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Патент USA US3027500

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March 27, 1962
F. E. CRAIG
3,027,490
POLYPHASE FLUORESCENT LIGHTING SYSTEM
Filed Jan.- 11, 1957
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March 27, 1962
F. E. CRAIG
3,027,490
POLYPHASE FLUORESCENT LIGHTING SYSTEM
Filed Jan. 11, 1957
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March 27, 1962
F. E. CRAIG
3,027,490
POLYPHASE FLUORESCENT LIGHTING SYSTEM
Filed Jan. 11, 1957
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Patented Mar. 27, 1962
2
FIG. 8 is an enlarged detail view ofaballast arrange
.
,
3,027,4a0
ment alternative to that of FIG. 2;
POLYPHASE FLUORESCENT LIGHTING SYSTEM
'
’
PEG. 9 is a diagram illustrating the components of the
Frederick E. Craig,‘ 150 Liberty St, Lynn, Mass;
Filed Jan. 11, 1957, Ser. No. 633,756
device ‘of FIG. 8 connected in a ‘deltacircuit; , v ,
FIG. 10' is a top plan view of a' core included, in the
6 Claims. (Cl._315-~144)
ballast arrangement of FIG. 8; and
t
.
’
i
‘
The present invention relates to illumination and, more
FIG. ll is a cross sectional view‘of the core of
10,
particularly, to illuminating devices comprising a plural~
the section being taken substantially along the line 11-—11.'v
ity of light sources energized by various phases of poly
The ?xture illustrated in FIGS; 1 through 4comprises
10 a canopy Zil, to be mounted on the underside of a ceiling‘
phase‘ alternating current.
The,‘ primary object of therpresent invention is to pro
orother overhead support. Suspended from canopy 20,
vide in an illuminating device, a plurality of illumination
by a pair of tubular stems 21 andZZ is an‘ elongated
housing 23. Extending in the direction of ,elongation of
a. novel ballast (arrangement that comprises magnetically
housing 23 and carried thereby are three gas ?lled ?uo-.
discrete ballast components for respectively energizing'the 15 rescent lamps 24, 25 and 26 (FIGS. 1, 2 and 4), each of
illumination sources, ea'ch' ballast component including
which has opposed electrodes at its opposedends. The
magnetically coupled currenttransforming and ‘limiting
pairs of opposed electrodes of tubes '24, 25 and26 project
inductors that give rise to e?icient power‘ consumption
into sockets 27 and 28, 3t) and 31, andi32' and 33, respec
and uniform light production by minimizing heating loss
tively, which constitute components of the electrical ‘cir
sources thatarejsupplied with'polyphase current through
and, current variation.
'
20 cuit to be described below in detail.
"
'
Other objects‘ of the present invention are: to provide ,
an illuminating device of the foregoing type in which the
illumination sources are powered through inductors in a
star circuit; toiprovide an illuminating device of the fore
going ‘type in which the illuminaton sources are powered
through inductors in a mesh circuit; to provide an illu
Alcornpartment :for the ballast components of the ?x
ture is shown in dotted lines \at 34 secured within housing
2.3 to its upper wall. Mechanical and electrical details
of‘ the ballast components within compartment 34 are‘
25 shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, respectively. These components
minating device of the foregoing type which conveniently
incorporates sockets that deliver su?iciently‘high voltage
include three current transforming and limiting units‘35,‘
36 and 37, unit 35 including an autotransformer 38 and
a chokedd having a common core 41, unit 36 including
initially to energize the lamps‘when properly installed but
an autotransformer 42‘ and a choke 43 having a common
30
that prevent that voltage from endangering a person who
core 44, and unit 37 including an 'autotransformer, 45 and
carelessly may insert a lamp into its sockets while ener
a choke 46 having a common core 47. In order to maxi
gized; to provide an illuminating device of the foregoing
mize the eiiiciency of power consumption by lampsrl24,
typein which each ballast component includes a trans
25 and as, power factor capacitors 48, 50 and 51 are pro
former and la magnetic'leakage element in association
vided. Units 35, 36 and 37. are substantially identical‘
35
with the transformer core that operates as a reactor to
and capacitors 48, 5d and 51 are substantially identical
limit current flow; to provide an illuminating device of
so that stray currents generated by ambient radio fre—
the-foregoing type in which radio frequency interference
quency energy oppose each other by virtue of the sym
is avoided’ by the symmetry of three phase circuitry that
metry of the system. In consequence no radio frequency
interconnects the component ballasts and the illumination
capacitors need be provided to prevent ?ickering which‘
sources; and to provide an illuminating device of the fore
would otherwise be caused by such stray currents.
going type comprising inductors provided with inexpen
Reference is directed to the circuit diagram of FIG. 4
sive but‘ef?cient cores of novel construction.v
for an explanation of the relationships between the lamps
Further objects of the present invention will in part be
and the ballast components. Extending into compart
obvious and will in part appear hereinafter.
ment 34 through stem 21 are three input leads 52, 53
45
For’ a complete understanding of the present invention
and 54, from a three phase alternating current source.
reference should be had to the following detailed dis
Leads 52, 53 and 54 are connected, respectively, to the
closure, taken in connection with the accompanying draw
center taps of autotransformers 38, 42 and45, each shown
ings wherein:
‘
as having a primary winding designated byp and a sec
FIG; l'is a perspective View of an embodiment of the
"
ondary winding designated by s. The primary winding
present invention in the ‘form of a lighting ?xture having ’
three tubular ?uorescent lamps;
FIG. 2 is a front elevation of the ?xture shown in FIG.
1, the broken lines representing a casing that contains a
ballast arrangement ‘for the ?uorescent lamps;
FIG. 3 is an enlarged detail view of the ballast arrange
ment of FIG. 2, taken substantially along the line 3—3;
FIG. 4 is a diagram illustrating the components of the
device of.FIG_. 1 connected in a star circuit;
FIG. 5 is a diagram illustrating the components of the
deviceof FIG. 1 connected in a mesh circuit;
of autotransformer 38 is connected by a conductor 55
to the low potential socket 28 of lamp 24 and by a con
ductor 56 to one terminal of power factor condenser 48.
The secondary winding of transformer 38 is connected
by a conductor 57 to the opposite terminal of power
factor condenser 43 and to one terminal of reactor 40.
The opposite terminal of reactor at) is connected by a
conductor 58to high voltage socket 27 of lamp 24.
The primary windings of transformers 42 and 45 are
connected by conductors 6t! and 61 to the low potential
sockets of lamps 2S and26, respectively; reactors 43‘ and
FIG. 6 is a perspective view of elements from which a
46 are connected by conductors 62 and 63 to the high
core of the ballast arrangement of the device of FIG. 1
is constructed;
PEG. 7. is, a cross-sectional View of the core of FIG. 6,
potential sockets of these lamps; connections essentially
the section being taken substantially along the line 7-7
like those above described are made among the secondary
windings of transformers 42, and 45, power ‘factor con:
densers 50 and 51 and. reactors 43_ and 443, respectively.
of FIG. 6,.‘
Also, connections essentially like those, above, described
3,027,490
4
3
are made among the primary windings of transformers
42 and 45 and power factor condensers 50 and 51.
Each of low potential lamp sockets 28, 31 and 33
have two separate terminals to bear on the metal ?tting
at the low potential end of an associated lamp tube. In the
circuit diagram of FIG. 4, one terminal of each of lamp
sockets 28, 31 and 33,, as indicated above, is connected to
the primary of each of the transformers 38, 42 and '45.
The other terminals of lamp sockets 28, 31 and 33 are
shunted together by a branched conductor 64. In this 10
which controls the current that'flows through the reactor
coil. Once adjusted these gaps are ?lled with permanent
insulation.
The transformer and reactor coils are wound in the
same direction (either clockwise or counterclockwise) on .
the above described core for. maximum electrical per
formance. Since each unit operates in the presence of
relatively few laminations, temperature rise is minimized.
In FIG. 5, the three transformer primary windings are
phase Y circuit, of which shunt 64 is the center. The
shown arranged in a delta circuit, lead 52 being con
nected through a conductor 80 to the midpoint of auto
transformer 38 whereas the opposite end of the autotrans
metal terminal ?tting of any socket bridges the separated
terminals of an installed lamp so that when all of the
former primary is connected through lead 81 to socket
28 and through conductors 82 and 83 to the midpoint of
way, transformers 38, 42 and 45 are connected in a three
lamps are installed, the Y circuit'connections of the three 15 transformer 42 and lead 53. Likewise: the opposite end
of the primary of autotransformer 42 is connected through
transformers are completed. However, when any lamp
lead 84 to socket 31 and through conductors 85 and 86
is removed, the circuit between the primary of the trans
former with which that lamp is related and shunt 64 is
to the midpoint of transformer 45 and lead 54; and the
opposite end of the primary of autotransformer 45 is con
broken. This arrangement thus serves to ensure the
nected through lead 87 to socket 33 and through con~
safetyof a person who in replacing a defective lamp by
inserting one end of the new lamp into its high voltage
ductors 83 and 80 back'to the midpoint of transformer
socket while holding the other end, could be subjected
38 and lead 52. The condensers and reactors are similar
to a dangerous voltage. The foregoing connection causes
to and are connected as their counterparts in FIG. 4.'
the voltage in the cricuit of any lamp to be reduced to a
With’ this arrangement failure or omission of one or more
safe degree when the lamp is removed. Thus if lamp 24
has been removed, no current passes through the primary
of lamps 24, 25 and 26 in no way interferes with the oper-V
ation of any of the others, each of which at all times
has impressed across its terminals the voltage between
Winding of transformer 38. Since, therefore, the voltage
is not stepped up in the secondary winding of that trans
two of lines 52, 53 and 54.
former, the voltage from power line 52 applied through
The embodiment of FIGS. 8, 9, 10 and 11 is a simpli
the secondary winding of transformer 30 and reactor 3O ?ed modi?cation of the embodiments above described.
40 is too low to energize lamp 24. Consequently, a per
As shown, this'embodiment comprises three transformers
son who may place one end of lamp 24 in socket 27
87, 80 and 90 in each of Which the primary and secondary
while handling it in the careless manner described is
windings, designated p‘ and s, are separately positioned.
protected from passage of current through his body.
- Cores 41, 44 and 47 and the metal shells in which
power factor condenser 48, 50 and 51 are encased are
all grounded through an insulated conductor 65 that is
connected'to compartment 34 at 66 and to the cores and
shells by branches 67.
Extending through the openings in each core are lami
nated iron inserts which act to shunt magnetic ?ux across
the secondary in order to preventv its full application to
the secondary. These iron shunts permit separate reactor
coils to be omitted by causing a back electromotive force
across the secondary that effectively limits current
Cores 41, v44 and 47 are fabricated from a plurality 40 through the secondary. Power factor capacitors 91, 92
and ‘93 are associated with these transformers and with
thick) that are E- and I-shaped in outline as shown in
fluorescent lamps 24, 25 ‘and 26 in a manner to be de
FIG. 6. The coils with which these cores are associated
scribed below.
.
are pre-wound. Each E-shaped component (FIG. 6) in
As shown in FIGS. 10 and 11, the core of each trans
cludes an elongated trunk 68 and three lateral branches 45 former 87, 80 and 90 is fabricated from a plurality of
of stacks of three sheet iron components (.026 inch
70, .71‘ and 72 extending in the same direction from the
ends and center of the trunk. Each I-shaped component
73 has the same length and width as a trunk portion 60.
As shown in FIGS. 6 and 7, the core of each unit 35,
36 and 37 is fabricated from a plurality of stacks each
of three registered E-shaped elements or three registered
I-shaped elements. In particular, the core of each unit
comprisesa component 74a carrying an autotransformer
and a component 74b carrying a reactor.
Autotrans
former component 74a includes stacks 75 of three E
shaped elements each, whose branches are directed to the
right as viewed in FIG. 7, and stacks 76 of three E-shaped
elements‘each whose branches are directed to the left
as viewed in FIGURE 7. Stacks 75 and 76 are inter
leaved with their branches in overlapping relation. In
terleaved between the trunks of these stacks are stacks
77, of three I-shaped elements each. The prewound coil
of one of transformers 38, 42 and 45 envelops medial
branches 71 of the E-shaped elements and is embraced
by trunks 68 and branches 70 and 72 of the E-shaped
elements and by the I-shaped elements. Reactor com
ponent 74 of the core includes stacks 78 of three E-shaped
elements each, whose branches are directed to the left
stacks 94 and 95. Each stack 94 includes three regis
tered E-shaped elements each having 1a trunk 96 and
relatively long end branches 97 and 98 and medial
branch 100. Each stack 95 includes three registered
E-s-haped elements each having a trunk 101, and rela
tively short end branches 102 and 103 and medial branch
104. Stacks 94 and 95 are interleaved with the extremi
ties of their branches in overlapping relation. The ar
rangement is such that stacks 94 and 95 having branches
directed to the right, as viewed in FIGS. 10 and 11, al
ter‘nate with their trunks in registration. Also, stacks
94 and 95 having branches directed to the left, as viewed
in FIGS. 10 and 11, alternate with their trunks in reg
istration. The primary and secondary coils which are
pre-wound, envelop opposite ends of the medial cross
portion formed by medial branches 100 and 104 and are
embraced by trunks 96 and 101 and end branches 97,
98, 102 and 103. The free ends of medial and end
branches 100, 97 and 98 are predeterminedly spaced from
the free ends of ‘medial and end branches 104, 102 and
103 by a distance which controls the ?ux applied by the
primary to the secondary. Once adjusted these gaps
are ?lled with permanent insulation.
‘In FIG. 9, the primary windings of transformers 87,
reactors 40, 43 and 46Venvelops medial branches 71 of 70 88 and 90 are shown arranged in a delta circuit, pow~
ered through leads 105, 106 and 107 from a three phase
the E-shaped elements and is embraced by trunks 63 and
end branches 70 and 72 of the E-shaped elements. The
alternating current power source. Lead 105 is connected
free ends of medial and end branches 71, 70 and 72 are
through a conductor 108 to the midpoint of autotrans
predeterminately spaced from the edges of transformer
former 87 whereas the opposite end of the autotrans~
component 73, to which they are adjacent, by a distance 75 former primary, which is shunted by capacitor 91, is
as viewed in FIG. 7. The prewound coil of one of the
3,027,490,
5.
connected through‘ lead‘lltl to socket 28 and through
transformer means and said third reactor inductor means
conductors 111 and 112 to the midpoint of transformer
being wound about said third magnetic core means.
2. An electrical lighting system comprising a ?rst
elongated ?uorescent illumination source, a second elon
gated ?uorescentillumination source, a third elongated
?uorescent illumination source, a ?rst input lead, a sec
‘88ian'd lead 106, Likewise; the Opposite end of the
primary autotransformer 88 is connected through lead
113-to socket" 31 and through conductors 114 and 115
to the midpointrof transformer 96 and lead 107; and the
opposite end of-the primary of autot-ransformer 9tlis con
nected through lead 11‘6'to socket 33 and through con
ductors 11-7 and 103 back to the midpoint of transformer
87 and‘ lead MP5. The opposite ends ofrthe secondaries 10
ond input, lead, and. a third input lead, the ?rst, second
and third input leads 'being connected to a three phase
alternating current supply, a ?rst autotransformer, a sec
ond autotransformer, a third autotransformer, each of
the autot-ransformers having a center tap, a primary tap
of transformers 87, 38 and 90 are connected to sockets
and a secondary tap, said ?rst input lead being connected,
27, 3?land 32, respectively.
‘Since certain changes may be made in the above ap
to the center tapor" said ?rst auitotransformer, said sec
paratus without departing ‘from the scope of the inven
ond input. lead being connected to the center tap of said
tion herein involved, it is‘ intended thatv all matter con 15 second autotransformer, said third input lead being con
tained in the above description shall be interpreted in an
nected to a. center. tap of said third autotransformer, ‘a,
illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
?rst reactor inductor, a second reactor inductor, a thirdv
What is claimed is:
a
,
reactor inductor, a?rst power factor condenser, a second;
1. An electrical, lighting system comprising ?rst ?uo
power ‘factor condenser, a third power factor condenser,
rescent means, second ?uorescent means, third ?uorescent 20 the primary tap of said ?rst iautotransformer being con
means, ?rst input lead means, second input lead means,
nected to one terminal of said ?rst sourceand to one
third input lea-d means, the ?rst, second-and third input
terminal of said ?rst power factor condenser, the sec¢
lead means being connected to a three phase alternating
ondary tap‘ of said ?rst autotr-ansformer being connected
current source, ?rst auto-transformer, means, second auto
to the other terminal of the said ?rst power factor con¢
transformer means, third autotransformer means, each
denser-and to one terminal of said ?rst reactor inductor
of the ?rst, second and third autotransformer. means
the other terminal of said ?rst reactor inductor being
having center tap means, primary tap means and sec
connected to, the. other terminal of said ?rst source, the
ondary tap means, said ?rst input lead means being
primary tap; of said second autotransformer being con
connected to the center tap means of said ?rst auto
nected to one terminal of said second source and to one
transformer means, said second input lead means being 30 terminal of said second power factor condenser, the sec
connected tothe center-tap means of said second auto
ondary tap of said second iautotransformer being con
transformer means, said third input lead means being
nected to the other terminal of said second power,‘ factor
connected to the center tap means of said third auto
condenser and. to, one terminal of said second reactor
tr'ansforrner means, ?rst reactor inductor means, second
inductor, the other terminal of said second reactor in
reactor inductor means, third reactor inductor means, the 35 ductor being connected to the other terminal of said sec
primary tap means of said ?rst autotransformer means
ond source, the primary tap of said third autotransformer
‘being connected to oneterminal of said ?rst ?uorescent
being connected to one terminal of said third source and
means, the secondary tap means of said ?rst au-totrans
former means being connected to one terminal of said
to one terminal of said third power factor condenser,
the secondary tap of said third autotransforrner being
?rst reactor inductor means, the other terminal ‘of said 40 connected to the other. terminal of said third power fac
?rst reactor inductor means being connected to the. other
tor condenser and to one terminal of said third reactor
terminal of said ?rst lamp means, the primary tap means
inductor, the other terminal of said third reactor inductor
of said; second autotransformer being connected to one
being connected to the other terminal of said third source,
terminal of said second ?uorescent means, the secondary
said one terminal, of said ?rst source, said one terminal
of said second source and said one terminal of said third
source, being connected together, a ?rst magnetic core
having a ?rst component and a second component, a sec-,
ond magnetic core having a ?rst component and a second
component and a third magnetic core having ‘a ?rst com
tap' means of said second autotransformer being con
nected to/one terminal of said‘ second reactor inductor
means, the other terminal of said second reactor inductor
means being connected to the other terminal of said
second lamp means, the primary tap means of said third
autot'r’ansformer means being connected to one terminal 50 ponent and a second component, said ?rst component
and said second. component of said ?rst magnetic core
being magnetically coupled to but mechanically spaced
of, said third autotransformer being connected to one
ofrsaid third ?uorescent means, the secondary tap means
from each other and being magnetically isolated from
terminal of saidthird reactor inductor means, the other
said second magnetic core and said third magnetic core,
terminal of said third reactor inductor means being
connected to the other terminal of said third lamp means, 55 said ?rst component and said second component of said
second magnetic core being magnetically coupled to but
said one terminal of said ?rst ?uorescent means, said
mechanically spaced from each other land being mag
one terminal of said second ?uorescent means and said
etically isolated, from said ?rst magnetic core and said
one terminal ofgsaid third ?uorescent means being re
third magnetic core, said ?rst component ‘and said sec
turned to said system, ?rst magnetic core means, power
ond component of said third magnetic core being mag
factor condenser means’ connected into said system in
netically coupled to but mechanically spaced from each
other ‘and being magnetically isolated from said ?rst mag
association with the autotransformer means, second mag
netic core means and third magnetic core means, said ?rst
netic core ‘and said second magnetic core, said ?rst auto
magnetic core meanslbeing magnetically isolated ‘from said
transformer being wound about said ?rst component of
second magnetic core means and said third magnetic
65 said ?rst magnetic core, said ?rst reactor inductor being
core means, said second magnetic core means being mag
wound about said second component of said ?rst mag
netically isolated‘ from said ?rst magnetic core means
netic core, said second autotransformer being wound
andjsaidthird magnetic coremeans, said third magnetic
about said ?rst component of said second magnetic core,
core means being magnetically isolated from said ?rst
said second‘reactor inductor being wound about said sec
magnetic core means and said second magnetic core
means, said ?rst autotrans-former means and, said ?rst
reactor inductor means being wound about said ?rst
magnetic core means, said‘ second autotransformer means
and said second. reactor inductor means being wound
70 ond component of said second magnetic core, said third
about, said:second magnetic'core means, said third; auto 75
autotransfor-mer being wound about said ?rst component
of said magnetic core, said third reactor inductor being
wound about said second component of said third mag
netic core.
7
>
3. The apparatus of claim 2 wherein each, of said cores
3,027,490
8
includes a plurality of registered ?rst E-shaped elements,
a plurality of registered second E-shaped elements, and
a plurality of registered third E-shaped elements, said
?rst E-shaped elements and said second E-shaped ele
ments being arranged with their branches in interlacing
relation, the trunks of said ?rst E-shaped elements being
in spaced parallelism with respect to the trunks of said
wound about said ?rst component of said ?rst magnetic,
power factor condenser, a third power factor condenser,
the primary tap of said ?rst autotransformer being con
winding, a third transformer having a primary winding
and a secondary winding, a ?rst input lead, a second input
core, said ?rst reactor inductor being wound about said
second component of said ?rst magnetic core, said sec
ond autotransfo-rmer magnetic core, said second reactor
inductor being wound about said second component of
said second magnetic core, said third autotransformer
being wound about said ?rst component of said third
magnetic core, said third reactor inductor being wound
second E-shaped elements, the free ends of the branches
about said second component of said third magnetic core.
of said third‘ E-shaped elements being spaced from adja
10
_5. The apparatus of claim 4 wherein each of said cores
: cent trunks of said second E-shaped elements.
includes a plurality of registered ?rst E-shaped elements,
4. An electrical lighting system comprising a ?rst
a plurality of registered second E~shaped elements, and a
elongated ?uorescent illumination source, a second elon
plurality of registered third E-shaped elements, said ?rst
gated ?uorescent illumination source, a third elongated
E-shaped elements and said second E-shaped elements
?uorescent illumination source, a ?rst input lead, a sec
ond input lead, and a third input lead, the ?rst, second 15 eing arranged with their branches in interlacing relation,
the trunks of said ?rst E-sh-aped elements being in spaced
and third input leads being connected to a three phase
parallelism with respect to the trunks of said second
alternating current supply, a ?rst tautotransformer, a sec
E-shaped elements, the free ends of the branches of said
ond autotransformer, ‘a third autotransformer, each of
third E-shaped elements being spaced from adjacent
the iautotransformers having a center tap, a primary tap
trunks of said second E-shaped elements.
and a secondary tap, said ?rst input lead being connected
6. An electric lighting apparatus comprising a ?rst elon
to the center tap of said ?rst autotransformer, said sec
gated ?uorescent illumination source, a second elongated
ond input lead being connected to the center tap of said
?uorescent illumination source and a third elongated
second autotransformer, said third input lead being con
?uorescent illumination source, a ?rst transformer having
nected to a center tap of said third autotransformer, a
a primary winding and a secondary winding, a second
?rst reactor inductor, a second reactor inductor, a third
transformer having a primary winding and a secondary
reactor inductor, a ?rst power factor condenser, a second
lead, a third input lead, a ?rst power factor condenser, a
nected to one terminal of said ?rst source vand to one
‘ terminal of said ?rst power factor condenser, the sec 30 second power factor condenser, a third power factor con
ondary tap of said ?rst autotransformer being connected
to the other terminal of the said ?rst power factor con
denser and to one terminal of said ?rst reactor inductor,
the other terminal of said ?rst reactor inductor being
connected to the other terminal of said ?rst source, the
primary tap of said second iautotransformer being con
denser, said ?rst input lead being connected to adjoining
terminals of the primary and secondary windings of said
rst transformer, said second input lead being connected
to adjoining terminals of the primary and secondary wind
ings of said second transformer, said third input lead being
nected to one terminal of said second source, and to one
connected to the primary and secondary windings of said
third transformer, the other terminal of said primary wind
terminal of said second power factor condenser, the sec
ing of said ?rst transformer being connected to one ter
minal of said ?rst source, the other terminal of said pri-_
nected to the other terminal of said second power factor 40 mary winding ‘of said second transformer being con
ondary tap of saidsecond autotransformer being con
condenser and to one terminal of said second reactor
nected to one terminal of said second source, the other
terminal of said primary winding of said ?rst transformer
inductor, the other terminal of said second reactor in
ductor being connected to the other terminal of said
second source, the primary tap of said third autotrans
,former being connected to ‘one terminal of said third
other terminal of primary winding of said second trans
source and to one terminal of said power factor con
source, the other terminal of said primary Winding of said
being connected to one terminal of said ?rst source, the
former being connected to one terminal of said second
third transformer being connected to one terminal of said
third source, the other terminal of said secondary wind
connected to the other terminal of said third power fac
ing of said ?rst transformer being connected to the other
tor condenser and to one terminal of said third reactor
inductor, the other terminal of said third reactor in- 50 terminal of said ?rst source, the other terminal of said
denser, the secondary tap of said autotransformer being
ductor being connected to the other terminal of said
secondary winding of said second transformer being con
third source, said one terminal of said ?rst source, said
one terminal of said ?rst source being connected to one
nected to the other terminal of said second source, the
other terminal of said secondary winding of said third
transformer being connected to the other terminal of said
of the second and third input leads, said one terminal of
said second source being connected to one of the ?rst 55 third source, and three phase means for returning said
one terminal of said ?rst source, said one terminal of said
and third input leads, said one terminal of the third
second source, said ‘one terminal of said third source to
source being connected to one of the ?rst ‘and second in
said system, said ?rst power factor condenser being con
put leads, a ?rst magnetic core having a ?rst component
nected across said primary winding of said ?rst trans
and a second component, a second magnetic core having
a ?rst component ‘and a second component and a third 60 former, said second power factor condenser being con
nected across said primary winding of said second trans
magnetic core having \a ?rst component and a second
former, said third power factor condenser being connected
component, said ?rst component and said second com
across said primary winding of said third transformer, a
ponent of said ?rst magnetic core beingv magnetically
?rst magnetic core, a second magnetic core and a third
coupled to but mechanically spaced from each other and
being magnetically isolated from said second magnetic 65 magnetic core, said ?rst magnetic core being magnetically
isolated from said second magnetic cores and said third
core and said third magnetic core, said ?rst component
magnetic core, said second magnetic core being magneti
and said second component of said second magnetic core
cally isolated from said ?rst magnetic core and said third
magnetic core, said third magnetic core being magnetical
fro-m each other and being magnetically isolated from
said ?rst magnetic core and said third magnetic core, 70 ly isolated from said ?rst magnetic core and said second
magnetic core, one each of said magnetic cores providing
said ?rst component and said second component of said
one each a medial ?ux path and a pair of return ?ux paths
third magnetic core being’ magnetically coupled to but
mechanically spaced from each other ‘and being magneti
on opposite sides thereof, opposite ends of said return
cally isolated from said ?rst magnetic core and said sec
paths communicating magnetically with opposite ends of
ond magnetic core, said ?rst autotransformer being 75 said medial path, said primary winding and said secondary
being magnetically coupled to but mechanically spaced
3,027,490
10
winding of said ?rst transformer being disposed at oppo~
site ends of the medial path of said ?rst magnetic core,
said primary winding and said secondary winding of said
second transformer being disposed at opposite ends of the
medial path of said second magnetic core, said primary
winding and said secondary winding of said third trans
former being disposed at opposite ends of the medial path
of said third magnetic core, one each of said magnetic
cores including one each a pair of ?ux shunts, one each
of said ?ux sheets being positioned one each between 10
said medial ?ux path and one of said return ?ux paths,
one each of said ?ux shunts being positioned one each
said medial ?ux path and the other of said return flux
paths.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,549,288
2,565,110‘
2,664,541
2,683,798
2,714,653
Bridges ______________ __ Apr. 17,
Adams ______________ __ Aug. 21,
Henderson ____________ __ Dec. 29,
Craig ________________ __ July 13,
Lemmers ______________ __ Aug. 2,
1951
1951
1953
1954
1955
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