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Патент USA US3026965

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March 27, 1962
Filed Aug. 23, 1956
Ihre» far ~
United States Patent @hace
bination comprising the above-described spherical loud
speakerl enclosure with provisions for one loudspeaker
installed therein, comprising ya spherical shell y1, comprising
two hemispherical halves 2 and‘3, each comprising a -rigid
hemispherical shell of molded plastic or other suitable
Howard'L. Wilber, 1340 Knoxville St.,
vSian Diego 10, Calif.
Patented Mar. 27, 1962
FiledfAug. 23, 1956„Ser. No. 605,866
3 Claims. (Cl. 181-31.)
formable material I4` and S, a sound-absorbing liningl 6
This invention relates to loudspeakers and associated
and ’7, provisions'for'mounting loudspeakers therein com
loudspeaker enclosures, and'moreparticularly to the com
prising a, molded llat'surface on thelinner surface of the
bination of loudspeakers and'associated loudspeaker en
shell, a large hole 8 rounded outward from inside, av
closures, for an eíiicient means of combining the two into` 10 plurality of small holes 9v radially symmetrical about the
a working system, whereby the «design and application of
respective larger hole, and centered onl a radiusl larger
the enclosure primarilyy promotes the eñiciency ofthe
than theradius of hole 8, >a means of attaching the sound
combination, achieving appealing Vand satisfying audio
absorbing lining` 6 and 7 to the respective hemispherical
shells 4- and 5 comprising an adhesive 1i), a means of`V
An object of the invention is to provide a nearly perfect 15 attaching the loudspeakers therein to be mounted com
combination ofi loudspeaker and loudspeaker enclosure
prising suitable screws or other suitable attachments 11
working together in vcombination as a means of reproduc
and suitable nuts orA other suitable facsimile 12, and for
ing el'hciently, pleasantly, andsatisfyingly, sound waves
the purpose of illustration a loudspeaker 13, a protective
propagated by loudspeakers in `antunit that is durable,
grille `14 for said loudspeaker, and al means of ‘ attaching
long-lastingyinert to most elements, climatic conditions, 20 said grille comprising screws and .nuts 11 and 12 above
is decorative, versatile, light in weight, colorful in various
or other suitable means, a means of attaching the twof
color combinations, easy to produce economically, adapt
hemispherical halves together comprising a joining mem
able to many applications as a source of entertainment,`
ber 1S to receive vthe edges ofhalves 2 and 3 and allow
screws or other suitable attachments 16 ’to pass through
communication,information, intelligence, and’ education..
This invention is an improvement over allother .com
respective holes 1S through shell 2 _and 15, and shell >3
and vmember 15 respectively thus in combination with,
suitable. nuts .17 securely retaining. 2, 3, and 15 together
binations of loudspeakers and loudspeaker enclosures,
and loudspeakers and loudspeaker enclosures separately,
in that„being of >different concept .and application, fit pro
vides ‘more` eñicient, pleasant, and satisfying reproduction
of the audio spectrum.
In a speciñc embodiment of the invention herein ShownVv
into the combination shell 1, in a plurality of locations
around the diameter of shell 1, thus also giving a deco
rative trim to the shell 41, a means of access for the Wires»
fromassociated electrical equipment to be connected to
anddescribed for’the purpose ofr illustration, there is pro
theloudspeaker 13 comprising a hole 19 through half 2'
vided in combination: a loudspeaker enclosure of the
in_linite-balile> type, `spherical in shape„, Working. in com'
or optionally through haif 3 in a location that is optimum
for a particular installation of shell 1 depending upon the
bination with a loudspeaker or several loudspeakers
mounted `and attached> therein, a means of attaining the
orientation desired by the user, and -a two conductor
electrical wire 20 to connect loudspeaker 13 to associated
sperical enclosure comprising two fhemispherical halves,
eachî comprisingî a main rigid shell with provisions for
mounting and attaching loudspeakers for operation there
in, a means of protecting said loudspeakers from damage
comprising a protective grille for eachrespective loud
speaker mounted therein, a ,means` of attaching said grilles
into the combination, a sound-absorbing lining and a.
means tof; attachingsaid liningtosaidouter shell, a. means
electrical equipment for the‘purpose of operation of the
combination unit, a means of suspending saidl combina
40 tion comprising a suitable fixture 21 and 22 and a means
of _mounting said combination comprising a suitable stand
23. As shown in FIG. l, a tri-legged, stand with interi
connecting bands is preferred for styling and function.
FlG. 2 illustrates an elaboration of FIG. 1, and is
obtained »by cutting the combination shown as shell 1, in
of attaching the two hemispherical halves together in 45 FIG; 1, in a plane described by line 2,-24 and viewing
combination for. a. working unit comprising> a. joining
said combination at right `angles to said plane> described
member to receive .theedgesof .both hemispherical halves,
bysaid line 2_2.
and suitable meansofattachment comprising a- plurality
Sound, when propagated, radiates in spherical. Waves
or.' fasteners around .the.diameter of the spherical com
from a source in air (atmosphere). Consisting of areas
bination,v a means_of .connecting thev` above combination 50 of- compression and `rarelication betweenthe various wave
to associatedA electrical .equipment for operation compris
fronts, the» air particles develop a> complex acoustical
ing suitable electrical. wires, -and ameans-of access to the
pattern, travelling'spherically to and fro between the com
respective.loudspeakers-for said wires, a means of" sup
pressed and rarelied areas, depending. upon the nature of
porting .the combination for. operation comprising al lix
the propagated sound at the source. If a vibrating dia
ture for the attachment of a; rope, cable, chain, etc., to 55 phragm is used` as a source, e.g., adiaphragm of a direct-`
saidl combination, for the purpose of hangingsaid com
radiating type loudspeaker, driven by a program of elec
bination like a chandelier for suspended operation in a
trical` currentthrough its motor assembly, the vibrations
room, auditorium,` theatre, etc., or for optional operation
of «said diaphragm will be coupled‘to the surrounding air,
at .the _discretion ofthe user, a, suitable, mount 23 for said
both, in front and behind, the diaphragm. Coupling of
combination to rest upon, allowing the combination to 60 energy to the air takes place„and consequently, the en
be rotated into its optimum operating orientation in the
ergy coupled to the air in front of the diaphragm is 180°
place of operation, and provisions for decorative coloring
out of phase or in exact opposite direction to that coupled
for appealing color schemes.
to the air behind the diaphragm.
FIGURE l is an elevational view with parts broken
If sound waves, when propagated as described above,
away, FIGURE 2 is -a view taken along line 2-2 of FIG 65 in back of the diaphragm are not isolated from the sound
URE 1, and FIGURE 3 is a sectional view showing how
waves in front of the diaphragm, the two waves traveling
the hemispheres are connected.
in opposite spherical directions will cancel each other
In the accompanying illustrations, FIG. l illustrates
to a drastic extent when they interact as they travel past
basically the minimum concept for description of this
the edge of the diaphragm. The amount of cancellation
invention, showing provisions for the> above named com 70 depends upon frequency/ wavelength factor, and respective
travel/speed/frequency factor; in general, it is an ex~
tremely adverse situation. The desired goal is then, to
obtain the ultimate eflîciency throughout the audio spec
i However, with the spherical enclosure, the sound, when
emitted in front, radiates spherically, and it has the ex
terior spherical surface to support it. The wave has a
gradually-diminishing surface to travel upon and radiate
trum, of radiation from a direct-radiating type loud
, speaker,
The surface is of the same shape as the wave, a
If the loudspeaker is placed in an enclosure, so that
the edge of the diaphragm is as near to the outer surface
ofthe enclosure as possible, and the loudspeaker assembly
frame attached to this enclosure securely, the back of
hand-in-glove combination, so to speak, and provides
said loudspeaker thus being totally enclosed within said 10
ciated enclosure is attained.
I claim:
maximum dispersion of the wave, over a wider spherical
angle of radiation, and the ideal is thus accomplished.
The ultimate in operation of a loudspeaker and its asso
enclosure, the front sound wave is isolated from the rear
sound wave. The diaphragm is free to vibrate and
l. A combination loudspeaker and loudspeaker en
closure comprising a pair of hemispherical shells detach
ably secured together, a circumferential joining member
having grooves on either side thereof receiving the cir
cumferential edges of said shells, an outer wall of said
couple the sound it generates to the adjacent air in front,
and the rear sound wave is prevented from cancelling the
front sound wave because it is confined to the inside of
the enclosure.
The front wave is desired in its entirety, but the back
wave is not wanted, unless it can be inverted and broughtl
joining member being exposed to decoratively trim said
enclosure and to hide said circumferential edges from
view, and an inner wall engaging the inner surfaces of
possible by complex baffle arrangements, ducts, etc., as is 20 said circumferential edges, means for detachably engag
ing and securing said edges to said joining member, at
used in the wood-constructed types of enclosures, and
least one of said shells having an opening therein, a loud
only at certain frequencies, due to the frequency/wave
speaker mounted on the inner surface of said shell to
length, and frequency/speed factors. Some loudspeakers
about the periphery of said opening and a stand for sup
do use that method of phase inversion principle, but they
have a characteristic of “peaking” at certain frequencies, 25 porting said shells with said speaker in any desired posi
because of the above-mentioned factors, and so therefore,
2. A loudspeaker and loudspeaker enclosure combina
detract from a true dispersion of smooth response by re
out in front, in phase with the front wave. This is only
inforcing certain frequencies, and neglecting others.
With the front wave only being used, a smooth response
of the capabalities of a loudspeaker is attained, but what
happens to the back wave? If the enclosure is a box
tion as in claim 1 a flat molded shell inner surface ad
jacent the periphery of said opening, a speaker grille
30 covering said opening, said loudspeaker being mounted
on said inner surface, a plurality of apertures spaced
about said opening, retaining means inserted through said
shaped affair, with straight sides, even though the interior
apertures engaging and retaining said grille and loud
of the box is lined with a sound-absorbing material to ex
speaker over said opening, said enclosure having an im
pend the sound energy, the box must be made relatively
large, and even then, the parallel surfaces of the interior 35 perforate rear shell confining rear sound waves generated
by said speaker within said enclosure to prevent said
allow the sound to travel between them in what are
rear waves affecting front sound Waves generated by said
known as “standing waves.” These standing waves inter
fere with the operation of the loudspeaker cone in much
3. A loudspeaker and loudspeaker enclosure combina- l
the same manner as the interaction of the front and back
waves without the enclosure, so they must also be elim
tion as in claim 1, said joining member being sufliciently
ical shell has no parallel surfaces on its interior. Instead,
flush with the outer surface of said shells to permit rota
tion thereof, the outer surface of said one of said shells
serving as a sound board to angularly disperse front
sound waves from said loudspeaker.
ically equidistant from its center. A sound wave emitted
into its interior radiates spherically from its source, and
References Cited in the file of this patent
When the enclosure is a sphere, it is on its way to the
ideal, the ultimate, in a loudspeaker enclosure. A spher
it is a continuously-enveloping surface, all points spher 45
being reflected by the spherical wall of the interior cavity,
focuses into a point of self-cancellation vectorially at the
Complete cancellation 50
center of the spherical cavity.
takes place. This is the ideal, and also permits reduction
of the size of the spherical enclosure to an optimum, far
smaller than is possible with conventional box-shaped
The back wave has now been eliminated, and now the
front wave shall be considered. Outside, in front of the
loudspeaker, the front wave is radiating outward in a
spherical pattern from the diaphragm. In a box-shaped
enclosure, when it reaches the edge of a side, the surface
disappears to a sharp angle of usually 90° from the side 60
of propagation. The sound wave loses support from this
surface immediately upon reaching these edges and dif
fraction of the wave takes place, producing distortion
right at the source of radiation. The purpose of good,
efficient, clean, realistic sound is therefore defeated.
D. 100,697
Himmel ______________ __ Aug. 4, 1936
Craig _______________ __ Mar. 11, 1913
Geromanos __________ __ Aug. 30, 1932
_ 1,887,187
` 2,096,192
Quinby _______________ __ Nov. 8, 1932
Moore ______________ __ Oct. 19, 19‘37
Bilhuber ____________ __ June 21, 1938
Volk ______________ __ Nov. 29, 1938
Adams _______________ __ Feb. 7, 1939
Cahill ______________ __ June 13, 1939
McHose ____________ __ Mar. 27, 1951
Bonn ________________ __ Apr. 14, 1959
Great Britain ________ __ May 9, 1951
“Popular Mechanics” (publication), July 1956, page»
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