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Патент USA US3027399

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March 27, 1962
Filed June 25, 1958
„ÚENQ/AM/N Eli/awww@
Patented Mar'. 27, 1%62
Beniamin H. Thurman, 60 Gramercy Park N.,
New York, N.Y.
Filed .lune 23, 1958, Ser. No. '743,598
l1 Claims. (Cl. 260-425)
My invention relates to the refining of fatty oils and
Further objects and advantages will become apparent
to those skilled in the art lfrom the following description
of specific embodiments of the invention.
Referring to the drawing:
FIG. l is a simplified flow diagram showing the gen
eral principles of the concufreut-countercurrent process
of refining fatty oils in accordance with the invention;
FIG. 2 is a more complete flow diagram showing the
concurrent-countercurrent process preceded by a con
ess employing a centrifugal extractor.
10 current-concurrent preliminary treatment and illustrating
Centrifugal extractors of recent design have a series
diagrammatically some of the structure of the centrifugal
of concentric stages rotating at high speed about a hori
extractor; and
zontal axis. These stages are formed by concentric walls
FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional View of a centrifugal extrac
spaced radially from each other to form annular spaces
tor particularly well suited to the invention.
interconnected at 180° intervals by openings or slots.
Referring particularly to FlG. l, proportioning pumps
Such machines are designed for selective concurrent or
10 and 11 pressure streams of oil and alkali from tanks
countercurrent flow of two liquids with the purpose of
12 and 13 at relative volumes determined by the setting
contacting them intimately and separating the products.
of a control device 13a. rI'he streams may be adjusted
Such machines are characterized by small volumes, low
in temperature by respectively fiowing through heat ex
hold-ups and high throughputs which together result in 20 changers 14 and 15 or these heat exchangers can be by
short contact times.
passed by opening valves 16 and 17 in respective bypass
While these short times of contact are desirable in
some pharmaceutical processes they have prevented such
The streams mix at a junction 18 and may be addi
machines from being widely used in the refining of fatty
tionally mixed in a mixer 19 which may be equipped
oils except as they are used merely as centrifugal separa 25 with rotary paddles or other means to mix the constitu
tors. If an attempt is made to effect refining of a fatty
ents under turbulent conditions. From this point the
Voil by countercurrent fiow through the machine of the
mixture may fiow through a heat exchanger 20 where it
oil and an alkaline solution, the refining is not complete.
is heated or cooled to a temperature best suited to the
The normal gum content of the crude oil and the soaps
succeeding steps, which are countercurrent as compared
formed by the reaction between the alkali and the free 30 with the concurrent steps thus far described. The mixer
fatty acids of the oil seem to produce tight emulsions
19 or the heat exchanger Ztl or both can serve as a con
which cannot be efficiently separated into clear well-re
ditioning zone which maintains the mixture for a time
more particularly to a concurrent-countercurrent proc
fined oil on the one hand and low-free-oil soapstock on
sufficient to condition it for the succeeding centrifugal
treatment, toward which it flows through a pipe 2l.
multi-stage liquid-liquid extractors have not> become 35
This pipe 21 is connected to the light-liquid inlet 24
popular in the refining of crude glyceride oils.
of a countercurrent centrifugal extractor 25 of the multi
the other hand.
For these and other reasons centrifugal
Conventionally such crude glyceride oils are usually
refined by a continuous process in which the oil and the
stage type constituting a liquid-liquid contactor-separa
tor in which two liquids can be contacted and separated
alkali are mixed and flow together through a hold-up
while under a controlled centrifugal force. Within the
or conditioning zone where the emulsion breaks or is 40 centrifugal extractor 25 the oil is guided axially in a pas
conditioned for the subsequent separation. Even with
sage 26 (FIG. 2) and thence outwardly in a side pas
efficient centrifugal separation, such conventional refin
ing steps rarely produce oils containing less than 400
sage 27 to an outer- portion 2S of an extraction zone 30
formed within a housing 31.
ppm. of soap. Such oils must be Washed with water,
At the same time, a pump 34 withdraws an aqueous or
sometimes two or three times, to reduce the residual soap 45 Wash medium from a tank 35 and pressures or controls
to below 30 ppm.
the fiow of the resulting stream moving to the centrifugal
I have found that fatty oils can be efiiciently, thorough
extractor 25 through a pipe 36 connected to the heavy
ly and economically processed if one uses concurrent
liquid inlet 37 of the extractor. The housing 31 of the
mixing followed by countercurrent washing in a cen
extractor 25 is rotated at controlled speed about an axis
trifugal extractor. It is an important object of the in 50 A-A (FIGS. 1 and 2) by means of a drive 38, shown
vention to provide a process and apparatus operating in
diagrammatically. Conventionally, the pipes 2l and 36
accordance with these principles for purifying a fatty oil.
connect to passages in opposite ends of a shaft mounting
More specifically, it is an object of the invention to
the housing 3l and turning about the axis A-A, the
purify a crude or previously treated fatty oil by mixing
connection being through appropriate rotary seals.
therewith an alkali, advancing the constituents of the
The wash medium advances from the heavy-liquid inlet
mixture concurrently and under turbulence to a light
37 through a passage 40 (FiG. 2.) to an inner portion
liquid inlet of a centrifugal extractor while continuous
42 of the extraction zone 30. Here it is acted upon by
ly delivering to the heavy-liquid inlet thereof an aque
centrifugal force, aided if desired by the pressure of the
ous or washing medium, the mixture and the washing
pump 34 but in any event controlled thereby. Under such
medium counterliowing each other within the extractor 60 forces the wash medium advances outwardly through the
While under centrifugal stress. The washing medium ex
stages of the extractor to the outer portion 28 of the
tracts the soaps or other impurities from the oil in such
extraction Zone. This action, aided and/or controlled
manner as to produce an improved product. 'I'his se
by the pressure of the pumps iti and il, displaces the oil
quence may eliminate one or more succeeding washing
in such outer portion to flow inwardly through the stages
of the extractor to the inner portion 4t2.
A further object is to combine the optimum conditions
of concurrent mixing and conditioning with countercur
area thereof it leaves the extractor through the light-liquid
outlet passage 45 and the pipe 46 (FIG. 2) intercon
rent extraction of the soapstock in a zone of centrifugal
stress in such way as to accomplish a result superior to
nected by means of a rotary seal and forming a part of
the light-liqiud outlet 47 of the extractor. The now
From an exit
that possible with either concurrent mixing and separa 70 purified oil collects in a tank 4%.
tion alone or countercurrent mixing and separation in
The wash medium with the impurities picked up from
, the same zone.
p the oil is conducted inwardly from an exit karea of the
outer portion 2% through one or more side passages
50 and an axial passage 5l (FIG. 2) and from the
heavy-liquid outlet 5E, of the extractor. it enters a pipe
through26,a suitable
27, do, rotary
d'5, do,seal59and
:'ä'l oi’ inliiG.
a tank
2 are
indicated by correspondingly numbered arrows in FiG.
1 to show the general iiow pattern.
The concentric stages ot the extractor are at diiterent
liquid discharges into the wash medium as the latter is
about to enter the passages S0, diluting same and facilitat
ing its continuous exit from the machine.
Considering iirst the use of the invention in` the direct
alkali refining of glyceride oils, attempts to effect the en
tire refining in the centrifugal extractor by counterllowing
therethrough the crude oil and an alkali solution have not
proved commercially satisfactory. rïhe repeated mixing
extraction zone 30 between the inner and outer portions
of the soap with the oil in the several stages and the
over-all shortness of contact time in the machine are not
4t2 these
and 28stages
are formed
As shown
and between concentric
circular walls dit forming annular spaces 6i therebetween.
those crude oils containing more than 1% of free fatty
acids. Essentially the same is true of attempts to mix
radial positions, filling an intermediate portion of the
conducive to goed retining of glyceride oils, particularly
the oil and alkali outside the machine and use the ex
The annular spaces are interconnected at 180° intervals
by slots o2 through which the oil must liovv inwardly and 15 tractor merely as a centrifugal separator.
The present invention is based on a ñuding that glyc
the wash medium outwardly to elîect a dispersion or" one
in the other and produce an extensive area of contact of
the two liquids. This mixing action is repeated in the
slots at each radial position. At the same time, the
centrifugal force in each annular space el tends to sep
arate the dispersion formed by the adjoining slots.
The two liquids thus repeatedly mingle and separate
during their countercurrent tlow through the extraction
eride oils can be adequately and economically retined by
a concurrent mixing ahead of a centrifugal extractor,
followed by countertlowing the mixture with water or
other wash medium in the extractor to extract the soap
stock from the mixture. While of some utility on all
crude or degummed glyceride oils, rthe process of the in
vention is particularly well suited to the alkali refining
zone 30, indicated by the opposed arrows 6d and 65 of
of oils which are low in gums and free fatty acids. The
¿i2 and Ztl.
relatively strong caustic solution is preferred, typically
FiG. 1. ln each mixing or mingling step the predominant 25 alkali soapstocks thereof are readily picked up by the
counterliowing wash medium, which never contains any
action is believed to be a dispersion of the wash medium
large concentration of soap and has little tendency to
into the oil, albeit some dispersion of the oil into the
emulsify. For example, if the oil >contains only 0.1%
Wash medium may take place. The mixing in the presence
soap by weight and if 10% water is used as the wash
ot centrifugal force tends to eiîect rapid separation and
medium, the heavy-liquid effluent of the machine Will
prevent formation of stable emulsions.
contain only about 1% soap. Excellent results are ob
With water as the wash medium, the rotating liquid in
tained using the process in the reñning of crude nut oils,
the extraction Zone 3th is alternately water-continuous
eg. coconut, palm kernel and babassu oils, or degummed
and oil-continuous at ditierent radial positions, creating
vegetable oils, degummed soy bean oil, or other similar
what may be considered actual interfaces in each annular
space 61. Considering the entire extraction Zone 3b as Cr oils containing about 0.1-0.5 % gums and 0.05-0.8% free
Íatty acids, although the invention is not limited thereto.
a unit, there are in addition maior or principal interfaces
In the relining of such oils by caustic, for example, a
between the oil and water in the inner and outer portions
FlG. 2 shows essentially the equipment of FlG. 1, ex
cept for the omission of heat exchangers ld and l5, pre
ceded by another series of continuous treating or refining
16-20° Bé. up to 30-50" Bé. The mixture is conditioned
for separation by ilow through a coil, pipe or turbulent
Zone, provided by the mixer i9 or the heat exchanger 20
steps. Proportioning pumps 7h and “il meter and pres
sure streams of oil and alkali 'from tanks ’72 and 73.
or other equipment. it is then delivered to the extractor
Heat exchangers 7a and 75 adjust the temperature or
25. While stratiñcation tends to take place within the
extractor at caustic strengths above about 20° Bé., the
can be bypassed as previously described. rihe streams 45 counteriiow of water or other wash medium overcomes
this tendency.
meet and mix at a junction 7o and may be additionally
mixed in a mixer 77, being adjusted in temperature in
The'invention is also excellently suited to the caustic
re-reñning of glyceride oils to remove color or other
a heat exchanger 78 as previously described. The con
impurities which remain following a preliminary alkali
ditioned mixture is separated in any suitable way, as by
a centrifuge S0, into a partially purified oil conducted to 50 refining step. For example, crude oils refined with am
monia or soda ash are quite low in free fatty acids but
the tank 12. by a pipe iii and reaction products or soap
Otten require treatment with caustic to reduce their color
stock conducted through the pipe 82 ‘to storage. if no
to commercial values. For example, the equipment of
further alkali treatment is desired, the pump 1l may be
shut off and the pump liti can force the oil directly
FIG. 2 can be employed to mix a soda ash solution from
to a point ahead of or beyond the heat exchanger Ztl
the tank 73 with a crude glyceride oil from the tank 72,
through a pipe 83 by suitable manipulation ot' valves in
the mixture iiowing through the mixer 77 and the heat
exchanger 73 to lthe centrifuge 30 where it is separated
the branch pipes shown.
FiG. 3 shows in somewhat greater detail some of the
to recover the oil which desirably is treated with the
passages and structure of a commercial centrifugal ex
caustic solution from the tank 13. Similar steps employ
tractor. Portions corresponding to FIGS. l and 2 are 60 ing aqueous ammonia solutions as the alkali will produce
correspondingly numbered. FEiG. 3 shows also a shaft
a similar oil. With excesses of soda ash as low as 1.5
9u and bearings 92 supporting the housing 3l. lt illus
trates also a base ‘53 and an enclosure 9d surrounding
the housing 3l.
An added feature is a iiush to the
outer portion 28 of the extraction zone 30, preferably
to the zone or area of exit of the heavy or wash medium
times the amount required to neutralize the fatty acids,
a vapor separating chamber may be employed between
the mixer 77 and the centrifuge 80. `In all such instances,
the oil from the centrifuge may be of undesirably high
color and can best be subject to the re-relining step. This
therefrom. lf the wash medium has extracted sulîicient
impurities to become viscous or too hard to ñow through
the passages 50, Si and 53, it may be diluted in such exit
is particularly true as concerns cottonseed oil but also
zone by a stream of water or other diluent pumped 70
through a pipe 9o. This liquid 'liows through a radial
passage 97 bypassing the extraction stages and through
axial branch passages 9S formed in an annular projec
tion 99 of generally triangular cross section disposed in
the outer portion 2S of the extraction zone. The added 75
of deleterious taste or odor, or having an undesirably high
applies to other glyceride oils which upon a preliminary
refining produces an oil of undesirably high color content,
content of impurities removable by a strong caustic treat
In the re-retining step, a concentrated caustic soda solu
tion of about 20-50" Bé. is Withdrawn from the tank 13
of FiG. 2 and mixed with the oil. The amount of caustic
solution can be relatively small, the amount being desir
ably about 1/2 to 4%. The mixture can be delivered to
the extractor 25 at room temperature or above.
the oil at room temperature and heated to a temperature
of about 160° F. in the exchanger 20. About 7.5% of
water, based on the weight of the mixture, can be fed to
the heavy-liquid inlet 37 at a temperature of about 160°
F. The residual soap in the eiiiuent oil will commonly
be less than 100 ppm. under these conditions.
As an example of re-refining cottonseed oil originally
containing 1.5% free fatty acids and 1.6% gums after
results are usually obtained in the range of about 120
180° F. A supplementary stream of water or salt solu
tion can be supplied to the extractor through the pipe 96
of FIG. 3 to aid the continuous discharge of the wash
medium, but this is usually not required.
If the partially refined oil contains residual free fatty
centrifugally separating the soapstock. resulting from
acids, the caustic from the tank 10 will react therewith 10 mixing 4.0% of a 15% concentration of soda ash solu
to form a small amount of soap. In addition, there may
tion therewith, the following conditions will be found
be a small degree of reaction between the alkali and the
oil, producing additional small amounts of soap. In any
beneficial. About 2% of 26° Bé. caustic can be mixed
with the oil in the mixer 19 equipped with rotating
paddles, the mixture being heated to a temperature of
about 150" F. before entering the extractor. About 10%
event, the wash medium discharging from the extractor
will be a dark liquid consisting largely of water containing
excess caustic soda and a small amount of soap.
of tap Water, used as a wash medium, counter-flows the
refined oil collecting in the tank 48 is usually of sur»
prisingly low soap content.
All practices of the invention heretofore suggested offer
many significant advantages. By concurrently mixing
and conditioning the system, optimum conditions can be
selected without limitation to the time the oil is present
inthe extractor or the mixing-coalescing actions therein.
oil in the extractor 30. The resulting purified oil dis
charging into the tank 48 contains less: than 50 pp_m.
residual soaps and a bleach 0.3R lower than the cup
20 bleach.
The invention is well suited also to the alkali treat
ment of oils in the miscella. Thus oils containing up to
50% of oil solvents such as hexane, heptane or trichloro
By then following the concurrent mixing and conditioning
ethylene can be refined or re-refined by the concurrent
with a countercurrent extraction of the soapstock in a 25
countercurrent steps outlined herein. The oil solvent can
centrifugal extractor it is possible to accomplish results
be separated from the oil leaving the light-liquid outlet
superior to those obtainable by use of other sequences.
47 of the extractor, this separator being by conventional
By the concurrent-countercurrent sequence it is possible
methods. In this and other variations the pressures
to extract the soapstock from the oil without emulsiiica
the extractor can be maintained super-amos
tion, achieving a complete refining and good color reduc 30 pheric without
difficulty thus making it possible to pre~
tion. Here and elsewhere the word “soapstock” is used
vent liberation of solvent in vapor form in the extraction
both with reference to the product resulting from direct
step. Operation of the process in the miscella stage
makes it possible to improve the operation of the inven
alkali refining and the product resulting from re-refining
by use of concentrated caustic solution.
In conventional refining of glyceride oils employing
centrifugal separation, the separated oil often contains
about 0.04-0.3% residual soaps and must be subjected
to one or two washing steps to reduce the residual soap
content to the figure of 30 p.p.m. or less, as is usually
tion on oils of high gum and fatty acid contents. Re
fining or re-reñning of cottonseed or soya oils of com
mon gum and free fatty acid contents is improved if
operation is in the miscella throughout.
The exemplified processes will suggest other variants
requisite. This is true whether the oil results from the 40 to those skilled in the art, as will also the arrangements
of apparatus illustrated. In this latter connection the
direct alkali refining or from re-refining by use of con
oil from the equipment 70-81 of FIG. 2 can sometimes
centrated caustic solutions. The present invention re
with advantage be delivered directly to the extractor
duces or eliminates the need for subsequent washing steps.
30 where it can be counterflowed with a. wash medium.
The invention gives a sharp separation of the oil from
In other instances, some water or other wash medium
the soapstock and produces no stratification diñiculties
45 can be supplied to the oil from the tank 13, additional
with strength of caustic of about 20° Bé. or higher.
wash medium being counterfiowed in the extractor 30.
Importantly, the process requires less water than con
I claim as my invention:
ventional processes with their water washing steps. The
1. A concurrent-countercurrent process for refining
problem of waste water is very acute in many oil refineries,
which commonly employ 15-20% water in a re-refining , fatty oils, which process includes the steps of: mixing a
operation and about 15% water in a water wash step. 50 low-gum, low-free-fatty-acid oil with an alkaline reagent
capable of combining with impurities of the oil; pumping
The present process employing countercurrent extraction
requires only about 3-15% Water with 5--10% being the
the resulting mixture before any centrifugal separation
thereof through an elongated conditioning zone under
turbulence and then into the outer portion of a Zone of
Temperatures of the mixture delivered to the extractor
centrifugal separation rotating about a horizontal axis
25 are not usually critical and may be adjusted by the
and sealed from the atmosphere except for exit passages;
exchangers 14 or 15 operating on the unmixed iniiuent
fiowing into an inner portion of said zone of centrifugal
materials or by the exchanger 20 operating on the mix
at a position much closer to the axis of rota
ture. Temperatures at the point of entry into the ex
tion than the position at which the conditioned mixture
tractor may range from about 100° F. to about 180° F.
60 enters said zone a stream of Wash medium substantially
Additional heat can sometimes be supplied within the ex
immiscible with the oil; counterflowing the materials of
tractor 25 as by supplying thereto a wash medium which
said streams in said zone between said positions while
is at a temperature higher than the incoming mixture.
rotating said zone about said horizontal axis and whilel
Water is the preferred washing medium but may carry
Various salts. The salts are often beneficial in bettering 65 repeatedly mixing and separating the wash medium and
the mixture in different radial zones between said posi
the separation. Dilute solutions of salts such as sodium
most common range.
carbonate, sodium sulfate, sodium bicarbonate, etc., and
salts of organic acids are useful.
As an example of a direct alkali refining, the invention
can be employed under approximately the following con
ditions to give good results on a crude soy bean oil con
taining about 0.5% free fatty acids and about 0.4% gums
(phosphorus content times 26). About 1.5% by weight
tions, said wash medium extracting the combined im
purities from the oil; and continuously removing from
said zone through one of said exit passages during said
rotation a stream of purified oil from which said impuri
ties have been largely removed and through another of
said exit passages a stream of the wash medium carrying
the extracted combined impurities.
2. A process as defined in claim 1 including the step
of subdividing said wash medium and dispersing same
that corresponding to the free fatty acids, is mixed with 75 in the oil a plurality of times during the liow of the
of a 20° Bé. caustic solution, being an amount 3 times
wash medium through said radial zones away from said
inner portion.
3. A concurrent-countercurrent process for refining
fatty oils, which process includes the steps of: rotating
about a horizontal axis an extraction zone to establish a
high centrifugal force therein, said zone having inner and
outer positions at different radial distances from said
axis; mixing a, low-gum, low-free-fatty-acid oil with au
alkaline reagent; conditioning the mixture before sub
jection to said centrifugal force by flowing same under
turbulence through an elongated conditioning zone ahead
of said extraction zone; flowing the resulting conditioned
mixture as a stream to said outer position of said extrac
tion zone during rotation thereof about said axis under
sufñcient pressure to move the oil of the mixture inwardly
past said inner position to an oil exit area even closer
to said axis; counter-ñowing an aqueous material and the
oil of said stream in an intermediate portion of said ex
traction zone between said inner and outer positions dur
zone of centrifugal separation; applying sutlicient pressure
to said mixture delivered to said zone of centrifugal sepa
ration to force the separated oil of said mixture with a
residual soapstock content inward toward said axis past
an inner position of such zone to an inner exit area of
such zone close to said axis; pumping into said zone of
centrifugal separation at said inner position about 3-l5%
of an aqueous medium while such Zone is rotating at such
speed as to move such aqueous medium outward by cen
trifugal force to counterilow said separated oil between
said positions and to iiow thence to said outer exit area;
repeatedly intermingling and separating the inward íiow
ing separated oil and the outward tiowing aqueous rne
dium between said inner and outer positions; continuously
withdrawing from said outer exit area through one of said
passages soapstock diluted by said washing medium; and
continuously withdrawing from said inner exit area
through another of said passages oil washed by said
aqueous medium containing less than 100 ppm. of soap.
ing said rotation by flowing said aqueous material from
9. A process as deñned in claim 8 in which the tem
extracted by said aqueous material and a stream of aque
ous material containing extracted material.
4. A process as defined in claim 3 including the steps
ration by ñowing same under pressure and turbulence
through an elongated zone; delivering the conditioned
perature of said resulting mixture at the time of delivery
said inner position to an outer exit area of said extraction
to said zone of centrifugal separation is about 100
zone outwardly beyond said outer position while the
180" F.
material of said oil stream ñows inward from said outer
10. A process as deñned in claim 8 in which said
position of said extraction zone toward said oil exit area, 25
is a caustic alkali solution of about 16-50° Bé.
said extraction zone exiting to the atmosphere exclusive
11. A process for retining fatty oils containing free
ly through passages respectively communicating inward
fatty acids and gums, which process includes the steps of :
ly with said outer exit area and said oil exit area, said
continuously mixing with said fattyV oil sutlicient non
pressure maintaining a superatmospheric pressure
saponifying alkali to react with at least a part of the tree
throughout said extraction zone; and withdrawing re
fatty acids to form foots containing soaps and gums;
spectively and continuously from said oil exit area and
said foots; continuously mixing with the sepa
said outer exit area through said passages during such
rated oil about 1/2 to 4% of caustic soda solution of about
rotation a stream of oil from which materials have been
20-50" Bé.; conditioning the resulting mixture for sepa
of repeatedly subdividing and separating said aqueous
material and the oil of said stream at different radial
positions during ílow of said aqueous material outwardly
mixture-to a zone of centrifugal separation at an outer
position of said zone while rotating said zone about an
axis, said zone exiting to the atmosphere exclusively
through passages connected to said zone; largely separat
from said inner position through said intermediate por 40 ing the heavier component of such conditioned mixture by
tion to said outer position.
centrifugal force near said outer position and moving
5. A process as defined in claim 3 in which said alka
same outwardly beyond such position to an outer exit
line reagent is a strong caustic solution of about 16° Bé.
area of said zone of centrifugal separation; applying suf
to about 50° Bé.
ticient pressure to said resulting mixture entering said
6. A process as deiined in claim 3 in which said oil
zone of centrifugal separation to force the oil portion of
is a partially reiined oil produced by mixing an alkali
such mixture inward toward said axis past an inner posi
with a glyceride oil containing free fatty acids and gums
tion to an inner exit area of said zone close to said axis;
to react therewith and produce soapstock therein, and
pumping into said zone of centrifugal separation at said
separating said soapstock to produce said oil with which
inner position about 3-15% water while said zone is
said alkaline reagent is mixed.
50 rotating at such speed as to move said water outward by
7. A process as defined in claim 6 in which the oil
centrifugal force to counterflow said oil portion of said
resulting from the separation of said soapstock contains
mixture between said positions and to ñow thence to
color impurities, and in which said alkaline reagent is
said outer exit area; repeatedly intermingling the inward
a caustic solution of about 20° Bé. up to about 50° Bé.
ñowing oil portion of said mixture and the outward fiow
8. A concurrent-countercurrent process for reíining
ing water between said inner and outer positions; con
fatty oils, which process includes the steps of: continu
tinuously withdrawing from said outer exit area through
ously mixing under pressure proportioned streams of a
one of said passages the heavier component of such mix
fatty oil containing about 0.l-0.5% gums and about
ture diluted Vby said water; and continuously withdrawing
0.05~0.8% free fatty acids and an amount of alkali solu
from said inner exit area through another of said pas
tion in excess of that amount theoretically required to 60
oil washed by said water,
react said fatty acids thus forming soapstock in the oil,
said soapstock including at least apart of said gums;
References Cited in the file of this patent
conditioning the resulting mixture by ñowing same under
Vpressure and turbulence through a stationary elongated
zone; delivering the conditioned mixture to a zone of
Beach ________________ __ Nov. 2, 1915
centrifugal separation sealed from the atmosphere and
exiting thereto exclusively through passages connected
Podbielnak __________ __ July 30, 1940
to said zone of centrifugal separation, said conditioned
mixture being delivered to said Zone of centrifugal sepa
ration at an outer position thereof while rotating such 70 2,670,132
zone about a horizontal axis; largely separating said soap
stock of said mixture by centrifugal force near said outer
position and moving the thus separated soapstock out
wardly beyond such position to an outer exit area of said
Flowers ______________ __ Mar. 9, 1943
Podbielniak __________ __. Feb. 23, 1954
Milbers et al. _________ __ Ian. 31, 1956
Great Britain _________ __ Nov. 13, 1924
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