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Патент USA US3026922

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March 27, 1962
w. WADE
SHUTTLE PROPELLING MECHANISM FOR LOOMS
Filed‘Maroh 12, 1958
3,026,912
United States Patent ()??ce
‘i
3,026,912
SHUTTLE PRUWELLING MECHANISM
FOR LOOMS
Worth Wade, Rosenront, Pa, assignor to American Vis
cose Corporation, Philadelphia, Pa, a corporation of
Delaware
Filed Mar. 12, 1958, Ser. No. 720,910
13 Claims. ((11. 139-142)
3,®Zh,9l2
Patented Mar. 2?’, 1962,
2
convertible looms or non-convertible looms having shuttle
magazines. Likewise, it may be used with shuttles which
do not carry a bobbin but which are provided with means
for gripping the end of the ?lling yarn and carry it across
the weaving machine by drawing the yarn directly from
a large package. It will be further understood that the
teachings of the invention disclosed herein are equally
adapted for use with any of the various modi?cations. of
shuttle propelling means disclosed in my above noted
The invention relates to explosive powered shuttle 10 patents.
mechanisms, and particularly to an apparatus for regulat
According to the present invention, there is provided
ing the movement of a reciprocating shuttle propelled by
a shuttle driving mechanism for looms comprising means
arrangements as described in my United States Patents
for reciprocating the shuttle through the weaving shed
2,682,895 and 2,784,743.
between ?rst and second positions by means of an'ex—
In my prior patents noted, there is described for the 15 plosive force, time delay means actuated by the move
?rst time mechanisms for looms whereby a shuttle may
ment of the shuttle itself for controlling explosive detona
be propelled along its reciprocating path by the impact
tions to a predetermined sequence, and means for par
tially absorbing the explosive impact so as to regulate the
initial speed of the shuttle as it is propelled from one of
teachings, the long sought aims of the textile industry 20 the ?rst or second positions.
of increased production speeds and woven fabrics of
In one embodiment of the invention, the time delay
greater width may now be realized.
mechanism comprises a mechanical arrangement which
Weaving with conventional looms is somewhat restricted
includes a pair of articulated arms set in motion by the
'by the speed of the loom shedding mechanism which, as
movement of the the shuttle itself and serving to oscil
understood by those skilled in the art, operates a harness 25 late a rotatable disk. A contact is carried on the pe
to separate the warp threads and form a shed for the
riphery of the disk and engages with a detonating mecha
passage of a shuttle. The shedding mechanisms of exist
nism after the disk has oscillated through a predeter
ing looms thus require a de?nite and unvarying time
mined arc. In the second embodiment of the invention,
period to effect harness reciprocation before the shuttle
a thyratron, cooperating with a pulse forming network,
is again passed through the weaving shed. However, it
serves to energize a spark plug through a conventional
is highly desirable to incorporate into conventional loom
ignition coil, while in the third embodiment, detonation
constructions, the advantageous and novel shuttle propel
control is obtained through an electrical circuit contain
ling systems disclosed in ‘my United States patents, and
ing a bead thermistor. Since the yarn carried or gripped
therefore it is a primary object of the present invention
by the shuttle has a tendency to break or at least become
of an explosive material, which may be either in a solid,
liquid, or gaseous form. As a result of these inventive
to provide arrangements for regulating the reciprocating
travel of an explosively propelled shuttle.
Another object of the invention is to provide an appa
weakened if the shuttle is initially propelled at too rapid
a speed, the invention also relates to means for partially
absorbing the explosion impact, which in one embodiment
ratus for propelling a shuttle through a loom at pre-
consists of an energy dissipating spring, and in a second
determined time intervals.
embodiment as a double acting dashpot.
Still another object is to provide means for effecting 40
Referring to FIGUE 1, there is shown one example of
a time delay between successive reciprocating passes of
a shuttle driving mechanism wherein a liquid propellant
an explosively propelled shuttle to enable the loom shed
is utilized for driving a shuttle 14 through its reciprocat
ding agency to perform its intended function.
ing path. As heretofore mentioned, the shedding mecha
Still another object is the provision of means for par
nism operates to form a weaving shed which extends
tially absorbing the initial impact of‘ an exploding shuttle 45 across the loom and through which the shuttle is pro
propelling medium.
pelled. At each end of the weaving shed there is a du
A further and more speci?c object of the invention is
plicate structure comprising a shuttle receiving box nor
to provide means for adapting an explosively powered
mally having spring loaded walls which snugly engage
shuttle to existing loom constructions.
with the shuttle and retard its forward movement. The
These and other objects and advantages of the inven 50 shuttle driving device per se comprises a cylinder or com
tion will be apparent from the following description and
bustion chamber 15 within which a piston 17 is recipro
accompanying drawing in which:
cated by a rod 19. The piston rod 1% extends through
FIGURE -1 is a diagrammatic ‘illustration of a shuttle
the end wall of the combustion chamber 15 and terminates
driving mechanism incorporating a mechanical arrange
with a shuttle receiving cup 21, shaped to conform to
ment for delaying shuttle propulsion after each of its 55 the tapered end of the shuttle 14. As with the usual in
successive reciprocating passes across a loom;
FIGURE 2 is a diagram of an electronic circuit for
ternal combustion engines, the cylinder 15 is provided
end of a shuttle propelling mechanism employing an im
which is actuated by articulated arms 27 and 259.
with exhaust ports, not shown, which remain closed dur
regulating explosive detonation of the shuttle driving
ing the explosion but open as the piston rod 19 is urged
mechanism shown in FIGURE 1 to predetermined time
into its outermost position as shown at the right side of
intervals;
60 FIGURE 1.
FIGURE 3 is a diagram of an alternative electrical
With the embodiment illustrated in FIGURE 1, a ?uid
circuit employing a thermistor element;
propellant is introduced into the chamber 15 through a
FIGURE 4 is a diagrammatic representation of one
delivery line 23 and a metering valve 25, the latter of
pact absorbing arrangement for controlling the shuttle
acceleration; and
FIGURE 5. is a fragmentary view, partly in section,
of a modi?ed impact absorbing means.
The shuttle propelling mechanisms, with or without the
The
arm 29 and piston rod 19 are connected at so to coordi
nate the fluid propellant delivery with the movement of
the piston rod 19. Detonation of the ?uidpropellant in
troduced into the cylinder 15 may be accomplished by
any suitable menas, such as an electric spark, an instan?
time delay and impact absorbing arrangements of’ the 70 taneously reacting heating element, or a second ?uid
present invention, may be used with any type of weaving
which, when combined with the ?uid initially delivered,
machine, or loom, regardless of whether or not they are
sets o?f‘ an explosive reaction. However, for the sake of‘
8,026,912
3
4
illustration and ease of description, the detonating means
is shown as a conventional spark plug 31, electrically
illustrated in FIGURE 2. The diagrammatic representa
connected to a suitable source by wires 33 and having an
energization switch 35.
Energization or triggering of the spark plug 31 at the
tion of FIGURE 2 actually consists of a number of indi
vidual circuits or networks which, when combined, pro
vide the desired time delay system. Therefore, for ease
of description, the circuit of FIGURE 2 has been broken
down into a series of networks denoted as A, B, C and D.
exact desired instant is effected through articulated arms
The network A includes an electric source 49 and a
37 and 39, which are pivotally secured to each other at
switch 51, the latter of which is disposed along the shuttle
41 and slidably connected to a rotatable disk 43. The
path and is actuated by the shuttle as it reciprocates to
arm 37 is attached to the piston rod 19 at 45, while the
slidable connection between the arm 39 and the disk 43 10 and from its terminal positions. A resistor 53 and a
capacitor 55 form the circuit shown at B, while the ampli
includes a pin or shoe 47 ?xed to the end of the arm 39
tude comparator and trigger, network C, includes a thy
and adapted to ride within an arcuate slot 48 formed in
ratron 57 having its grid 59 biased by a resistor 61 and
the disk 43. A pin or contact 49 projects outwardly
battery 63 and electrically connected with the resistor
from the periphery of the disk 43 and serves to complete
the electrical circuit to the spark plug 31 through the 15 capacitance circuit B. The thyratron plate 65 controls
the ignition circuit D comprising a pulse-forming network
switch 35 when it engages therewith.
67, consisting of a coil 69 and a capacitor 71, a conven
With reference to the left hand side of FIGURE 4,
tional ignition coil 73, and the spark plug 31. The thy
it will be apparent that as the shuttle 14 first enters the
ratron cathode 75 is heated in a conventional manner
cup 21, the piston rod 19 will be in its outer-most posi
tion with respect to the cylinder 15 and the pin 47 will 20 while the plate 65 is connected to a suitable voltage source
through a resistor 76.
be engaged with the left end of the slot 48. As the piston
In the operation, the movement of the shuttle 14 toward
rod moves through its compression stroke, the pin 47 will
and into one of its terminal positions actuates the switch
urge the disk 43 in a counterclockwise direction. Con
comitantly with the compressive movement of the piston
51 and completes the electrical circuit to the thyratron
rod 19, the exhaust ports are closed and the arms 27 and 25 57. After a desired and preselected time interval, the thy
ratron 57 is triggered to energize the spark plug 31
29 operate the metering valve 25 to introduce a unit quan
tity of propellant into the chamber 15. Once the com
pression stroke is completed, the pin 47 will of course
stop. The disk 43, however, will continue its counter
through the pulse-forming network 67 and the ignition
posite side of the loom, Where it automatically actuates
a propelling mechanism and detonation time delay device
both of these factors being satis?ed, the trailing edge of
the pulse, de?ned by the inductor 69 and 71, working in
in the same manner as just described.
to the coil or load 73 effects a quenching of the thyratron
coil 73.
For proper timing of the triggering of the thyratron,
clockwise movement under its own momentum until the 30 the components of the pulse-forming network (coil 69 and
capacitor 71) are so selected that the characteristic im
right end of the slot 48 engages with the pin 47. This
pedance (LC) of the network is relatively small with
continued movement of the disk 43, after the pin 47 has
respect to the resistance of plate resistor 76, of the order
stopped, serves to move the contact 49 into engagement
of about one-tenth of the resistance of the plate resistor
with the switch 35 and thus provides a desired time delay
between the end of the compression stroke and the actual 35 76, and the resistor 76 and capacitor 71 are so selected
that the time constant (RC) is relatively small with re
detonation of the propellant delivered by the line 23.
spect to the time interval between closings of the switch
At the instant of explosion, the shuttle 14 is driven across
51, of the order of about one-?fth of such time. With
the lay board and through the weaving shed to the op
57 at the desired time after the propellant explosion has
taken place.
Variation in the detonation time delay may be obtained
explosion, the pin 47 will time the disk 43 in a clockwise
direction. Once this expansion stroke is completed, the 45 by changing the electrical components, such as the thy
ratron tube 57, or by altering the position of the switch
piston rod 19 and the pin 47 will of course stop. The
51 along the loom lay board. As the shuttle is explosive
momentum of the disk 43, however, will again cause the
1y propelled out from one of its terminal positions, its
disk 43 to continue its movement until the left end of
movement against theadjacent switch 51 opens the elec
the slot 48 is engaged with the pin 47. It will be thus
noted that the momentum of the disk 43, during its clock 50 trical circuit, and it is therefore apparent that this second
modi?cation of the invention facilitates the desired shuttle
wise movement, moves the same in a desired position for
pause at the end of each of its reciprocating passes, and
actuation during the compression stroke.
frrther maintains the synchronous passage of the shuttle
One important aspect of the present invention is the
by relying upon the shuttle itself for opening and closing
control maintained over the propellant detonating means.
This insures that the explosion occurs at the desired in 55 the time delay electric circuit.
A third embodiment of the present invention is illus
stant, and only after a predetermined period of time has
trated by the circuit of FIGURE 3, wherein an electric
elapsed after the piston .rod 19 is initially started along
source 77 serves to operate a relay 79 through a bead
its compressive stroke. .It will be observed that while
thermistor 81 when a switch 83 is closed by the shuttle
the piston rod 19 is moved fairly rapidly through its
compressive stroke, the actual detonation of the ?uid 60 14. The relay 79 actuates the ignition circuit, such as
shown at D in FIGURE 2, to energize a spark plug and
propellant is delayed until the contact or pin 49 engages
set off the explosion of the ?uid propellant. As gener
with the switch 35. With this arrangement, the shuttle
As the piston rod 19 at the left side of FIGURE 1
moves toward its outermost position during the propellant
ally understood, a thermistor has a very high negative
14 remains at one end of the lay board for a time period
temperature coefficient of resistance, and thus its current
su?‘icient to allow the loom shedding mechanism to per
form its necessary function. The required momentary 65 conducting capacity increases with its temperature.
Therefore, while the movement of the shuttle closes the
pause of the shuttle will depend, for example, upon the
switch 83 to complete the electrical path, spark plug en
particular loom employed and therefore it may be desir
ergization is delayed until the thermistor is heated to
able to alter the detonation delay time, for instance, by
relocating the contact 49 relative to the disk periphery
such a degree as to conduct su?icient current to actuate
and/ or by providing the disk 43 with a desired weight so 70 the relay 79. To eliminate any tendency for the thermis
tor to destroy itself, a tungsten lamp 85 is interposed in
as to regulate its momentum, and/or by altering the
series with the thermistor and the relay for consuming
'
any excess electrical energy. As with the last described
In lieu of the mechanical arrangement illustrated in
embodiment of the invention, the electrical circuit com~
FIGURE 1, control of the fluid propellant detonation may
be also obtained by an electronic time delay network as 75 ponents of FIGURE 3 may be changed to vary the period
length of the slot 48.
3,026,912
.
5v
of detonation delay, or alternatively the switch-.83 may
be relocated relative to the loom lay board.
As heretofore mentioned, initial propulsion of the.
shuttle from its terminal positions at too rapid, a speed
has a tendency to snap the yarn ?lling carried by the
6
as it enters a shuttle receiving cut, is partially absorbed
in- again forcing the hydraulic ?uid 111 through the piston
apertures 113. Therefore,‘ this embodiment has particular
utility when a relatively large explosive impact is neces
shuttle, thereby breaking or undesirably weakening the
sary to propel the shuttle across a wide loom and Where
it is necessary to retard the shuttle movement as it enters
same. To eliminate this objection, I have provided means
for absorbing a portion of the explosion impact so as to
control the initial speed of the shuttle as it leaves its ter
its terminal position to prevent damage to the explosive
propelling mechanism itself.
To reduce noise, the explosive chamber may be pro
minal positions. These means are illustrated in FIGURES 10 vided with a silencer of conventional type as used on
4 and 5 and may be used with explosive propelling
as disclosed in the present application, regardless of
ordnance, and to reduce fumes resulting from the ex
plosions, the loom may be provided'with an air exhaust
duct which is customary in modern weaving mills.
whether or not such mechanisms are provided with a
From the above description, it will be apparent that
mechanisms as described in my recently issued patents or
time delay system as shown in any of the FIGURES l—3. 15 the detonation time delay devices adapt my explosive
For the sake of consistency, however, these impact ab
shuttle propelling mechanisms for use with conventional
sorbing devices are hereafter described as being applied
loom constructions, and that the impact absorbing means
to the propelling mechanism shown in FIGURE 1. With
insure satisfactory operation without risk of damage to
reference to FIGURE 4, the arrangement there shownv
the ?lling yarn, the shuttle, or the loom itself.
includes a coiled compression spring 87 encircling the
It is to be understood that changes and variations may
piston rod 19 and secured at its ends to stop plates 89
be made without departing from the spirit or scope of the
and 91. The plate 8h is ?xed at 93 to the piston rod 19,
invention as de?ned in the appended claims. While the
while the plate 91 is carried by but slidable relative to the
time-delay mechanism of this invention has been illuc
piston rod for purposes as hereafter described. As the
trated in combination with shuttles powered by fluid pro
shuttle 14 enters its terminal position shown- in FIGURE 25 pellants it is- to be understood that the same time~delay
4, the piston rod 19 moves through its compressive stroke,
means may be used with shuttles powdered by use of solid
carrying with it the stop plates 89 and, 91 and the coil
explosives as described in my prior Patent No. 2,682,895.
spring 87. During this movement, the stop plate 859 rides
This application is a continuation-in-part of my appli
along a bearing surface 95 of a lever 97 pivoted to a
cation Serial No. 646,094, ?led March 14, 1957, now
?xed support 99, thereby tilting the lever 97 in a counter
abandoned.
clockwise direction against the action of a tension spring
I claim:
101 and elevating a pawl 163 into position as shown in
1. A mechanism for propelling a, shuttle in a loom bee
FIGURE 4. Preferably, a spring, not shown, maintains‘
tween ?rst and second terminal positions including a shut
the pawl 103 in its upright position as shown and allows
tle, means at the ?rst and second terminal positions op-.
the same to be depressed only as the plate 91 moves to 35 erative in alternate relationship for exploding a propel
the left.
lant, means at the ?rst and second terminal positions, actu—
As the ?uid propellant is exploded within the cylinder
15, the piston 17 and rod 1“)- are urged through their
ated by such explosion for propelling said shuttle, means
explosive stroke to propel the shuttle 14 to the other of
end terminal positions for operating said propellant ex-_
actuated by said shuttle as it moves into the ?rst and sec
its extreme positions. With this outward travel of the 4.0 ploding means, and means interposed between said shut
piston rod 19, the movement of the stop plate 91 is ob
tle actuated means and said propellant exploding means
structed by the pawl 103, while the stop plate 89 con
for delaying explosion of the propellant for a predeter
tinues to move with the rod 19, thereby compressing the
mined time period after said shuttle is received within
spring 87 between’ the plates 89- and 91. The explosive
said ?rst and second terminal positions.
impact is thus utilized to both compress the spring 87 and 45
2. A mechanism as de?ned in claim 1 further including
propel the shuttle 14, thereby insuring that the shuttle
a dashpot for partially absorbing the explosion impact
will be started on its ?ight at a lower speed than hereto
fore possible with an explosive driving means. As the
as it is applied to the shuttle.
3. A mechanism for propelling a shuttle in a loom
comprising a shuttle, means for exploding a propellant,
stop plate 89 moves slightly to the right of its dotted line
position shown in FIGURE 4, it leaves the surface 95, 50 means actuated by said explosion for propelling said
allowing the spring 101 to pivot the lever 97 clockwise
shuttle, a rotatable disk, means carried by said last-men
and disengage the pawl 103 from the stop plate 91. The
tioned means for oscillating said disk, and means carried
spring 37 then expands into its equilibrium condition,
by said disk for actuating said ?rst-mentioned means
dissipating its stored energy. While the impact absorb
after said disk has been oscillated through a predeter
ing arrangement disclosed in FIGURE 4 serves well to 55 mined arc.
cushion a portion of the thrust of the exploding ?uid, it
4. A mechanism as de?ned in claim 3 further including
will be observed that this arrangement does not retard
a shock absorbing agency positioned adjacent to said
the movement of the piston rod 19 through its compres
shuttle propelling means, and means carried by said
sive stroke, and therefore does not impair or in any way
shuttle propelling means for transmitting a portion of the
modify the normal function of the explosive propelling 60 explosion impact to said shock absorbing agency.
mechanism or its detonation time delay system.
5. A mechanism as de?ned in claim 1 further includ
The alternative impact absorbing means disclosed in
ing a shock absorbing agency positioned adjacent to said
FIGURE 5 includes a piston 167 ?xed to the piston rod
shuttle propelling means, and means carried by said shut
19 which passes through the end walls of a cylinder 109.
tle propelling means for transmitting a portion of the
The cylinder 16?} is ?lled with a hydraulic fluid 111 while
explosion impact to said shock absorbing agency.
the piston 167 is provided with a series of apertures 113.
6. A mechanism as de?ned in claim 1 further including
The structure of FIGURE 5 is, in effect, a double acting
a resilient member disposed adjacent to each of said ?rst
dashpot, and during use the explosive impact is used to
and second positions, and means operative by said second
both drive the piston 107 and rod 19‘ to the right and
mentioned means for transmitting a portion of the ex- .
force the hydraulic ?uid through the piston apertures 113 70 plosive impact to the respective resilient members dur
from one side of the cylinder to the other. The excess
ing the initial movement of said second mentioned means
force is thus dissipated by the ?uid and the shuttle is
to thereby control the initial propulsion of said shuttle.
propelled at a desirable starting speed without danger of
7. A mechanism for propelling a shuttle in a loom be
snapping the ?lling yarn. An added advantage of this
tween ?rst and second terminal positions including a
last described structure is that the thrust of the shuttle 14, 75 shuttle, a detonator at each of the ?rst and second termi
3,026,912
7
8
nal positions operative in alternate relationship for ex
a ?rst plate ?xed to said rod, a second plate slidably
carried by said rod, a compression spring interposed be
ploding a propellant, means at the ?rst and second termi
nal positions actuated by such explosion for propelling
said shuttle, an ignition coil for energizing each of said
detonators, means adapted to be actuated by said shuttle
tween and connected to said plates, means for obstructing
the movement of said second plate when said rod is
actuated by the explosion whereby a portion of the ex
as it moves into the ?rst and second terminal positions
plosive impact is absorbed in compressing said spring by
for operating said detonators through said ignition coil,
the said plates, and means for releasing said plate ob
and electrical means operatively connected between said
structing means as said rod completes its shuttle pro~
pelling movement to permit said spring to assume an
shuttle actuated means and said ignition coil for delay
ing explosion of the propellant for a predetermined time 10 equilibrium condition.
13. A mechanism for propelling a shuttle in a loom
period after said shuttle is received within said ?rst and
between ?rst and second terminal positions including a
second terminal positions.
shuttle, means at the ?rst and second terminal positions
8. A mechanism as de?ned in claim 7 wherein said
electrical means includes a thyratron and a pulse form
operative in alternate relationship for exploding a pro
ing network, said thyratron being electrically connected
pellant, means including a rod at each of the ?rst and
with said shuttle actuated means for operating said igni
second terminal positions actuated by such explosion for
tion coil through said pulse forming network, said pulse
forming network serving to quench the thyratron after
the explosion of the propellant by said detonator.
propelling said shuttle, means actuated by said shuttle
as it moves into the ?rst and second terminal positions
for operating said propellant exploding means, means
9. A mechanism as de?ned in claim 7 wherein said 20 interposed between said shuttle actuated means and said
electrical means includes a thermistor and a relay, said
thermistor being electrically connected with said shuttle
actuated means for operating said ignition coil through
said relay.
propellant exploding means for delaying explosion of the
propellant for a predetermined time period after said
shuttle is received within said ?rst and second terminal
positions and means for absorbing a portion of the ex
10. A mechanism as de?ned in claim 7 wherein said 25 plosive impact applied to said rods including a cylinder
disposed adjacent to each of the first and second terminal
electrical means includes a thyratron, a resistor-capaci
tance network electrically connected with the grid of the
thyratron and said shuttle actuated means, and a pulse
forming network electrically connected to the plate of
said thyratron and said ignition coil for quenching the
thyratron after the explosion of the propellant, and
wherein said detonators each include a spark plug.
11. A mechanism as de?ned in claim 7 wherein said
electrical means includes a thermistor, and a relay elec
trically connected between said thermistor and said igni 35
tion coil, and wherein said detonators each includes a
spark plug.
12. A mechanism for propelling a shuttle in a loom
comprising a shuttle, means for exploding a ?uid pro
pellant, a rod actuated by said explosion for propelling 40
said shuttle, means actuated by the movement of said
positions and through which said respective rods extend,
a piston connected to each of said rods for movement
within the respective cylinders, at least one opening ex
tending through each of said pistons, and a hydraulic
?uid contained within each of said cylinders for retard
ing the movement of said pistons and rods.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
Blundell _____________ __ I an. 6, 1903
2,146,611
Young _______________ __ Feb. 7, 1939
2,160,339
Moessinger ___________ __ May 30, 1939
2,365,090
2,784,743
Levine ______________ __ Dec. 12, 1944
Wade _______________ __ Mar. 12, 1957
shuttle for operating said propellant exploding means,
and means for absorbing a portion of the explosive impact
applied to said rod, said impact absorbing means including
I
717,965
FOREIGN PATENTS
1,126,732
France ______________ __ July 30, 1956
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