
disturbing their positional relationship.
ate series, said members of each rim being rigidly con
said rims are arranged with respect to each other in the
manner of natural teeth, at least one of said bite rims
having grip projections on the outwardly facing surface
thereof.
2. Upper and lower bite rims for use in determining
(f) A hard wax, capable of resisting softening or 4-0 bite registrations in the making of arti?cial dentures, each
deformation at body temperature, is melted and poured
of said bite rims including tooth-shaped members con—
between the upper base plate 10 and the upper bite rim
nected together in an arcuate series, said members of
12. The hard wax is then chilled in cool Water or air and
each rim being rigidly constructed of moldable plastic
the assembled parts are ?xedly secured together.
material and having occlusal surfaces arranged to co
(g) The securely ‘assembled upper base plate 10 and
operatively engage the occlusal surfaces of the other rim
upper bite rim 12 are reinserted into the‘ patient’s mouth.
when said rims are positioned relative each other for
(It) Wax pads are lightly pressed in position on the
interdigitation in the manner of natural teeth, said lower
lower base plate 11, the location of these pads 14; being in
bite rim having grip projections on the outwardly facing
the regions where the central incisors and ?rst molars are
surface thereof.
normally found. The lower bite rim 13 is not attached
3. Upper and lower bite rims in combination with up
to the base plate 11 at this time.
per and lower base plates and means removably attach
(i) The lower base plate 11 with ‘attached pads 14 is
ing the‘upper and lower rims to the upper and lower
inserted into the patient’s mouth and the patient’s jaws
base plates, respectively, for use in determining bite regis
are maintained in open position.
trations in the making of full arti?cial dentures, said at
(i) The lower bite rim 13 is inserted into the patient’s
taching means comprising pads of yieldable, adhesive
mouth and held in position by means of the lugs 17 in
material, each of said bite rims including tooth-shaped
such a way that the occlusal surfaces of the upper and
members connected together in an arcuate series, said
lower bite rims 12 and 13 are ?rmly in contact with each
members of each rim being rigidly constructed of mold
other.
able plastic material and having occlusal surfaces ar
60
(k) While still holding the lower bite rim 13 in con
ranged to mate with the occlusal surfaces of the other
tact with the upper bite rim ‘12, the patient is instructed
rim when said rims are positioned with respect to each
to close his jaws, thereby causing the lower bite rim 13
other for interdigitation in the manner of natural teeth,
to become attached to the lower base plate 11 upon con
said lower bite rim having a plurality of outwardly pro
tacting the pads 14. This preliminary bite registration is
tested by repeated opening and closing of the patient’s
jaws, and the position of the lower bite rim 13 on the
lower base plate 11 can be altered until a satisfactory
jecting lugs connected thereto.
4. A dental apparatus for use in making dentures com
prising upper and lower base plates ?tted to the patient’s
upper and lower dental arches, respectively; upper and
registration and pleasing appearance is obtained.
lower bite rims; and pads of yieldable, adhesive material
(l) The lower base plate .11 and lower bite rim 13
removably securing said upper and lower rims to said
are removed as a unit from the patient’s mouth without 70
upper and lower plates, respectively; each of said upper
disturbing their positional relationship, and these parts
and lower bite n'ms having occlusal and outwardly facing
are ?xedly secured together by hard wax in the manner
surfaces formed and positioned to resemble natural teeth;
described in step (f), above.
said occlusal surfaces having pits and cusps formed there
(In) The securely assembled lower base plate 11 and
in
that mate with the opposing occlusal surface, the con
lower bite rim 13 are reinserted into the patient’s mouth 75
3,026,614
5
struction and arrangement being such that said occlusal
surfaces are capable of interdigitation; said lower bite rim
having a plurality of lugs connected thereto, said lugs
projecting outwardly ‘from the outwardly facing surfaces
of said lower rim.
5. A dental apparatus for use in making dentures com
6
rims having occlusal and outwardly facing surfaces
formed and positioned to resemble natural teeth; said oc
clusal surfaces being adapted to interdigitate with each
other in th: manner of natural teeth, said lower bite rim
having a plurality of outwardly projecting lugs connected
thereto.
prising upper and lower base plates ?tted to the patient’s
upper and lower dental arches, respectively; upper and
lower bite rims; and pads of wax removably securing said
upper and lower rims to said upper and lower plates,
respectively; each of said upper and lower bite rims being
constructed of plastic material and having a reinforcing
rod disposed therein, each of said upper and lower bite
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,495,390
2,027,373
Hollingsworth ________ __ May 27, 1924
Eden _______________ .__ Jan. 14, 1936
2,171,759
Meyer ______________ __ Sept. 5, 1939
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