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Патент USA US3026738

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March 27, 1962
O. MOKLEBUST ET AL
BED DEPTH GAUGE FOR ROTARY KILN
Filed Jan. 11, 1960
3,026,728
United States Patent 0 "ice
3,®Z6,'ZZ8
Patented Mar. 27, l$62
1
2
3,026,728
practice. It is understood, of course, that an increase in
the inclination of the kiln, i.e. difference in height of one
end over the other, will tend to increase the rate of solid
BED DEPTH GAUGE FOR ROTARY KILN
Olav Moklebnst and John R. Walker, Birmingham, Ala.,
assignors to R-N Corporation, New York, N.Y., a cor
poration of Delaware
material ?ow therethrough; and if the outlet is reasonably
open, will tend to decrease the bed depth thereof. On
the other hand, for a given arrangement, i.e. at a given
inclination of the axis thereof, an increase in the rate of
feed of solid material to the higher end and/ or a slowing
The present invention relates to a gauge for determining
of the rate of rotation of the kiln each independently
the depth of a bed of ?uent solid material in a rotary kiln 10 tends to increase the depth of the bed of ?uent solid
during the rotational operation thereof and for a method
material in the kiln, and vice-versa.
of measuring such depth and also relates to a method
The apparatus of the present invention may be sum
of establishing and maintaining a predetermined desired
marized as comprising a tube which extends through a
wall of the kiln and rotates with it, the tube extending
depth of solid material in such a kiln with the aid of the
from the outside to a point short of the axis of the kiln.
gauge and the method of this invention.
It is contemplated that such a tube may be ?xed in posi
In the operation of rotary kilns wherein elevated tem
tion with the inner end thereof at such a position that
peratures are used in treating solid materials to e?ect
some solid material will ?ow or pass out through the tube
chemical and/ or physical changes during the movement
on each revolution of the kiln. Under these circum
of the solid materials through the kiln, the operation is
stances, the angle at which the solid material ?rst passes
usually substantially continuous, with solid material being
out through the tube on any one revolution of the kiln
supplied to the kiln adjacent to one end, which is ordi
narily slightly elevated with respect to the opposite end
may be ascertained; and from this, the depth of material
Filed .Ian. 11, 1960, Ser. No. 1,507
9 Claims. (Cl. 73-298)
of the kiln. The kiln is rotated, usually slowly, with the
in the kiln may be accurately determined, particularly
material tumbling over upon itself and/or ?owing as a
when the angle is one between the tube position and the
vertical and when the tube is approaching, rather than
?uent solid material and gradually working its way from
the higher or material-inlet end of the kiln to the lower
moving away from, its substantially vertical position at
the lower portion of its orbital path. When the tube is in
this quadrant of its rotation when the solid material ?rst
the solid material therethrough, these gases conventionally
passes out therethrough on any revolution of the kiln,
including combustible gases, products of combustion, 30 the angle of the tube with respect to the vertical, coupled
and/or gases evolved from the operation taking place in
with the position of the inner end of the tube, is accurately
the kiln.
indicative of the amount of solid material in the kiln.
This is based upon the assumption that the angle of
In some operations which may be carried on in a
rotary kiln of this type, it is very desirable that a rela
repose of the material in the kiln remains constant, which
tively deep bed be established and maintained in the kiln, 35 will normally be the case as long as a particular type of
solid material charge to the kiln in about the same
as the desired operations or reactions occur more readily
grouping of particle size ranges is being handled. In
or are carried on to a desired degree and/ or in a better
any event, by taking two similar readings of the angle of
manner when a relatively deep bed is maintained. In
the tube, when adjusted to two diilerent and known
view of the nature of kilns as to construction, and as it is
radial positions and at which solid materials pass out
not practical to observe the bed in and intermediate the
wardly therethrough respectively, the angle of repose of
ends of the kiln visually, the art has been more or less
the ?uent solid material in the kiln can be calculated
at a loss to detect or accurately to measure the depth of
geometrically. In the next quadrant of the tube rotation
a bed of ?uent material in a kiln during the operation
the corresponding angle is not nearly as sensitive, but is
thereof, for example, at any point intermediate the ends
45
only generally indicative of the amount of material in
thereof. The more or less exact determination of the
the kiln. Alternatively, if it is desired that the gauge
depth of material in the bed thereof in a rotary kiln
during operation is particularly important in conducting
be eitective to determine various quite diiferent depths of
a reducing operation for iron ore in a kiln as taught, for
material in the kiln, the tube may conveniently be ar
ranged to be radially adjustable in a direction which is
example, in the patent to Moklebust No. 2,829,042. In
this operation, which has been conducted on a relatively
both axial of the tube and radial of the kiln, so as to
position the inner end of the tube a predetermined adjust
large pilot plant scale for some time, it has been found
important to provide a bed of ?uent solid material which
able distance short of the axis of the kiln. In this way
the tube may be adjusted to a position such that some
is about 30% to about 50% of the inside volume of the
kiln. In view of the fact that temperatures within the 55 material will move out through it during each revolution
kiln are maintained in the order of magnitude of about
of the kiln and particularly during the movement of the
tube in each such revolution from a substantially hori
19‘00-2000° F., the problem of determining bed depth
during operation is far from simple.
zontal position to a substantially vertical lower position,
and the angle at which such material ?rst passes out of
The present invention solves the several dif?culties, in
that it provides a device in the form of a gauge by which 60 the tube may then be determined, the adjustment of the
tube plus the angle as thus determined being jointly
the bed depth can be quite accurately determined, whether
the bed depth desired be a value within the limits afore
indicative of the depth of material in the kiln. It will
said, or whether it be some wholly unknown depth which
be understood that in many instances at least it will be
it is desired to determine in a particular instance. The
desirable, if not essential, that the tube be closable so as
present invention also is useful in guiding the operator of 65 to remain closed during periods in which it is not in use
a device of this kind, so that a predetermined desired bed
for determining the depth of the material as aforesaid.
depth may be established and be maintained.
For this reason the tube may be provided with a suitable
It has been found that the bed depth in a kiln may be
closure as a conventional gate valve, accessible from the
outside thereof.
in?uenced by two factors—(a) the rate at which the solid
material is supplied to the kiln adjacent to one end thereof
It is sometimes found in practice that opening the tube
70
and (b) the speed of rotation of the kiln. These factors
for the ascertainment of the bed level, even during the
practically determine bed depth for any given inclination
measurement or test itself, is su?icient to disrupt the
of the kiln, which is a factor not ordinarily changed in
operations within the kiln and also that the in?ow of
or outlet end thereof. Gases are passed through the kiln
usually, but not necessarily, countercurrent to the ?ow of
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3
All
atmospheric‘air through the tube under these circum
or the like. As the kiln is illustrated in FIGS. 2 and 3,
as rotating in a clockwise direction, the ?uent solid mate
rial therein shown at 16 will be caused by the rotation
of the kiln to assume a position substantially as shown
in full lines in the drawings.
In a preferred form of the invention, a sleeve 17, pref
erably of suitable metallic material, is built into the kiln
wall and may, if desired, be welded or otherwise secured
to the shell 14 thereof. This sleeve extends most, if not
stances is enough to blow away carbonaceous material
which tends to collect on top of the bed due to its rela
tively lower speci?c gravity, so that an accurate measure
ment. of bed depth cannot be obtained with the tube open.
Under these circumstances, it is possible to operate with
the end of the tube closed and by either visual or audible
detection of the ?rst solid material falling into the tube
and tending to move ‘outwardly therethrough. Such
audible detection by listening without additional hearing 10 all the way, through the refractory lining 15. Prefer
ably slidably arranged within this sleeve 17 is a tube 18,
devices has been practiced successfully. On the other
which is shown separated from the tube 17 by intermedi
hand, if a part or all of an end portionof the tube out
ate packing material shown at 19. The arrangement is
side the kiln is made of a transparent material, then the
such that the tube 18 is held frictionally within the sleeve
?rst solid material passing to this point can be visually
ascertained, even though the outer end of the tube is 15 17 by the packing material 19, so that it is held against
inadvertent movement, while being movable notwith
standing the friction of the packing material by the ap
Further details of the present invention and the several
plication of a sufficient force. The tube 18 may thus be
methods by which the gauge thereof may be used will be
said to be in frictional sliding relation within the sleeve
explained in greater detail hereinafter in discussing a
preferred embodiment thereof, which is shown in the 20 17. The tube 18 extends from outside the kiln as shown
closed.
accompanying drawings, in which:
7
7
_
V
I
FIG. 1 is a diagrammatic view, principally in elevation,
to a point indicated at 20, which is short of the axis of
the kiln, the position of which is shown at 21. The ad
justed position of the tube v18 in a direction which is both
of a kiln embodying the present invention;
7
axial of the tube 13 and radial of the kiln 10 may be de
FIG. 2 is a view in transverse section taken substan
tially on the line 2—,~2 of FIG. 1 and on an enlarged 25 termined by a suitable scale indicated at 22, which may
scale, showing a tube in position to detect the depth of
material in a kiln during the operation thereof, and also
be marked or engraved upon the outside of the tube it
self and may be read, for example, by determining what
mark is visible at the outside of the shell 14 or the tube
showing in dotted lines a tube in the same position with
sleeve 17. Alternatively, a'suitable index device (not
respect to the kiln for ‘sensing a higher level of solid
material and showing at another rotated position a tube 30 shown) could be provided for enabling an accurate read
ing of the scale 22 or a scale could be provided on the
in the samerelative position with ‘respect to the kiln sub
outside of the kiln‘with an index carried by the tube co
stantially at the level of the material in the kiln as shown
operating therewith.
I
p I __ H
There is further provided a stationary scale 23 shown
FIG.’ 3 is a fragmentary view, generally similar to that
of FIG. 2, showing some of the solid material ?owing out 35 supported by means as the legs 24, extending from a
stationary base ‘support, so as to position the scale 23 ad
through the tube at a further rotated position of the kiln
in full lines; and
jacent to the orbital path of movement of the tube 18
during a lower portion of its path. By the use of the
scale 23, an operator is enabled to determine quite ac
present invention may be associated as hereinafter, set 40 curately the angle with respect to the vertical at which
solid material ?rst passes out through the tube 18 on any
forth, there is shown a rotary kiln 10 comprising a rotat
revolution of the kiln.
ing hollow cylindrical member, which may be ‘suitably
beyond that point shown in full lines in_FIG. 2.
,
Referring v?rst to the general view of a kiln shown in
FIG. ,1, with which the apparatus andmethod of the
If now we consider that the level of the solid material
in the kiln as shown in full lines in FIG. 2 is at a level
to be driven or rotated in a manner generally hereinafter 45 a; while a somewhat higher level is shown at b; and a
still higher level is shown at c, both levels b and 0 being
described. Generally housing the left hand end of the
indicated in dotted lines in FIG. 2, then the material at
kiln 10 is a combustion chamber 11, through which a
level a will not pass out through the tube while it is at
suitable fuelmay be projected along with some combus
its lower substantially vertical position as shown in FIG.
tion-supporting air so as to provide a current of gases,
2; but some material will probably pass out when the
in part combustible and in part burnt, which will pass
mounted in a manner only diagrammatically shown for
rotation about the axis of the kiln 10 andis arranged
through the kiln 10 from left to right, as seen in FIG. 1,
the gases passing to and through a housing 12 surround
tube has moved to the position shown in FIG. 3, i.e.
‘about 30°—45° beyond the vertical. This position of the
tube and the material at level a will give some indica
ing‘ the right hand end of the kiln 10 as seen in FIG. 1
tion,
but a rather rough and inexact indication, of the
and the gases passing thence out through a suitable stack
13. Solid materials may be supplied to the kiln 10 in 55 it is in the lower right quadrant of its movement (as seen
material in the kiln were up to the level c, it is noted that
any suitable manner diagrammatically illustrated by an
with the tube 18 extending inwardly to the same position
arrow 1411, but which may, for example, ‘take the form
shown in full lines in FIG. 2, and in fact substantially at
of a screw conveyor as shown in greater detail in the
the position shown at 18a, the lower right portion of this
Moklebustpatent above referred to.
V
_
?gure in dotted lines, then some material will ?ow out
Solid materials may be removed from the kiln 10 in
through the tube while it is at this lower right inclined
any conventional manner, not shown in the accompany~
position. Here, however, because the tube is at such a
ing drawings, but which arediagrammatically shown as
position with respect to the level of the material in the
an exit passage associated with the combustion chamber
kiln that the material will pass out through the tube while
11 in the Moklebust patent aforesaid. It will be under
tube is in the lower right quadrant of its rotation (as seen
stood that the rate of supply of the solid materials to the 65 in FIG. 2) between a horizontal position and a substan
kiln may be varied by any suitable means, not shown, but
tially vertical lower position, the indication is quite exact.
of which many examples are known to those skilled in
Thus, with the material at the level 0, this material will
the art. This will be discussed further hereinafter.
start to ?ow out through the tube 18 while it is at a posi
At a desired point along the length of the kiln 10,
there is arranged a suitable tube which extends from the 70 tion (as 18a) substantially 38° before the vertical.
Furthermore, with the tube extended inwardly to the
outside of the kiln into it in a substantially radial direc
same position, and when it is located at the position
tion and terminates short of the axis of the kiln. Thus,
shown in full lines in FIG. 2, i.e. a substantially vertical
as shown in FIGS. 2 and 3, the kiln 10 is shown as
lower position, and when the material in the kiln is at
formed of an outer metal shell 14 having a suitable re
fractory lining 15 which may be constructed of ?rebrick 75 the level b, the material will start to ?ow out through
3,026,728
5
6
the tube 18 substantially at the position shown in FIG. 2.
Thus, the differences in material level between the levels
shown at 18, but without the necessity for providing for
radial adjustment thereof, may be used, it being under
0 and b will correspond to tube positions between about
38° before the vertical and a vertical position, which in
stood that at the desired depth or level of material in
the kiln, some material will pass out through the tube
on each revolution of the kiln. Under these circum
stances, radial adjustability of the tube is unnecessary
and in fact the tube could be built into the kiln as a
permanent and ?xed part thereof. The determination
of the amount of material in the kiln with such a device
is then merely one of determining the angle at which the
solid material ?rst starts to ?ow out ‘through the tube
with respect to the vertical, i.e. the angle ‘at which the
practice gives a quite accurate indication of the level of
the material in the kiln. It will be noted that the indica
tion afforded by the material ?owing out through the
tube during the next quadrant of its rotation in the rota
tion of the kiln (lower left quadrant) is only approxi
mate, although this does give some useful indication of
the general level of material in the kiln. It is, therefore,
a preferred mode of operation in accordance with the
tube is disposed with respect to the scale 23 preferably
present invention that the tube 18 will be so disposed, i.e.
in the quadrant as aforesaid in which the tube is ap
‘as to the position of its inner end, that some material will
pass out through the tube during the movement of the 15 proaching its lower substantially Vertical postion. This
angle, coupled with the known dimensions and position
tube in the lower right hand quadrant of its rotation as
of the tube, is directly indicative of the amount or depth
seen in FIG. 2.
,
of material in the kiln.
In some instances it may be desired to prevent in?ow
In the event, however, that some relatively wide vari
or out?ow of gases to or from the inside of the kiln in
order not to interfere with the desired operations therein. 20 ations may be expected or are to be determined in the
depth of material in the kiln, then the radial adjustability
In such a case, with the situation with respect to the proc
ess described in the Moklebust patent, it is usually neces
of the tube 13 with respect to the sleeve member 17 be
comes important. Under these circumstances, it may be
sary to provide for closing the tube 18 to the atmosphere
necessary to start with the tube 18 at a radial inner po
except during the periods when the tube is being used
for determining the depth of material in the kiln. Any 25 sition at which no material will ?ow out through the tube
on each revolution of the kiln; then move the tube 18
suitable closure means may be provided for this purpose.
There is shown, however, in FIGS. 2 and 3, a gate valve
25 which may be provided on the outer portion of the
outwardly by predetermined increments, checking after
30 outside the kiln, ‘but inwardly from the valve 25
through the tube 18, the angle at which this material ?rst
therein, which is formed of a transparent material such
as a heat-resistant glass which can accommodate itself to
passes out during each revolution is determined.
each radial adjustment whether or not solid material
?ows or passes out through the tube. After an adjust
tube 18 to effect this result.
As ‘shown in FIGS. 2 and 3, the tube 18 has a portion 30 ment has ‘been reached at which some material will ?ow
The
adjusted position of the tube 18, coupled with the angle
at which the tube is disposed when solid material ?rst
abrasion and to the relatively sudden temperature changes
incident to hot material coming into contact therewith. 35 ?ows or passes out therethrough, is then jointly accu~
rately indicative of the amount of material in the kiln.
Another desirable mode of operation of the entire ap
paratus is to utilize the depth detection means and meth
when the ?rst solid material tends to move outwardly
ods aforesaid in conjunction with the means for control
through the tube 13, as such material will move into the
transparent section thereof shown at 30. In this way, it 40 ling the kiln operations, so as to establish and maintain
a desired depth of material in the kiln. It is found, as
is possible to prevent in?ow of atmospheric air into the
By the use of this ‘transparent portion, it is possible, with
the valve 25 closed, to ascertain by visual observation
aforesaid, that for any given postion of the kiln axis,
interior of the kiln during the operation thereof, which
i.e. angle of inclination thereof with respect to the hori
zontal, the amount of solid material or depth of mate
of air to the kiln, in view of the slightly sub-atmospheric
rial in the kiln may be varied by varying either or both
pressure existing within the kiln, is sometimes su?icient
to blow away from the vicinity of the tube some of the 45 of two factors: (1) the rate at which solid materials are
supplied to the kiln and (2) the rate of rotation of the
lighter portions of the solid body within the tube, i.e.
kiln. Inasmuch as it is quite usual to supply solid ma
the carbonaceous materials, so that a true reading of the
terials to the kiln at a ?xed rate determined by other
bed level is not obtainable. It is also possible, Whether
would ensue if the valve 25 were opened.
Such in?ow
factors, it is usually more practical adjustably to control
or not the transparent section 3% be provided, to ascer
tain the ?rst movement of solid materials to the outer
the rate of rotation of the kiln in order to control bed
depth. For this reason, as shown in FIG. 1, the kiln
lid is provided with a rotating ring or band 26 engaged in
any conventional manner by rotating means as rollers or
end of the tube by listening carefully, as the kiln rota
tion is sufficiently slow to permit this operation.
It will be understood that the accuracy of the bed
depth determination depends to some extent upon there
being a substantially uniform angle of repose of the solid
materials in the kiln. This is normally the case under
any condition of stabilized operation and is of course a
function of the proportions of ore to carbonaceous mate
rials and/or other materials present, such as limes-tone,
possibly pinions indicated diagrammatically at 2.7, one of
which is driven through a suitable speed-changing device
28 from a prime mover here indicated as a motor 29.
All these means, i.e. the motor (which usually also in
cludes speed-reducing means). The speed-changing de
vice '28 and the particular drive 26-—27 may be per so
and is further a function of the particle size or range of 60 old and in any event form no part of the present inven
tion other than that some suitable means should be pro
particle sizes of the solid materials present. In any event,
if it is desired to ascertain the angle of repose accurately,
this may be done by taking two readings as hereinabove
vided by which the speed of rotation of the kiln may be
set out with the tube 18 set at different radial positions
If, for instance, the operation is such that the bed is
varied under the control of an operator.
for each reading (preferably substantially different) and 65 approximately at the right depth, but it is desired to
by suitable geometric calculations.
These calculations
are of such relatively simple character that they are be
lieved obvious to any one skilled in the art, once the
mode of taking the exact readings is explained as has
now been done.
70
Assuming that the kiln is operating on a substantially
normal basis and it is desired merely to check the depth
of material in the kiln at levels fairly close to a prede
termined desired level, a tube such, for example, as 75
maintain exact conditions, it may be su?icient to de
termine the exact depth by the use of a tube adjusted or
?xed at the proper point in a radial direction and then
determining the angle at which solid material will ?rst
?ow out, the adjustment of the tube preferably being
such that material will ?ow out through the tube 18 while
it is moving in the quadrant of its orbital path approach
ing its lower substantially vertical position as aforesaid.
This gives an indication of the existing depth of the bed.
3,026,728
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The speed of rotation of the kiln may then be adjusted
by the means provided, so as to bring the depth torthe
axial of said tube and radial of said rotary kiln, and scale
means for indicatingthe adjusted position of said tube
proper value; so that upon further test, the angle at
which material ?rst ?ows out through the tube will be
adjusted to a desired value.’ In this respect, it will be
understood that the slowing down of the speed of rota
tion of the kiln will result in increasing the bed depth and
vice-versa.
Any combination or variation of the method steps
generally suggested above which will occur to those 10
in said direction, all so as to make the gauge constructed
skilled in the art as a result of the foregoing disclosure
and any variation or alternative of the structural embodi
ments of the means herein particularly disclosed which
will similarly be suggested by the foregoing disclosure
and which, in the case of either apparatus or method,
come Within the scope of the appended claims are to be
considered as parts of this invention.
What is claimed is:
1. A gauge for determining the depth of a bed of
?uent solid material in a continuously rotating kiln of
as aforesaid sensitive to substantially different depths of
solid material in said kiln.
6. A gauge for determining the depth of a bed of
?uent solid material in a kiln which is rotated con
tinuously during the operation thereof, comprising a
tubular sleeve built into a wall of the kiln and having its
axis substantially radial of said kiln and rotating there
with, a tube extending through said sleeve and extend
ing-in a direction radial of the kiln from outside said
kiln to a point inside and approaching but short of the
axis of said kiln, means including packing means mount
ing said tube in frictional sliding adjustive relation in
side said sleeve, scale means for indicating the adjusted
radial position of the inside end of said tube at any
adjusted position thereof, a gate valve for closing the
outside of said tube, said tube being adapted for radial ad
justment such that when said valve is open, some of said
comprising a tube having one end open to the outside
?uent solid material in said kiln may pass out through said
tube by gravity on each revolution of said kiln, and a
of the kiln, said tube extending substantially radially in
wardly of the kiln and rotating therewith, so that the
in a plane perpendicular to the axis of said kiln and ad
known inside diameter during the operation thereof,
inner end of said tube is located at a point which is ?xed
with respect to said kiln and which is between the outer
Wall and the axis of the kiln and is a predetermined dis
tance’from said axis, said inner end of said tube being
so located that some of said ?uent solid'material from
stationary circumferential scale disposed substantially
jacent to the path of said tube for determining the angle
at‘ which said tube is disposed with respect to the ver
tical at the instant that some of the solid material starts
to pass out through said tube during any revolution of
said kiln, said angle and the adjusted position of the
the bed thereof in said kiln will pass outwardly through 30 inner end of said tube being jointly indicative of the
depth of said solid material in the kiln.
said tube by gravity during each revolution of said kiln,
7. The method of'establishing and maintaining a pre
and a stationary circumferential scale ?xedly mounted
determined depth of ?uent solid material in a rotary
outside said kiln and disposed substantially in a' plane
kiln during the operation thereof, wherein solid material
perpendicular to the axis of said kiln and adjacent to the
path of said tube for assisting an observer in determin 35 is substantially continuously supplied to the kiln ad
jacent to one end thereof, wherein a decrease in the
ing the angle at which said tube is disposed with respect
to the vertical at the instant that some of said solid mate
rial of said bed starts to pass out through said tube on
any one revolution of said kiln, said angle and the posi‘
tion of the inner end of said tube being jointly indicative
of the depth of said solid material in the kiln.
2. A gauge for determining the depth of a bed of
?uent solid material in a rotary kiln in accordance With
claim 1, in which the inner end of said tube is at such a
position in respect to the level of the material to be de
termined that some solid material will pass outwardly
speed of rotation of the kiln and an increase in the rate
of supply of solid material to the kiln each independent
ly serve to increase the depth of ?uent solid material
therein, and wherein a tube is provided which extends
radially inwardly through a part of the wall of the kiln,
which tube is adjustable in a direction which is both
axial of the tube and radial of the kiln, so as to position
the inner end of the tube at an adjustably variable dis
tance short of the axis of the kiln; said method compris
ing the steps of adjustably positioning the tube, so that
its inner end will be in such a position that when the
solid material is at the predetermined depth in the kiln
of said tube in the rotation of said kiln in which said
which it is desired to establish and maintain, some solid
tube is approaching but has not reached a substantially
vertical position at the lower portion of said orbital 50 material will pass out through the tube on each revolu
through said tube during that portion of the orbital path
path.
tion of the kiln, during that quadrant of the rotation of
3. A gauge for determining the depth of a bed of
?uent solid material in a rotary kiln in accordance with
claim 1, further comprising valve means for said tube
zontal position to a substantially vertical lower position;
effecting a rough adjustment of the speed of the kiln and
for closing it against ?ow of any materials therethrough
except during times in which said tube is in use in the
determination of the depth of solid material in a kiln
as aforesaid.
said tube in which it moves from a substantially hori
the rate of feed thereto until some of the material in the
kiln passes out through the tube on each revolution of
the kiln; determining the angle at which said tube is dis
posed with respect to the vertical and prior to said tube
reaching its substantially vertical lower position at the
4. A gauge for determining the depth of a bed of
?uent solid material in a rotary kiln in accordance with
instant at which the solid material starts to pass out
claim 1, further comprising means mounting said tube
through said tube, said angle in conjunction with the
position of the inner end of said tube being accurately
for adjustive movement in and with respect to said ro
tating kiln solely in a direction which is both substan
tially axial of said tube and radial of said rotary kiln,
so as to make the gauge constructed as aforesaid sensi
tive to substantially different depths of solid material in
said kiln.
5. A gauge for determining the depth of a bed of ?uent
indicative of the amount of solid material in the kiln;
and further adjustably varying the speed of rotation of
65 the kiln as a ?ne adjustment until said angle is changed
by the adjustment made to a predetermined value.
8. The method of establishing and maintaining a pre
determined depth of ?uent solid material in a rotary kiln
during the continuous rotation thereof, wherein solid
solid material in a rotary kiln in accordance with claim
1, further comprising a tubular sleeve mounted in the 70 material is substantially continuously supplied to the kiln
adjacent to one end thereof, wherein a decrease in the
wall of said kiln and extending substantially radially
speed of rotation of the kiln results in increasing the
through said wall, means including packing means mount
depth ?uent solid material therein, and wherein a tube
ing said tube in frictional sliding relation in said tubular
is provided rotating with the kiln and extending radially
sleeve, so that said tube may be adjusted to different
of the kiln from the outside thereof to a point within the
positions only in a direction which is both substantially
3,026,728
9
10
kiln which is a predetermined distance short of the axis
thereof, such that some solid material will pass outwardly
angle with respect to the vertical, so as to adjust the
depth of solid materials in said kiln to said desired value.
9. The method in accordance with claim 8, in which
the position of said tube which is measured and at which
the solid material starts to pass out therethrough during
each revolution of said kiln is one in which said tube is
through the tube by gravity during each revolution of the
kiln when the solid material in the kiln is at the desired
redetermined depth; said method comprising rotating
said kiln at a predetermined rate of speed in a desired
selected range approximating a desired speed, and after
moving through the quadrant of its orbital path extend
the kiln operation has been stabilized, determining the
depth of solid material in the kiln by measuring the angle
stantially vertical lower position.
at which solid material ?rst passes outwardly through 10
said tube during each revolution of said kiln, readjust
ing the rate of kiln rotation in accordance with variations
of the level of solid materials in the kiln from a prede
termined desired value to a value such that solid mate
rial starts to pass out through said tube during each 15
revolution of the kiln when the tube is at a predetermined
ing from a substantially horizontal position to a sub
.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
368,441
746,861
2,092,657
2,419,257
Baker ______________ __ Aug. 16,
Masterson et a1. ______ __ Dec. 15,
Smith _______________ __ Sept. 7,
Evans ______________ __ Apr. 22,
1887
1903
1937
1947
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
vCERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION
Patent No. 3,026,728
March 27, 1962
Olav Moklebust et a1.
It is hereby certified that error appears in the above numbered pat
ent requiring correction and that the said Letters Patent should read as
corrected below.
Column 4, line 55, for "it. is in the lower right
quadrant of its mqnement (as seen" read -- level a of
material in the kiln. 0n the other handI if the ——;
line 64, for "tube" read —— it —-; same line 64, for
"rotation"
read
-- movement --.
Signed and sealed this 21st day of August 1962.
(SEAL)
Attest:
ESTON G. JOHNSON
Attesting Officer
DAVID L. LADD
'
Commissioner of Patents
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