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Патент USA US3026870

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March27, 1962
T. M. BALL ETAL
3,026,860
FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM
Filed July 50. 1958
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March 27, 1962
T. M. BALL ETAL
3,026,860
FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM
Filed July 30, 1958
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JOHN
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HURST AND
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March 27, 1962
T. M. BALL ETAL
3,026,860
FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM
Filed July 30, 1958
3 Sheets-Sheet 5
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nited States Patent
3,026,869
Patented Mar. 27, 1,962
2
larly at light engine load conditions by supplying an
3,026,860
FUEL INJECTHON SYSTEM
.
excess of feed fuel to a metering unit which allows a
large portion of the feed fuel to recirculate back to the
Thomas M. Ball, Bloom?eld Hills, Robert P. Graham,
fuel tank.
Pontiac, Clifton M. Elliott, Birmingham, John W. 5
A further object is to provide an improved automotive
Hurst, Royal Oak, and Mearl E. Noftz, Birmingham,
Mich, assiguors to Chrysler Corporation, Highland
Park, Mich., a corporation of Delaware
Filed July 30, 1958, Ser. No. 751,999
23 Claims. (Cl. 123-119)
fuel injection system having a return fuel ?ow metering
unit and a manually operated accelerator fuel pumping
means immersed in the return fuel to be cooled thereby
and adapted to pump a portion of the return fuel, which
10 is substantially purged by vapor by virtue of the ?ow of
This invention relates to a fuel injection system of the
the return fuel, to the engine as required for acceleration.
Another object is to provide a fuel injection system
of the aforegoing character having a load sensor capable
of metering fuel to the engine in a substantially linear
752,000, ?led July 30, 1958, now U.S. Patent No. 2, 15 relationship with respect to air flow to said engine.
957,466; John W. Hurst, Serial No. 752,003, ?led July
Another object is to provide a fuel inject-ion system
30, 1958, now US. Patent No. 2,953,021; Clifton M.
having a metering means responsive to changes in atmos
type disclosed in the following related copending appli
cations owned by applicants‘ assignee and having the
following ?ling dates: Clifton M. Elliott, Serial No.
Elliott, Serial No. 752,004, ?led July 30, 1958; and
pheric temperature and pressure to adjust the fuel supply
Eugene P. Wise, Serial No. 752,005, ?led July 30, 1958.
to the engine in accordance with these changes.
This particular application also relates to basic improve 20 Another object is to provide a fuel injection system
ments on the fuel metering systems disclosed in the pre
viously ?led Thomas M. Ball application Serial No.
727,423, ?led April 9, 1958.
having a speed metering unit utilizing a return ?ow
metering valve comprising a disc type return flow meter
ing member and a mating return flow metering ori?ce,
said valve having a high flow rate capacity with respect
In particular this invention is concerned with im
proved means for metering fuel to the cylinders of an 25 to movement of said metering member.
>
internal combustion engine in amounts determined by
In carrying out this invention a continuous fuel feed
engine operating conditions. The invention is concerned
conduit connects a fuel supply or tank to the intake mani~
mainly with automotive engines, but, it is anticipated
fold of an internal combustion engine. A fuel pump
that the disclosed type of fuel metering system may be
located either in the fuel tank or in the fuel feed con
30 duit pressurizes and pumps a substantially constant
used on other types of internal combustion engines.
It is conventional in fuel injection systems to supply
volume of fuel through the conduit which volume is in
fuel under pump pressure to a metering system which
excess of that used by the engine operating at maximum
regulates the fuel flow to a number of fuel injection
fuel consumption conditions. The pressurized fuel is
nozzles in accordance with the engine speed and load
fed into a fuel supply pressure chamber which forms
requirements. In such systems it is common to meter 35 a part of the fuel feed conduit and which communicates
the fuel to the nozzles through one or more needle
with the tank through a return ?ow conduit through
valve controlled metering ori?ces which needle valves
which conduit the fuel in excess of that required by the
are subject to regulation by various atmospheric and
engine is returned to the tank. The amount of fuel re
engine operating parameters, including speed and load
turned to the tank is determined jointly by a speed and
as aforesaid. Among the problems encountered by such 40 load sensor. The lead sensor operatively communicates
systems is the fuel vaporization and cavitation particu
with the low pressure portion of the intake manifold
larly on hot days during conditions of comparatively
through portions of the fuel feed conduit comprising a
light load and fuel flow on the downstream side of the
fuel distribution chamber and nozzle feed conduits, and
fuel metering ori?ces caused by the pressure drop across
constantly receives a pressure signal from said manifold
said metering ori?ces. This vapor formation down 45 which signal is transmitted to a load metering valve
stream of the metering ori?ces produces a false fuel
located in the fuel feed conduit to control the amount
pressure, the magnitude of which is variable and depends ‘ of fuel flowing to the engine in accordance with the
on the non-measurable factor of the resultant vapor to
air flow to the engine. The load metering valve may
liquid ratio. Since these metering systems are not
be manually adjustable to compensate for irregularities
equipped to handle variations in this ratio, uneven and 50 or non-uniformities in different engines using this system.
non-measurable fuel ?ow to the nozzles occurs and re
The'speed sensor carries a speed governor‘means of the
sults in improper fuel-air mixtures and poor engine ef?
?yweight type which‘ is operatively connected to a drive
ciency and power.
port-ion of the engine and responsive to engine speed to
Another problem encountered in these systems is that
adjust a return ‘?ow metering valve and regulate thereby
of maintaining the proper fuel pressure drop across the 55 the ?ow of fuel through the return flow conduit to the
metering ori?ces for obtaining a metered fuel supply
tank to effectively control the fuel pressure in the fuel
which is substantially linear over the engine speed range
supply pressure chamber. The valve may advantageously
with respect to the air consumption of the engine.
comprise a return ?ow metering ori?ce and a shiftable
It is an object of this invention to provide a fuel
disc type metering member which member can effectively
injection system of the aforesaid type which will over 60 control the flow across said ori?ce. The load metering
come the foregoing problems.
valve of the load sensor is so constructed that the fuel
Another object is to provide a fuel metering unit for
pressure developed in the fuel supply pressure chamber
a fuel injection system which unit is capable of deliver
of the speed sensor over the speed range of the engine
ing fuel to said system in amounts relative to engine
is suf?cient to cause a fuel flow through the load meter
speed and engine load.
Another object is to provide a fuel injection system
capable of utilizing fuel under relatively high pressure
by virtue of a novel return ?ow fuel metering mechanism
and a pressure increaser means, which high pressure
inhibits fuel vapor formation.
Another object is to provide a fuel inject-ion system
capable of purging vapors from the feed fuel particu
ing valve to the engine which is substantially linear with
respect to the air consumption of the engine. The re
turn ?ow metering valve of the speed sensor is opera
tively connected to the load metered fuel and adjustable
in response to the pressure thereof to further regulate
the flow of return fuel from the fuel supply pressure
chamber so as to sense and maintain the proper fuel
A pres
pressure drop across the load metering ori?ce.
3,026,860
3
sure increaser valve. may bepositionedinthe fuel feed
conduit downstream of the load metering ori?ce to pro
hibit the metered fuel pressure in the system from
dropping belowpa minimum value. The load metering
valve may also be associated with an atmospheric tem
perature and pressurev sensor which transmits a signal
to the load metering valve to adjust it in accordance
4
FIGURE 8 is a diagrammatic partly sectional view
of a modi?cation of the unit of FIGURE 1, and
FIGURE 9 represents diagrammatically the hook up
of the vehicle accelerator to the throttle and accelerator
pump.
‘Referring in detail to the drawings, and in particular
to FIGURES 1 and 2, a fuel injection metering unit
designated generally as 10 is provided with a speed sensor
with said temperature and pressure. An accelerator
designated generally as 12. This speed sensor is con
pump may be immersed in a suitable portion of the
return ?ow conduit to receive return fuel therefrom and 10 veniently divided into three sections, a speed section 14,
an intermediate section 16, and a governor section 18.
discharge it directly to the load metered fuel portion
All three of these sections cooperate simultaneously to
of the fuel feed conduit in response to actuation of
adjust the amount of fuel available to the engine in
the accelerator. The accelerator pump may be substan
accordance with the fuel requirements of the engine as
tially surrounded by the return fuel during engineopera
related to engine speed.
tion and is cooled thereby.
The speed section 14 comprises a housing 20 having a
A basic difference between the systems of the above
chamber 22 therein to receive a constant volume of fuel
mentioned application Serial No. 727,423 and the present
supplied under pressure by the pump 24 (FIGURE 6)
system is that in the present system only metered fuel
through the fuel conduit 26. Pump 24 may be electrically
?ows to the distribution chamber. This is accomplished
by placing the speed sensor and the load sensor in series 20 driven and its operating speed is independent of engine
speed. A fuel ?lter and vapor separator 28 located in
and providing each sensor with a fuel metering means.
chamber 22 actually receives the fuel initially and after
As a result of this arrangement, the fuel in the, system
?ltering said fuel and separating vapor therefrom dis
upstream of the distribution chamber can be maintained
charges the fuel into chamber 22. A return ?ow metering
at a high pressure relative to the low upstream pressure
of the systems in the above mentioned application. 25 ori?ce 36 on housing 2%) provides a passage from chamber
22 to a return ?ow conduit 32 which winds throughout
The high pressure retards the undesirable formation of
the unit 10 and provides numerous chambers as shown
fuel vapor in the upstream section of the system. Also,
in FIGURES 2, 4, and 5. A fuel outlet 34 in housing
since the return flow conduit in the present system is
20 communicates with an upstream chamber 36 of the
upstream of the distribution chamber, vapors in the
feed fuel arecontinually purged therefrom and are re 30 load sensor 38 to enable fuel which has not been returned
to the fuel source through return flow conduit 32 to flow
turned to the fuel sourcebefore the fuel enters the
distribution chamber.
intochamber 36, (FIGURES 2 and'S).
The intermediate section 16 of the speed sensor 12 is
The use of a piston type load sensor in the improved
separated from the speed section 14 and the governor
return ?ow fuel metering system described herein
presents numerous advantages over the diaphragm actu 35 section 18 by diaphragms 42 and 44 respectively. This
section is provided with a housing 45 having a chamber
ated load sensor of the above application, among them
46 which communicates with the downstream chamber
being smaller space requirements, greater piston stroke.
48. of the load sensor 38 through a conduit 50 to pro
with, resultant greater accuracy and range of the load
vide equal fuel pressures in chambers 46 and 48 for a pur
metering needle, and a more linear relationship between
the movement of the piston and the manifold pressure 40 pose to be explained below.
A chamber 52 in section 16 communicates with an in
changes. The use of the submerged accelerator, pres
take manifold chamber 54- of the engine at a point ad
sure increaser, atmosphere temperature and pressure
jacent the throttle valve 56 through conduit 58 (FIGURES
sensor, disc type of return flow metering valve, and ad
2 and 6‘) and provides, a substantially constant low pres
justable loadsensor linkage .in the combination and
sure to the diaphragm 44 when the engine is idling and
arrangement of parts claimed all have de?nite advantages
also provides an increased pressure when the throttle 56
is opened (see FIGURE 6). Conduit 58 also serves to
convey ‘fuel passing the seals 64 to the intake manifold.
An adjustable air bleed valve 57 communicating with
of, reference being had to the accompanying drawings
forming a part of this speci?cation wherein like reference 50 chamber 52 allows air under atmospheric pressure to bleed
into said chamber to partially offset the low pressure
characters designate corresponding parts in the several
therein and provides a means for adjusting the idling speed
views:
of the engine. A conventional needle valve 60 thread
‘FIGURE 1 is a side elevational view of the fuel in
in the present system and are described in detail below.
Further objects and advantages of this invention will
be apparent from the following detailed illustration there
jection metering unit;
ably received in housing 45 and adjustable with respect
FIGURE 2 is substantially a vertical longitudinal mid
sectional view through the unit of FIGURE 1;
to the opening of conduit 58 into chamber 52 provides a
FIGURE 3 is a horizontal sectional view of the unit
taken on line 3—3 of FIGURE 1, and rotated counter
clockwise 90°;
means to regulate the amount of vacuum transmitted to
chamber 52 from the engine manifold in order to further
regulate the idling speed of the engine.
Referring again to FIGURE 2, a fuel return flow meter
ing shaft 62 slidably mounted in housing 45 and provided
‘FIGURE 4 is a vertical sectional view of the unit of 60
with dirt catching grooves 64 is secured at one end to
FIGURE 1 taken along a line and in the direction corre
diaphragm 42 and valve disc 66 by ?anges 65 and 68 and
sponding to 4—-4 of FIGURE 3;
rivets 70. Disc 66 is movable with shaft 62 toward ori?ce
FIGURE 5 is a vertical sectional view of the load
30 to retard the ?ow of return fuel therethrough to re
sensor of FIGURE 1 taken along a line corresponding
turn ?ow conduit 32. By using a disc type metering valve,
to 5~—-5 of FIGURE 3 in the direction of the arrows 65 a large flow rate can be obtained by relatively small
with parts broken away to show a section of the load
longitudinal movement of the metering shaft 62 which
metering ori?ce of FIGURE 1 taken along a line corre
renders the speed sensor more sensitive to speed and pres
sponding to 5A——5A of FIGURE 3 in the direction of
sure variations. A split retaining ring 72 positioned in a
the arrows;
70 circumferential groove 74 in shaft 62 provides a stop to
prevent valve disc 66 from moving too far from ori?ce
FIGURE 6 is a view partly in cross section of the
general arrangement of the fuel injection system and
the engine;
FIGURE 7 is a side elevational view of an automotive
distributor~for driving the unit of FIGURE 1;
30. The other end of shaft 62 abuts ?ange 75 connected
to diaphragm 44 and ?ange 76 by rivets 78.
Governor section 18 of the speed sensor comprises a
75 housing 80 having a chamber 82v therein communicating
5
3,026,960
with one side of diaphragm 44. The pressure in this
chamber is at all times atmospheric and therefore allows
a pressure differential to exist across diaphragm 44, since
chamber 52 communicates at all times with the low pres
sure portion of the engine intake manifold. A shaft 84
is rotatably mounted in a sleeve member 81 in housing
81) by ball bearing 86 and bearing surface 87 on sleeve 81
and is keyed for rotation to a flexible drive shaft 88 of
6
‘ sleeves 116 and 128 will abut each other and the radius
of rotation of the centers of gravity of the ?yweight-s will
increase with further increases in engine speed at the
normal or lower rate. This reduced rate of said radius
increase will result in the force output of the governor
also increasing at said normal or lower rate with respect
to said further increase in engine speed, which reduced
rate of force output will result in a ?ow of fuel to the
the engine distributor 89 (FIGURE 7) by key 90 on shaft
engine which corresponds more nearly to the linear air
88 and slot 91 in shaft 84. The chamber 92 formed be 10 consumption of said engine at high speeds.
tween member 81 and housing 80 serves as a lubricating
The speci?c structure of the load sensor 38‘ with which
oil reservoir for ball bearing 86 and bearing surface 87.
the fuel outlet 34 of chamber 22 communicates is shown
The oil is introduced into oil cup 94 and ?ows to said
in FIGURE 3. The load sensor is conveniently divided
ball ‘bearing and bearing surface through apertures 96 in
into three sections for purposes of description. The ?rst
member, 81.
15 section 150 contains the mechanisms which are respon
An end of member 81 is adjustably threadably received
sive to changes in manifold pressure and changes in at
in the end of housing 80 and is secured against rotatable
mospheric conditions to move through suitable linkages
movement therein by lock nut 98 threadably received on
the load metering needle 152 with respect to the load
said end of member 81 and threaded into tight engage
metering ori?ce 154. This ?rst section 150 comprises a
ment with the end face 100 of housing 89. A nut 102 is
cylinder 156 (FIGURES 3 and 5) having a manifold
threadably received on the end of housing 86 and secures
pressure inlet 158 which is operatively connected to the
the ?exible drive shaft covering 184 to said housing. A
low pressure portion of the engine intake manifold 228.
?yweight support 166 is secured to shaft 84 for rotation
As shown in FIGURE 6, this portion may conveniently
therewith and pivotally supports flyweights 188 and 118
be chamber 54 which is downstream of primary throttle
on bearings 112 and 114 respectively. A sleeve 116 hav 25 valve 56. A piston 16!) having circumferential dirt catch
ing a ?ange 118 thereon is mounted on a reduced portion
ing grooves 162 thereon is reciprocably mounted in cylin
of shaft 84 and is slidable longitudinally of said portion.
der 156 and moves upwardly against spring 164 as the
Slots 126 and 122 in ?yweights 10S and 110' respectively
intake manifold pressure decreases. The increments of
loosely receive ?ange 118 which is abutted by shoulders
movement of piston 160 are substantially linear with re
124 and 126 on ?yweights 108 and 118 respectively. A 30 spect to the incremental changes in intake manifold pres
sleeve 128 also longitudinally slidably mounted on said re
duced portion of shaft 84 is frictionally secured at one
end to the inner race of a ball bearing 136*. Said sleeve
128 mounts on its other end a spring 132 which re
siliently urges said sleeves 116 and 128 apart and causes l" 01
the outer race of ball bearing 130 to abut the heads of
rivets 78 with su?icient force to prevent the outer race
from rotating with the inner race and shaft 84. The ro
tation of shaft 84 in response to the rotation of the ?exible
drive shaft 88 causes the ?yweights 188 and 110 to pivot 40
outwardly from shaft 84 around bearings 112 and 114 re
sure and provide a convenient basis for the design of
the ‘load metering needle 15-2 and ori?ce 154 which design
must be such as to obtain desired flow characteristics
across ori?ce 154. The degree of the taper of needle 152,
the length of the stroke of piston 160, and the size of
ori?ce 154 are interrelated and are speci?cally predeter
mined. These dimensions must be such that the ?ow of
fuel across ori?ce 154- can always be adjusted by the load
sensor over the speed range of the engine to be sub
stantially linear with respect to the total air flow to the
engine as measured by the load sensor. An air vent 159
communicating with conduit 58 in intermediate section
16 of the speed sensor through suitable conduit means
159 cast or drilled in sections 14 and 16 (FIGURES 2
spectively, which brings shoulders 124 and 126 of the ?y
weights into contact with the ?ange 118 of sleeve 116
and tends to urge the latter against spring 132. The force
transmitted to spring 132 is transmitted through the con
and 3) is provided in the housing of section 150 and
nected diaphragms to the return ?ow metering valve disc 4-5 allows atmospheric air to ?ow through slits 161 in the
66 and tends to move said disc closer to the ori?ce 30.
piston 160 and into contact with the exterior of air tight
It is noted that the force output of a ?yweight governor
bellows 166 which is nested within the lower portion of
is, mathematically speaking, proportional to the square
piston 160. The low pressure in conduit 58 sucks a con
of the engine speed. vSuch a relationship between engine 50 tinuous flow of air past the bellows 166 which bellows
speed and force output, however, does not suffice for
expands lengthwise in response to either a drop in at
supplying fuel to the engine in accordance with the present
mospheric pressure or an increase in atmospheric tem
metering unit since the air consumption of an internal
perature and conversely contracts lengthwise in response
combustion engine with respect to engine speed deviates
to increased atmospheric pressure or decreased atmos
from a linear relationship. This deviation is particularly
pheric temperature. Said bellows is secured at its top
noticeable in engines utilizing the ram type manifolds
end to a shell 168 having a plurality of circumferentially
which manifolds are long enough to develop air pulsa
spaced slots 170 therein through which slidably extend
tions therein which pulsations ram additional air into the
?ngers 172 of plate 174 to which the lower end of bel
engine cylinders and cause the engine to require more
lows 166 is secured. Fingers 172 of plate 174 fit into a
fuel to offset the leaning effect of the additional air. The
groove in the inner wall of piston 160 and are retained
relationship therefore between engine speed and governor
therein by split retaining ring 176. A spring 177 normally
force output is changed herein by the interposition of
spring 132 between sleeves 116 and 128. The spring
allows the radius of rotation of the centers of gravity of
urges bellows 166 to a contracted condition. A plate 178
is secured to the lower end of shell 168 and carries a
socket 180 into which a ball 182 of linkage member 184
the ?yweights to increase at a faster than normal rate
is retained. Said linkage member is pivotally secured
with respect to engine speed over a portion of the speed 65 to arm 186 which is pivotally attached to one end of
range and to thereby exert a force on the spring, sleeve
shaft 188 which shaft is rotatably mounted in the housing
128, and valve shaft 62 which force results in an in—
of section 150 and extends into chamber 36 of the second
crease in fuel flow to the engine over the amount which
section 197 of the load sensor.
An arm 190 secured to
would flow at that speed in the absence of the spring.
70 the other end of shaft 188 is pivotally connected to the
Spring 132 may also be designed to have a variable spring
load metering needle 152. An arm 192 secured to shaft
rate should it be desired to further vary the output force
of the ?ywcights. At high speed ranges during which the
proportion of air consumption to engine speed decreases
188 adjacent the arm 186 is provided with a set screw
194 which extends through slot 185 in arm 186. Arms
186 and 192 may be moved relative to each other when
due to a reduction in the ram effect at said speeds, the 75 the set screw is loose to adjust the position. of the meter
3,026,860
ing needle 152 with respect to ori?ce 154 at any desired
operating condition of the load sensor, after which the set
screw is tightened.
The second section 197 of the load sensor is separated
from the ?rst section 150 by suitable walls and ?uid
tight seals which keep the ?uid in upstream chamber 36 in
section 197 from entering section 150. Chamber 36
receives its fuel supply from outlet 34 of chamber 22 of
the speed section of the speed sensor which fuel represents
the portion of the pumped fuel that is not returned to
the fuel tank 198 (FIGURE 6) through the return flow
conduit 32. Ori?ce 154 in the housing of chamber 36
5:3
259. A groove 252 in shaft 246 slidably receives a-screw
254 which limits the longitudinal movement of the shaft
246 and attached piston 244. An arm 254 is secured to
shaft 250 at one end and to shaft 256 at its other end,
which shaft 256 is operatively connected to the engine
accelerator pedal and rotates clockwise in response to the
depression of the pedal to urge shaft 250 against spring
258 to move piston 244 downward. The connection be
tween shaft 256 and the accelerator pedal may be made
by any conventional linkage, for example, that of Patent
2,722,206 which connects shaft 34 thereof, corresponding
to applicants’ shaft 256, to the accelerator pedal 18. The
type of linkage used is not critical so long as actuation of
opens into the downstream chamber 48 of the third sec
the accelerator pedal causes downward movement of the
tion 200 of the load sensor. The total effect of the intake
manifold pressure and the pressure and temperature of 15 accelerator plunger or piston 244. Applicants’ FIGURE
the atmosphere regulates the positioning of the metering
9 shows diagrammatically how the accelerator pedal 255
may be simultaneously linked to the throttle body 56 or
needle 152 with respect to ori?ce 154 to control the ?ow
366 by link 367, and to pump piston 244 by link 257
of fuel therethrough into chamber 48.
pivotally connected to arm 259 locked to shaft‘ 256. As
Referring to FIGURES 3 and 4, a pressure valve needle
202 positioned in chamber 48 is attached to a diaphragm 20 piston 244 is moved downward it forces fuel trapped in
accelerator chamber 260 through conduit 262. and into
204 and is normally urged to a closed position with respect
chamber 264 where it exerts a force on diaphragm 266.
to a fuel port 206 which communicates with the fuel
When the pressure exerted on said diaphragm by the
distribution chamber 208 of rosette 210. The combined
accelerator pump reaches a predetermined minimum,
pressures exerted by the return fuel in conduit 32 and
needle valve 268 will open and allow accelerator fuel to
spring 212 urged needle 262 to its normally closed posi~
how directly through conduit 269 to chamber 208 of the
tion. These pressures can be overcome by the pressure of
rosette for distribution to the fuel injection nozzles. A
the fuel flowing into chamber 48 when a predetermined
ball check valve 270 separating the return ?ow conduit
minimum pressure of fuel in chamber 48 is attained. By
32 frorn'the accelerator chamber 266 is drawn upwardly
establishing this minimum pressure in chamber 43 the
from
port 272 as piston 244 moves upwardly in response
30
formation of vapor in said chamber and in the rest of the
to engine deceleration and allows return fuel to ?ll cham
system is retarded especially during starting and at slow
her 260. The downward movement of piston 244 closes
engine speeds and furthermore the proper ?ow of fuel
port 272 by forcing ball 270 into contact therewith. It
through the return ?ow conduit is insured since the resist
is noted that a spring 274 and return fuel in return ?ow
ance to said ?ow is overcome by the minimum pressure.
conduit 32 cooperate to urge diaphragm 266 and attached
The rosette 210 in FIGURE 4 comprises a body 213
needle valve 268 to a closed position and establish the
having a plurality of apertures 214 communicating with
minimum pressure on diaphragm 266 which must be
fuel chamber 203 across ori?ces 216. A nozzle feed con
overcome by the pressure exerted by piston 244 on ac
duit 218 is secured in each said aperture and communi
celerator fuel within chamber 260 if acceleration fuel is to
cates with a particular portion of the engine intake mani
flow to the rosette. This accelerator pump is actuated in
fold 220 through a fuel injection nozzle 222 (FIGURE 6).
response to each depression of the accelerator pedal to
An air conduit 224 has a threaded bushing 225 secured
deliver an extra amount of fuel to the engine while the
thereto which is threadably secured to body 213 by an in
rest of the fuel distribution system is catching up to the
termediate valve carrying nut 227. A lock nut 229 se
increased engine load condition. Without said pump the
cures the fuel feed conduit retaining plate 231 to the
rapid increase in air ?ow into the intake manifold as the
body 213 which plate urges the enlarged portions 233
throttle is opened would cause a lean air-fuel mixture and
of‘ the nozzle feed conduits inwardly of the rosette to
retain said conduits therein (see FIGURE 5). Conduit
224- may be connected to an air pump 226 which is suit
ably mounted on the engine blockv228 and actuated by
the engine camshaft 236 (FIGURE 6). The use of
thisair pump is optional, however, a better control over
the fuel atomization and dispersion has been obtained by
using the pump and its use is advisable. A disc valve
232 normally urged against the inlet air port 234 of said
rosette by spring 235 will prevent fuel from ?owing into
conduit 224 should something happen to the system to
result in “coughing” and “spitting” of the engine.
By
placing the accelerator pump in the return ?ow conduit
the fuel which is drawn into the pump is kept cool by the
continuous passage of return fuel around the cylinder 242
and in addition, any vapor drawn into said cylinder can
bleed out through the top of thepump around the loose
?tting piston and back into the return ?ow conduit. Also
the location of the accelerator pump in the return ?ow
conduit provides a means for rendering leakage of the
pump inconsequential.
In FIGURE 8 is shown a fuel injection metering sys
cause the fuel in the nozzle feed conduits to back up
tem for an internal combustion engine which is basically
through air ori?ces 240. Slots 238 in a valve retaining
the same as unit 10 and comprises a speed-sensor 286, a
plate 239 permit the air to ?ow into chamber 236 after
it passes through port 234. Air chamber 236 communi 60 load sensor 282, and an accelerator pump 284. The speed
sensor is provided with four housing portions 286, 288,
cates with each said aperture 214 across ori?ces 240. As
290, and 292 separated from each other by diaphragms
the air ?ows across ori?ces 240 it mixes with the fuel ?ow
294, 296, and 298 respectively to provide chambers 300,
ing across ori?ces 216 and forms a liquid in air type disper
302, 304, and 306. Chamber 300 communicates with a
sion which then ?ows through the nozzle feed conduits
fuel tank 308 through conduit 310. A fuel pump 312 in
to the fuel injection nozzles. It is noted that the close
said conduit supplies a constant volume of fuel through
proximity of the ori?ces 216 and 240 prevents collec
?lter 314 to chamber 300 during the operation of said
tion of liquid fuel on the downstream side of ori?ce 216.
engine regardless of ‘the engine load or speed. A return
The air ori?ces 240 should be larger than the fuel ori?ces
flow metering ori?ce 316 in said housing portion 286
216 since at idle and low fuel consumption conditions the
volume of air used greatly exceeds the volume of fuel 70 connects chamber 300 with a return ?ow conduit 318
which communicates with the inlet check valve 320 of
used.
accelerator pump ‘284. A return ?ow metering needle
Referring further to FIGURE 4 a cylinder 24-2 posi
322 having a tapered point 324 is secured to each of said
tioned in the return ?ow conduit 32 slidably receives an
diaphragms 294, 296, and 298 by suitable grommets 326.
accelerator piston 244. Attached to the piston is a shaft
.246 which is slidably received in a recess 248 in shaft -
A flyweight support-328 pivotally supports ?-yweights
3,026,860
9
lit
330 and 332 and is secured to a ?exible shaft 334 which is
operatively connected to the engine to rotate at a speed
the fuel in chamber 22 and the return flow metering disc
directly proportional to engine speed. Flyweights 330
and 332 have projections 336 and 338 respectively there
on which abut the end of needle 322 as said ?yweights
pivot outwardly in response to rotation of shaft 334 to
urge needle 322 toward ori?ce 316 against the force ap
plied in the opposite direction against diaphragm 294 by
the fuel in chamber 300.
A conduit 34f) connects chamber 308 to the upstream
chamber 342 of the load sensor which upstream chamber
communicates with a downstream fuel distribution cham
66 is maintained stationary at a distance away from ori?ce
30. In this static condition, the amount of fuel delivered
to the rosette distributing chamber 208 is constant and is
equal to the constant amount of fuel being delivered to
the system by the pump less the constant amount of fuel
being returned to the fuel tank through the return ?ow
conduit 32. If this static condition represents the engine
during normal driving speed, the pressure in chamber 52
10 has no noticeable effect on the operation of the unit and
may be disregarded. It is only during idling and very
low engine speeds that the pressure differential across
ber 344 of the load sensor across a load metering ori?ce
diaphragm 44 becomes signi?cant.
346. A tapered load metering needle 348 positioned in
As the throttle valve 56 is moved to a more open posi
ori?ce 346 is operatively connected to piston 350 15 tion by the depression of the engine accelerator 255, an
reciprocably mounted in cylinder 352, which cylinder
increase in manifold pressure is transmitted to the load
operatively communicates with the low pressure portions
sensor piston 168 through conduit 158 and moves said
of each intake manifold 356 on said engine through con
duit 354. Low pressure transmitted through conduit 354
will cause piston 358 to be drawn upwardly against the
force of spring 358 to thereby urge the tapered end of
needle 348 into closer proximity to the sides of ori?ce 346
and conversely high pressure in the intake manifolds will
tend to urge needle 348 to a more open position with
respect to ori?ce 346. ‘A plurality of nozzle feed con
duits 362 extend from chamber 344 of the load sensor to
an equal number of fuel injection nozzles 364 located up
stream of the throttle valves 366 of the individual intake
piston down to thereby move the load metering needle 152
to a more open position with respect to the load metering
ori?ce 154. The pressure di?erential existing across said
orifice is consequently decreased as more fuel is allowed
to flow into chamber 48. This decrease in pressure dif
ferential causes the ?ow through ori?ce 154 to deviate
from the desirable ?ow which is substantially directly pro
25 portional to engine speed. To correct this condition and
bring the pressure differential across said ori?ce up to a
value where the flow of fuel therethrough is substantially
directly proportional to engine speed, the fuel pressure in
manifold sections 356. The atomizing air supply to the
speed chamber 22 and load sensor chamber 36 com
nozzles 364 is obtained from pump 372 through intakes 30 municating therewith is increased. This increase in pres
378 and 385 and is transmitted to the branch air conduits
sure is accomplished by moving the return flow metering
374 of said nozzles by a main air conduit 376. Chamber
valve disc 66 closer to ori?ce 30 by the increased force
344 of the load sensor is connected to chamber 382 of
transmitted by the ?yweights 188 and 110 as the engine
the speed sensor by conduit 360‘ to provide an adjustment
speed is increased and by the increased pressure in cham
of the return ?ow metering needle 322 with respect to
ber ‘46 caused by the increased flow of fuel into the down
ori?ce 316 based on the pressure differential existing across
stream chamber 48 of the load sensor. When the forces
ori?ce 346 of the load sensor.
transmitted by said ?yweights and the fuel in said cham
An idle boost conduit 368 communicates with one of
ber 46 once again balance the force transmitted in the
said manifold sections 356 at a point adjacent the edge of
opposite direction by the fuel in chamber 22, the flow of
the throttle valve 366 of that section and with the cham
fuel through ori?ce 154 will be substantially directly pro
her 304 of the speed sensor. An air bleed valve 374} in
portional to the speed of the engine and will correspond
conduit 368 is provided to regulate the pressure trans
to the ?ow of air into the intake manifold.
mitted to chamber 384 from said manifold section during
The operation of the modi?cation of unit 10 shown in
idling of the engine in order to regulate thereby the speed
FIGURE 8 is essentially the same as that described above
of the engine at idling. Under normal idling conditions 45 for unit v1.0. The depression of the engine accelerator
opens throttle valves 366 which causes an increase in air
the pressure in chamber 304 is lower than in chamber
pressure in each intake manifold branch 356 which pres
306 which is vented to the atmosphere and said pressure
sure increase is transmitted to piston 350 of the load
in chamber 306 tends to urge the needle 322 toward ori
sensor through conduit 354. As piston 350 moves down
?ce 316 to retard the ?ow of return fuel therethrough and
provide a sufficient fuel supply for idling. The require 50 ward, load metering needle 348 moves to a more open
position with respect to ori?ce 346 and allows more fuel
ment of this additional boost to needle 322 is due to the
to ?ow into chamber 344. As in unit 10', the pressure
fact that at slow engine speed the ?yweights are not flung
differential across the load metering ori?ce must be raised
outwardly with sut?cient force to negate the frictional
back to a value which would allow the How of fuel
resistance of the needle 322 to movement.
The accelerator pump 284 having an inlet check valve 55 through said ori?ce to be substantially directly propor
tional to engine speed. Also as in unit 10, this is accom
328 and an outlet check valve 382 receives fuel through
plished by moving the return flow metering needle 322 to
said inlet valve into chamber 384 from which the return
a more restricted position with respect to the return flow
fuel continues through the return ?ow conduit 318 back
metering ori?ce. In an equivalent manner to unit 10, the
to the tank. The depression of the accelerator will force
piston 386 of said pump 284 downwardly to force fuel 60 forces transmitted by ?yweights 338 and 332 and by the
pressure of fuel in speed sensor chamber 302 become
through check valve 382 and through conduit 388 directly
balanced against the force of the fuel in speed sensor
to the downstream chamber 344 of the load sensor.
chamber 380. This balance of forces maintains the re
It is noted that the series arrangement of conduit 310,
turn ?ow metering needle 322 at a distance away from
chamber 308,, conduit 340, chambers 342 and 344, and
conduits 362 provides a continuous fuel feed conduit from 65 return ?ow metering ori?ce 316 which will insure a pres
sure differential across load metering ori?ce 346 and
the fuel tank to the engine and the fuel metering system
allow a flow of fuel therethrough which is substantially
may be conveniently described as a fuel feed conduit
having a speed metering unit and a load metering unit
directly proportional to engine speed.
located therein.
We claim:
1. In a fuel injection system for an internal combustion
engine, a fuel distribution chamber having a plurality of
nozzle feed conduits extending therefrom, a fuel feed con
duit communicating with said chamber and with a fuel
The operation of the fuel injection metering unit 10 70
will be described in relation to a change in static engine
operating conditions, that is, constant engine speed and
load. Under said static operating conditions, the com
bined forces exerted by ?yweights 108 and 110 and the
source, engine speed responsive return ?ow metering
fuel in chamber 46 is balanced by the force exerted by 75 means and load responsive fuel metering means in series
3,026,860
11
in- said fuel feed conduit and adjustable to vary the flow
of fuel to said chamber in response to changes in the
speed and load operating conditions respectively of the
engine, and said metering means being adapted for opera
tive connection to a drive portion and a manifold portion
of said engine respectively to adjust in response to said
6. In a fuel injection system for internal combustion
engines, a fuel distribution chamber having a plurality of
nozzle feed conduits extending therefrom, each of said
conduits being adapted for connection to a single fuel in
jection nozzle mounted on a particular portion of an
engine intake manifold, a load metering ori?ce in said
chamber communicating with a fuel source through a fuel
feed conduit, a load metering means adapted to be opera
tively connected to an intake manifold of an engine and
engine, a fuelidistribution chamber having a plurality of
nozzle feed conduits extending therefrom, a fuel feed con 10 carrying a load metering needle movable toward and away
from said load metering ori?ce to close and open same
duit communicating with said chamber and with a fuel
to regulate the ?ow of fuel therethrough, said load meter
source, said fuel source adapted to supply fuel to the
ing means having means thereon responsive to changes in
system under substantially constant pressure, return ?ow
changes inithe operating conditions of said engine.
2. in aifuel injection system for an internal combustion
metering means in said fuel feed conduit and adjustable to
atmospheric temperature and pressure, and also having
vary the flow of return fuel to said source, said return
means thereon responsive to changes in engine load, a re
?ow metering means adapted to be operatively connected
to said engine to adjust in response to changes in engine
speed, load metering means in said conduit adjustable to
vary the flow of fuel into said chamber and adapted to be
operatively connected to said engine to adjust in response
to changes in engine load.
turn ?ow conduit connected to said fuel source and com
3. In a fuel injection system for an internal combustion
engine, a fuel distribution chamber having a plurality of
municating with said fuel feed conduit intermediate said
fuel source and said chamber, a return ?ow metering
ori?ce in said return ?ow conduit, and a speed sensor
carrying a return ?ow metering needle movable toward
and away from said return ?ow metering ori?ce to close
and open the same, said speed sensor being adapted for
connection to said engine and responsive to changes in
engine speed to move said needle with respect to said
ori?ce.
7. In a fuel injection system for an internal combustion
engine having an intake manifold, a load sensor adapted
to be connected to said manifold and having an upstream
nozzle feed conduits extending therefrom, a fuel feed con
duit communicating with said chamber and with a fuel
source, a return ?ow conduit communicating with said
fuel feed conduit and said source, a ?rst adjustable meter
ing means in said return flow conduit for varying the flow
of return fuel therethrough, a second adjustable metering
chamber and a downstream chamber and a load metering
means in said fuel feed conduit for varying the flow of 30 ori?ce interconnecting said chambers, said load sensor
carrying a load metering needle movable with respect to
fuel to said distribution chamber, said ?rst and second
metering means being operatively connected to said en
said ori?ce to open and close same in response to intake
gine, one of said means being adjustable in response to
manifold pressure changes, a speed sensor having an up
changes in engine speed and the other of said means being
stream chamber and a downstream chamber separated
35 by a ?exible pressure responsive diaphragm, a fuel feed
adjustable in response to changes in engine load.
4. In a fuel injection system for use on an internal
conduit connecting a fuel source, and the upstream cham
combustion engine having a plurality of cylinders, a fuel
bers of said load sensor and said speed sensor in series,
distribution chamber having a plurality of nozzle feed con
said downstream chambers of said speed sensor and said
duits extending therefrom, each of said conduits being
load sensor communicating with each other through a
adapted to communicate with a nozzle communicating 40 load metered fuel conduit, a return flow conduit con
with a particular cylinder, a fuel feed conduit connecting
nected to said source and communicating with said up
said chamber to a fuel source, a return ?ow conduit com
stream section of said speed sensor through a return ?ow
municating with said fuel feed conduit and said source,
adjustable return flow metering means in said return ?ow
metering ori?ce, a return ?ow metering needle carried by
said pressure responsive diaphragm and movable with re
conduit for varying the flow of return fuel to said source
spect to said return ?ow metering ori?ce to open and close
same, said speed sensor being adapted for connection to
said engine and responsive when so connected to changes
in engine speed to move said return flow metering needle
with respect to said return flow metering ori?ce.
8. In a fuel injection system for an internal combustion
engine having an intake manifold, a fuel distribution
chamber communicating with a fuel feed conduit through
a load metering orifice, said fuel feed conduit being con
and adapted to be operatively connected to said engine to
become adjusted in response to changes in engine speed,
load metering means in said fuel conduit located inter
mediate said chamber and said return flow conduit and
adapted to be operatively connected to an intake mani
fold of said engine and being responsive when so con
nected to changes in intake manifold pressure to vary the
arnount of fuel entering said chamber.
5. In a fuel injection system for use on an internal com
nected to a fuel source, a pressure responsive load sensor
bustion engine having a plurality of cylinders, a fuel dis
carrying a load metering needle movable with respect to
said ori?ce to vary the flow of fuel therethrough, said load
tribution chamber having a plurality of nozzle feed con
duits extending therefrom, each of said conduits being
sensor adapted to be connected to said intake manifold
adapted to communicate with a nozzle communicating
with a particular cylinder, a fuel feed conduit connect
of said engine to move said load metering needle toward
ing said chamber to a fuel source, a return flow con
or away from said fuel metering ori?ce in response to
60 changes in engine load, a speed sensor having an up
duit communicating with said chamber and said source,
stream chamber and a downstream chamber separated by
adjustable return flow metering means in said return
a ?exible pressure responsive diaphragm, said upstream
?ow conduit for varying the flow of return fuel and
chamber being positioned in said fuel feed conduit, a re
adapted to be operatively connected to said engine to be
turn ?ow conduit connected to said source and communi
come adjusted in response to changes in engine speed,
65 eating ‘with said upstream chamber of said speed sensor
load metering means in said fuel feed conduit located in
through a return flow metering ori?ce, a return ?ow
termediate said chamber and said return flow conduit and
metering needle carried by said pressure responsive dia
adapted to be operatively connected to an intake manifold
phragm, said speed sensor being adapted for connection
of said engine and being responsive when so connected to
to said engine and responsive to changes in engine speed
changes in intake manifold pressure to vary the amount
of fuel entering said chamber, and means connecting said
return flow metering means and said distribution cham
ber to continuously adjust the fuel pressures in said fuel
conduit and said chamber to insure a flow of fuel into said
chamber at a rate which is a function of engine speed.
to move said return ?ow metering needle with respect to
said return ?ow metering ori?ce, said downstream cham
ber of said speed sensor communicating with said fuel
distribution chamber to allow the fuel pressure developed
in said distribution chamber to exert a force on said dia
phragm of said speed sensor tending to urge said return
‘3,026,860
13
?ow metering needle toward said return ?ow metering
ori?ce against the pressure of the fuel in said upstream
14
her to continuously adjust the fuel pressures in said fuel
feed conduit and said distribution chamber to insure a
?ow of fuel into said chamber at a rate which is a func
chamber of said speed sensor.
9. In a fuel injection system for an internal combus
tion engine, a fuel distribution chamber having a plurality
tion of engine speed.
of nozzle feed conduits extending therefrom, a fuel feed
conduit communicating with said chamber and with a fuel
combustion engine having a plurality of cylinders and an
intake manifold communicating therewith, a fuel distribu
source, a return ?ow conduit communicating with said
fuel feed conduit and said source, a ?rst adjustable meter_
tion chamber having a plurality of nozzle feed conduits
12. In a fuel injection system for use on an internal
extending therefrom, each of said conduits being adapted
ing means in said return ?ow conduit for varying the flow 10 to communicate with a nozzle communicating with a par
of return fuel therethrough, an accelerator means com
municating with said return flow conduit and said fuel
ticular cylinder on said engine, a fuel feed conduit con
necting said chamber to a fuel source, a return flow con
distribution chamber and manually operative to supply
duit communicating with said chamber and said source,
portions of the return fuel to said chamber to facilitate
an adjustable return flow metering means in said return
engine acceleration, a second adjustable metering means 15 flow conduit for varying the flow of return fuel and
in said fuel conduit for varying the flow of fuel to said
adapted to be operatively connected to said engine to be
fuel distribution chamber, said ?rst and second metering
come adjusted in response to changes in engine speed,
means being operatively connected to said engine, one of
load metering means in said fuel feed conduit located
said means being adjustable in response to changes in
intermediate said chamber and said return ?ow conduit
engine speed and the other of said means being adjustable 20 and adapted to be operatively connected to the intake
in response to changes in engine load.
manifold of said engine and being responsive, when so
10. In a fuel injection system for use on an internal
connected, to changes in intake manifold pressure to vary
combustion engine having a plurality of cylinders and an
the amount of fuel entering said chamber, pressure in
intake manifold communicating therewith, a fuel distribu
creasing means in said fuel feed conduit interposed be
tion chamber having a plurality of nozzle feed conduits ex 25 tween said load metering means and said chamber, said
tending therefrom, each of said conduits being adapted to
pressure increasing means being adapted to allow metered
communicate with a nozzle communicating with a particu
fuel to pass to said chamber when said metered fuel
lar cylinder through said intake manifold on said engine,
reaches a predetermined pressure, and a load metered
a fuel feed conduit connecting said chamber to a fuel
fuel conduit connecting said return ?ow metering means
source, a return ?ow conduit communicating with said
and said distribution chamber to continuously adjust the
fuel conduit and said source, an accelerator fuel pump
fuel pressures in said fuel feed conduit and said chamber
communicating with said return flow conduit to receive
to insure a flow of fuel into said chamber at a rate which
is proportional to engine speed.
fuel therefrom and with said distribution chamber to dis
charge fuel thereto, said accelerator pump adapted to be
13. In a fuel injection system for an internal combus
operatively connected to a throttle on said engine to op 35 tion engine having an intake manifold, a fuel distribution
crate in response to movements of said throttle, an ad
chamber having a plurality of nozzle feed conduits ex
justable return flow metering means in said return ?ow
tending therefrom, each of said conduits being adapted
conduit for varying the ?ow of return fuel to said source
for connection to a particular fuel injection nozzle mount
and adapted to be operatively connected to. said engine to
ed on a particular portion of said engine intake manifold,
become adjusted in response to changes in engine speed,
a load metering ori?ce on said chamber communicating
load metering’ means in said fuel feed conduit located
with a fuel source through a feed conduit, a pressure
intermediate said chamber and said return ?ow conduit
responsive load sensor carrying a load metering needle
and adapted to be operatively connected to the in
which is movable toward and away from said load
take manifold of said engine and being responsive,
metering ori?ce to close and open same respectively, said
when so connected, to changes in intake manifold pres 45 load sensor adapted to be operatively connected to the
sure to vary the amount of fuel entering said chamber.
intake manifold of said engine and being responsive to
11. In a fuel injection system for use on an internal
changes in manifold pressure to move said load metering
combustion engine having a plurality of cylinders and
needle with respect to said load metering ori?ce, a return
an intake manifold communicating therewith, a fuel dis—
?ow conduit connected to said fuel source and commu
tribution chamber having a plurality of nozzle feed con 50 nicating with said fuel feed conduit intermediate said
duits extending therefrom, ,each oftsaid conduits being
fuel source and said chamber, a return fiow metering
adapted to communicate with a nozzle communicating
ori?ce in said return ?ow conduit, and a speed sensor
with a particular cylinder of said engine, a fuel feed con
carrying a return ?ow metering member having a ?at
duit connecting said chamber to a fuel source, a return
disc shaped end movable toward and away from said
?ow conduit communicating with said chamber and said 55 ori?ce to close and open the same respectively, said speed
source, an adjustable return flow metering means in said
sensor being adapted for connection to said engine and
return flow conduit for varying the flow of return fuel
responsive to changes in engine speed to move said
and adapted to be operatively connected to said engine to
return flow metering member with respect to said ori?ce.
become adjusted in response to changes in engine speed,
14. In a fuel injection system for use on an internal
an accelerator fuel pump positioned in said return flow 60 combustion engine having a plurality of cylinders and
conduit to receive fuel therefrom and be surrounded
an intake manifold communicating therewith, a fuel dis
thereby, said pump communicating with said distribu~
tribution chamber having a plurality of nozzle feed con
tion chamber through an outlet valve to discharge fuel
duits extending therefrom, each of said conduits being
thereto, said outlet valve being operatively associated with
adapted to communicate with a nozzle communicating
a pressure responsive diaphragm to open and allow fuel to 65 with a particular cylinder, a fuel feed conduit connecting
said chamber to a fuel source, a return ?ow conduit com
pass to said distribution chamber when the fuel within the
municating with said chamber and said source, an adjust
pump reaches a predetermined pressure, load metering
able return flow metering means in said return flow con
means in said fuel feed conduit located intermediate said
duit for varying the flow of return fuel and adapted to
chamber and said return ?ow conduit and adapted to be
operatively connected to the intake manifold of said 70 be operatively connected to said engine to become adjusted
engine and being responsive, when so connected, to
in response to changes in engine speed, load metering
means in said fuel feed conduit located intermediate said
changes in intake manifold pressure to vary the amount
chamber and said return ?ow conduit and adapted to be
of fuel entering said chamber, and means connecting said
operatively connected to the intake manifold of said
return flow metering means and said distribution cham~ 75 engine and being responsive when so connected to changes
aozasao
13
16
in intake manifold pressure to vary the amount of fuel
entering said chamber, said load metering means compris
positioned intermediate said load metering ori?ce and said
distribution chamber and responsive to return fuel pres~
ing a load metering member linked to a movable piston
for movement therewith with respect to a load metering
ori?ce positioned between said chamber and said fuel
sure to increase the fuel pressure throughout the system.
17. In a fuel injection system for an internal com
bustion engine, a fuel distribution chamber in communi~
feed conduit, said piston being slidable in a housing in
cation with said engine for supplying fuel thereto, a fuel
feed conduit communicating with said chamber and with
response to manifold pressure transmitted into said hous
ing, and a load metered fuel conduit connecting said
return flow metering means and said distribution chamber
to continuously adjust the fuel pressures in said fuel feed
conduit and said chamber to insure a ?ow of fuel into
a source of fuel, a return ?ow conduit communicating
with said fuel feed conduit at a location upstream of said
distribution chamber and also communicating with said
source to return fuel thereto, return flow metering means
in said fuel feed conduit responsive to the speed of said
said chamber at a rate which is a function of engine speed.
engine to control the ?ow of fuel through said return flow
15. In a fuel injection system for an internal combus
conduit to said source, and load metering means in said
tion engine, an intake manifold connected to said engine,
said manifold having a central chamber mounting a 15 fuel feed conduit downstream of said return ?ow metering
means and responsive to engine load for controlling the
throttle valve therein, a plurality of manifold branches
flow of fuel to said distribution chamber.
extending from said central chamber and communicating
18. In a fuel injection system for an internal combus
with separate cylinders of said engine, a plurality of fuel
tion engine, a fuel distribution chamber in communication
injection nozzles mounted on separate ones of said mani
fold branches, a fuel distribution chamber having a plu 20 with said engine for supplying fuel thereto, a fuel feed
conduit communicating with said chamber and with a
rality of nozzle feed conduits extending therefrom and
source of fuel, a return ?ow conduit communicating with
communicating with separate ones of said fuel injection
said fuel feed conduit at a location upstream of said
nozzles, a fuel feed conduit connecting said distribution
distribution
chamber and also communicating with said
chamber to the outlet of a fuel source, a return ?ow con
duit communicating with said fuel feed conduit through 25 source to return fuel thereto, an accelerator pump sub
merged in said return flow conduit and adapted to be
a return flow metering ori?ce and connecting to said fuel
manually operated to supply return ?ow fuel to said en
source, a load sensor communicating with said central
gine for acceleration, return ?ow metering means in said
chamber of said manifold downstream of said throttle
fuel feed conduit responsive to the speed of said engine
valve, said load sensor being positioned on said fuel feed
conduit between said return flow conduit and said distri 30 for controlling the flow of fuel through said return ?ow
conduit to said source, and load metering means in said
bution chamber and responsive to changes in engine load
fuel feed conduit downstream of said return ?ow metering
to vary the fuel flow into said distribution chamber, a
means and responsive to engine load to control the ?ow of
speed sensor in said fuel conduit having a return ?ow
fuel to said distribution chamber.
metering needle carried by a ?exible diaphragm, said
19. In a fuel injection system for an internal combus
35
needle being movable with respect to said return flow
metering orifice to regulate the ?ow of fuel therethrough,
said speed sensor being operatively connected to said en
tion engine, a fuel distribution chamber in communication
with said engine for supplying fuel thereto, a fuel feed
conduit communicating with said chamber and with a
source of fuel, a return ?ow conduit communicating with
fuel through said return flow conduit, said distribution 40 said fuel feed conduit at a location upstream of said
distribution chamber and ‘also communicating with said
chamber and said ?exible diaphragm of said speed sensor
source to return fuel thereto, return ?ow metering means
being operatively connected through a load metered fuel
responsive to the speed of said engine for controlling the
conduit so that the pressure of the fuel in said distribution
?ow of fuel in said return ?ow conduit to said source,
chamber is transmitted to said speed sensor to regulate
metering means in said fuel feed conduit downstream
the position of said needle with respect to said return ?ow 45 load
of said return ?ow metering means and responsive to
ori?ce and provide a ?ow of fuel into said distribution
engine load for controlling the ?ow of fuel to said distri
chamber at a rate proportional to engine speed.
bution
chamber, and pressure increasing means in said
16. In afuel injection system for an internal combus
fuel feed conduit downstream of said load metering means
tion engine having an intake manifold, a fuel distribution
for maintaining the fuel pressure within the system above
chamber having aplurality of nozzle feed conduits eX 50
a minimum value.
tendingtherefrom, each said conduit ‘being adapted for
20. In a fuel injection system for an internal com
connection to a single fuel injection nozzle mounted on a
bustion engine, a fuel distribution chamber in communi
gine andbeing responsive to changes in engine speed to
move said return ?ow metering needle and vary the how of
particular portion of said engine intake manifold, a load
metering ori?ce connecting said chamber with a fuel
source, a-load sensor having a load metering needle mov
able toward and awayfrom said fuel metering ori?ce to
demand open the same to regulate the ?ow of fuel
thcrethrough, an adjustable linkage connecting said
cation with said engine for supplying fuel thereto, a fuel
feed conduit communicating with said chamber and with
a source of fuel, a return flow conduit communicating
with said fuel feed conduit at a location upstream of said
distribution chamber and also communicating with said
source to return fuel thereto, return flow metering means
needle with said load sensor, said load sensor having
responsive to the speed of said engine for controlling the
means thereon responsive to changes in atmospheric tem 60 flow of fuel in said return ?ow conduit to said source, and
perature and pressure, said load sensor also having piston
load metering means in said fuel feed conduit downstream
means thereon responsive to changes in engine load and
of said return flow fuel metering means, said load meter
adapted to be operatively connected to the engine intake
ing means comprising a load metering member carried by
manifold, a return ?ow conduit connected to said fuel
source and said chamber, a return ?ow metering ori?ce in
said return flow conduit, and a speed sensor carrying a
return ?ow metering disc shiftable with respect to said
return ?ow metering ori?ce to-regulate the ?ow of fuel
therethrough, said speed sensor being adapted for connec
tion to said engine and responsive to changes in engine
speed to shift said disc with respect to said return flow
metering, ori?ce, an accelerator pump submerged in said
return ?ow conduit and responsive to engine accelerator
movement to provide the engine with additional fuel from
a movable piston operatively connected to the low pres
sure portion of said engine intake manifold and responsive
to engine load for controlling the flow of fuel to said
distribution chamber.
21. In a fuel injection system for an internal combus
tion engine, a fuel distribution chamber in communication
with said engine for supplying fuel thereto, a fuel feed
conduit communicating with said chamber and with a
source of fuel, a return flow conduit communicating with
said fuel feed conduit at a location upstream of said dis
tribution chamber and also communicating with said
saidreturn?owconduit, and a pressure increasing means 75 source to return fuel thereto, return ?ow metering means
17
3,026,860
18
in said fuel feed conduit responsive to the speed of said
engine for controlling the flow of fuel in said return flow
23. In a fuel injection system for an internal combus
tion engine, a fuel distribution chamber in communica
conduit to said source, said return ?ow metering means
tion with said engine for supplying fuel thereto, a fuel
comprising a flat disc valve operatively connected to a
feed conduit communicating with said chamber and with
governor means driven from said engine, and load meter 5 a source of fuel, a return ?ow conduit communicating
ing means in said fuel feed conduit downstream of said
return flow fuel metering means and responsive to engine
load for controlling the flow of fuel to said distribution
chamber.
with said fuel conduit at a location upstream of said
distribution chamber and also communicating with said
source to return fuel thereto, return ?ow metering means
responsive to the speed of said engine for controlling the
22. In a fuel injection system for an internal com 10 ?ow of fuel in said return ?ow conduit to said source,
bustion engine, an intake manifold on said engine, a fuel
and load metering means carrying a load metering mem
distribution chamber in communication with said mani
ber in said fuel conduit downstream of said return ?ow
fold for supplying fuel thereto, a fuel feed conduit com
metering means and operatively connected to said engine
municating with said chamber and with a source of fuel,
to adjust the position of said metering member in re
a return flow conduit communicating with said fuel feed
sponse to changes in engine load, said load metering
conduit at a location upstream of said distribution cham
means having an atmospheric pressure and temperature
ber and also communicating with said source to return
sensor adapted to adjust in response to changes in atmos—
fuel thereto, return flow metering means responsive to
the speed of said engine for controlling the flow of fuel
pheric pressure and temperature, said adjustments being
effective to exert a force on said load metering member
in said return ?ow conduit to said source, and load 20 to vary the ?ow of fuel to said distribution chamber.
metering means in said fuel feed conduit downstream of
said return ?ow metering means, said load metering
References Cited in the file of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
means comprising a metering member carried by a mov
able piston operatively connected to the low pressure
portion of said intake manifold, said metering member
being adjustably connected to said movable piston and
responsive to engine load for controlling the ?ow of fuel
to said distribution chamber.
25
2,136,959
2,410,773
2,589,788
2,623,509
2,673,556
Win?eld ____________ __.
Chandler ___________ __
Fell ________________ __
Gold et a]. __________ ..
Reggio ______________ __
Nov.
Nov.
Mar.
Dec.
15,
5,
18,
30,
1938
1946
1952
1952
Mar. 30, 1954
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