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Патент USA US3027550

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United grates
1
3,627,540
Patented Mar. 27, 1962
2
the terminals of this series arrangement by leads 59 and
3,027,540
HYDROPHONE WITH SPACED ELEC'I‘ROMECHAN
ICAL CERAMIC ELEMENTS
60. Lead 60 is placed in the combination so that it ex
tends for substantially the length of ‘the hydrophone and
"Filed Sept. 23, 1957, Ser. No. 685,644
is doubled back upon itself prior to being connected to
electrode 540. As a result, it will be sealed within the
potting for some length and cannot breathe rat the point
at which it enters the water. The scaling is accomplished
2 Claims. (Cl. 340-10)
by pouring potting 65, in its liquid state into the inner
Glenn N. Howatt, Metuchen, N.J., assignor to Gulton
Industries, Inc., Metuchen, N.J., a corporation of New
Jersey
"
Free
volume within tube 52. It ?ows through openings 66
My invention relates to hydrophones. In particular, 10 and ?lls the volume between tube 51 and the bodies 53a,
my invention relates to hydrophones which are entirely
53b and 53c also. The potting is permitted to set and
encapsulated and which may be produced economically
harden, at which time the combination, including the
and easily.
leads, is completely sealed. For potting 65, I prefer to
A principal object of my invention is to provide a
use a potting compound consisting of an epoxy resin in
hydrophone which is entirely encapsulated without the
combination with a hardening agent such as diethylene
use of any seals.
t-riarnine, and a plasticizer of a liquid polymer type such
A further object of my invention is to provide a hydro
as has been described in the article “Where and How to
phone cable seal which is leakproof without the use of
Use Epoxies” by Jerome Formo and Luther Bolstad in
extra parts.
Modern Plastics, volume 32, No. 11, pages 99 to 104. It
A still further object of my invention is to provide a 20 can be seen that grommets 56 and 57 maintain the neces
hydrophone cable seal with a moisture barrier which
sary airspace so that the ceramic elements may vibrate
prevents the cable seal from breathing.
when subjected to excitation. Leads 59 and 60 may, if
Other objects ‘and advantages of my invention will be
desired, be contained in a cable (not shown).
apparent during the course of the following description.
The operation of the hydrophone illustrated in FIG
By “encapsulation,” I mean ?lling the interior of the 25 URE 5 is standard in the art. It is hung in the liquid
hydrophone and sealing it from the external water in
medium and suspended by its leads 59 and 60. Upon
which it is placed so as to make it and the elements con
receiving acoustic waves at ‘frequencies to which the unit
tained therein waterproof.
is sensitive, the ceramic bodies 53a, 53b and 53c vibrate
In the ‘accompanying drawings, forming a part of this
and generate an electric voltage which is transmitted by
application, and in which like numerals are employed to 30 leads 59 and 60 to suitable amplifying and detecting
designate like parts throughout the same.
equipment (not shown). The unit may also be used as
The single ?gure of the drawing illustrates one form
a transmitter, in which case electrical excitation of the
of the ‘hydrophone of this invention.
proper frequency is applied to the unit from a generator
In the hydrophone illustrated in the drawing, electrical
(not shown) through leads 59 and 60 thereby causing
insulating tubular members 51 land 52 of Bakelite im 35 bodies 53a, 53b and 53a to vibrate and transmit an
pregnated paper or similar material are set on an insula
ting cap 58 which is formed of Bakelite or similar material
such that cap 58 ?ts snugly inside tube 51 and 52 is
acoustic wave in the liquid medium.
While I have described my invention by means of a
speci?c example and in a speci?c embodiment, I do not
wish to be limited thereto, for obvious modi?cations will
be accomplished by placing grooves in cap 58 (not shown) 40 occur to those skilled in the art without departing from
into which tube 52 is set. I prefer to form tube 52 with
the spirit of my invention or the scope of the subjoined
a plurality of openings 66 adjacent cap 58. Electrome
claims.
chanically sensitive bodies 53a, 53b and 530, which I pre
Having thus described my invention, I claim:
fer to form of piezoelectric ceramic such as the titanates,
1. A hydrophone comprising a pair of tubular insula
properly centered within tube 51.
This centering may
niobates or zirconates, are placed between tubes 51 and 45 ting bodies, one within the other, a cap at one end of said
52. Bodies 53a and 53b are held in spaced relationship
tubular electrical insulating bodies such that said cap ?ts
by tape 63 which is attached to bodies 53a and 53b around
snugly within the larger of said pair of tubular insulating
their circumferences. In similar manner, bodies 53b and
bodies, a plurality of cylindrical, electromechanically
53c are held in spaced relationship by tape 64. In place
sensitive, ceramic bodies with electrodes a?’ixed to the
of tapes 63 and 64, insulating grommets may also be 50 inner and outer surfaces thereof between said pair of
used. The spaces between bodies 53a and 53b and be
‘tubular insulating bodies, holding means, spacing means,
tween bodies 53b and 530 are shown expanded in the
said ceramic bodies being located one above the other
?gure for the purpose of clarity. Electrodes 54a, 54b and
and held in spaced relationship each from each by said
54c are suitably aflixed to the outer surfaces of bodies
holding means, said ceramic bodies being kept in spaced
53a, 53b and 530, respectively, and electrodes 55a, 55b 55 relationship with the smaller of said pair of tubular in
and 550 are similarly af?xed to the inner surfaces of bodies
sulating bodies by said spacing means, said spacing means
53a, 53b and 53c, respectively. The electrodes are ap
being placed at the extremities of said plurality of ceramic
plied to the surfaces of the ceramic bodies by any of the
bodies, said ceramic bodies being connected in series,
techniques which are well known in the art.
external electrical connections fed through said cap within
said smaller tubular insulating body for a minimum dis
Bodies 53a and 530 are held spaced from tube 52 by
tance substantially equal to the length of said smaller
grommets 56 and 57, respectively, which also serve to
tubular insulating body and making electrical connections
maintain the presence of the airspace between tube 52
and bodies 53a, 53b and 53c. Connections 61 and 62
are arranged so that the ceramic units are electrically
connected in series and outside connections are made to
to the terminal electrodes of said series connected ceramic
bodies, the space within said smaller tubular insulating
body, vbelow and above said plurality of ceramic bodies
3,0215%
and between said plurality of ceramic bodies and said
larger tubular insulating body being, ?lled with potting,
said potting sealing said electrical connections ‘at the
points ‘at which said connections leave the assembly.
2. A hydrophone ‘as described in claim 1 wherein said 5
smaller tubular insulating body contains openings therein
adjacent the end adjacent said cap.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,480,535
Alois et-‘al‘i ___________ _._ Aug; 30, 1949
10
4"
2,486,146
2,605,346
2,618,698
Frondel ______________ __ Oct. 25,1949
2,7495 32
2,761,077
Harris ________________ ____ June 5, 1956
Harris _______________ __ Aug. 28, 1956
2,762,032
2,804,603
2,837,731
2,848,672
Vogel ________________ __ Sept. 4, 1956
Harnis _______________ __ Aug. 27, 1957
2,880,404 '
Gogolick et al _________ __ July 29, 1952
Ianssen ______________ __ Nov. 18, 1952
Harris ________________ __ June 3, 1958
Harris _______________ ~_ Aug. 19, 1958
Harris _______________ __ Mar. 31, 1959
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