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April 3, 1962 3,027,610 O. E. LIDDELL METHOD OF PROTECTING TIMBERS AGAINST MARINE BORER ATTACK Filed June 4, 1958 3 Sheets-Sheet l (“m-"1"" INVENTOR. 'v/ 520. 0/2/41. 5 4/005“ 0‘, f’ ‘7a BY ‘ / , ' ?ll/:11; M ?tomee 6 April 3, 1962 o. E. LIDDELL 3,027,610 METHOD OF PROTECTING TIMBERS AGAINST MARINE BORER ATTACK Filed June 4, 1958 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR. 0mm E. 000511. ' '1 / , vizier/23,5 ‘ April 3, 1962 o. E. LIDDELL 3,027,610 METHOD OF PROTECTING TIMBERS AGAINST MARINE BORER ATTACK Filed June 4, 1958 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 _EB.¥“": R.ufrln“gi:52?" _Y .1:_ vT|. .\.i Fm;HT0W. l/l w._E\u: _.: “ T.1 L .__i a"rlo/<T ,\ \ m IT H‘ 4m aF? W1 M .r\\ a m a mM (5 “ice 3,027,619 Patented Apr. 3, 1962. 2 h/IEI‘HSI) 3,627,619 PRGTEQTING TIMBERS AGAINST l‘i/IARINE IlGRER ATTAEK Grval E. Liddell, R0. Box 142, Avalon, Calif. Fiied June 4, 1953, Ser. No. 739,771 4 Eiairns. (til. Ell-1W) the method of maintaining the encasement in snugly ?t ting engagement with the pile; FIGURE 7 is a partial sectional view, on an enlarged scale, taken along the line 7—7 of FIGURE 1 and show ing a ?rst form of socket means for holding a pair of pole pieces together; FIGURE 7a is a view similar to FIGURE 7 showing The present invention relates to a novel method for the protection of submerged wooden structures against another ‘form of socket construction; FIGURE 8 is an elevational view of an encasement in marine borer attack. 10 place on a pile with a skirt portion at the lower end It is a major object of my invention to provide an thereof held closed against the pile by a novel form of improved means and method of protecting a submerged skirt closing means; wooden structure against marine borer attack. FIGURE 9 is a perspective view showing the form of Another object of my invention is to provide a method skirt closing means utilized in FIGURE 8;; for contracting a loosely ?tted tubular encasement into 15 FIGURE 9a is a partial perspective view, on an en engagement with a pile throughout the length of the encasement from the surface of the body of water in which the pile is located without the aid of any under larged scale, showing certain details of construction of a skirt closing means; FIGURE 10 is a view similar to FIGURE 8 showing a form of protective boot applied over the lower end of Yet another object of the invention is to provide a 20 the encasement and showing another form of band for method of applying a protective encasement of this type closing the upper end of an encasement, another boot within a limited ‘working space, as between the deck of a being illustrated in position for lowering into place above pier and the water line, and by unskilled workers working the upper end of the encasement; on the surface of the water without the use or" specialized FIGURE 11 is a partial elevational view, on an en water workers. equipment whereby installation can be accomplished with larged scale, showing the upper end boot of the encase out removal of the decking. ment in place; A further object of the invention is to provide a FIGURE 11a is a view similar to FIGURE 11 showing method of this type capable of use on all lengths and an alternate form of upper end boot; diameters of piles and especially on older but still usable FIGURE 12 is a horizontal sectional view, on an en piles such as have had large surface areas eaten away by 30 larged scale, taken along the line 12-12 of FIGURE 10; borers so that they no longer have a uniform taper or diameter. It is also an object of the invention to provide an en casement for piles that can be fabricated from commer cially available materials at a cost lower than that of FIGURE 13 is a perspective view of an alternate form of closing band particularly adapted for use at the upper end of an encasement; . FIGURE 14 is a plan view of a part of another species of encasement of my invention; FIGURE 15 is a partial sectional view, on an enlarged prior devices and having a simpli?ed method of installa tion whereby the expense of protecting new and old piles scale, taken along the line 15-15 of FIGURE 14; against marine borer attack is greatly reduced. FIGURES 16 through 20 are elevational views illus A more particular object of the present invention is to trating successive steps in applying the encasement sheet provide a method of protecting a submerged wooden pile 40 of FIGURE 14 to a pile; _ against marine borer attack by wrapping a sheet of pliable FIGURE 21 is a horizontal sectional view, on an en substantially waterproof material about said pile until larged scale, taken along the line 21-21 of FIGURE 18 said sheet engages said pile throughout the pile section to illustrating the manner of contracting the encasement in be protected. Thereafter, the sheet is secured about said to intimate engagement with the pile; and V . pile to de?ne a generally circumferentially water-?lled FIGURE 22 is a detail sectional view, on a further 'en-t 45 space ‘between the pile and the sheet to thereby restrict larged scale, of the area 22 of FIGURE 21. circulation between said space and the water surrounding In the drawings, I have illustrated my improved en said sheet. In this manner the water in said space is casement as being particularly adapted for application to maintained stagnant and marine borers are prevented from piles. However, it will appear to those skilled in the art sustaining themselves within this space. that the principles of construction herein disclosed are These and other objects and advantages of my invention not necessarily so limited and can be utilized with certain other types of submerged structures. will be apparent from the following description thereof when taken in conjunction with the annexed drawings in In general the encasement comprises a substantially which: ‘ rectangular sheet of a pliable material preferably tailored FIGURE 1 is a plan view of a ?rst form of encase ment embodying my invention; FIGURE 2 is a partial sectional view, on an enlarged scale, taken along the line 2—-2 of FIGURE 1 and show 55 to conform to the dimensions of the pile to which it is to be applied, including any taper that may be present on, the pile. This sheet is rigidly reinforced against bending along at least a portion of the opposite vertical edges of the sheet. The rigidity of the reinforced edges enables FIGURE 2a is a view similar to FIGURE 2 showing 60 the entire unit to be manipulated ‘from the surface of the ing a ?rst form of pole piece construction; another type of pole piece construction; FIGURE 3 is a perspective view showing a method of installation of the encasement illustrated in FIGURE 1; FIGURE 4 is a horizontal sectional view showing an water, as from a small skiff, to arrange the encasement in tubular con?guration around the pile. Thereafter, the pair of reinforced edges are brought together and rotated in unison to contract the encasement into engagement with the pile. A fastening means on the pair of rein encasement loosely arranged in tubular con?guration 65 forced edges is then connected to the pile to hold the around a pile and indicating the method of contracting reinforced edges against counter rotation whereby the the encasement into snug engagement with the pile; engagement of the encasement around the pile is main FIGURE 5 is a View similar to FIGURE 4 but show tained. ing the encasement in fully contracted condition; The encasement sheet is preferably made of a water 70 FIGURE 6 is a partial sectional View of the area 6 of proof material which is also preferably elastic, but it is FIGURE 5, on an enlarged scale, particularly showing believed that neither of these qualities is essential. I .1 .A 3,027,610 ll prefer to use rubber or neoprene which have these quali pieces, a close, straight grain wood such as clear white ties but may also use polyvinyl chloride which has these pine or apitong mahogany is preferred. qualities to a lesser degree, or may use a woven fabric Referring now to FEGURE 1 it will be seen that both of the pole pieces 36 extend upwardly above the upper which is practically inelastic and still less waterproof. The sheet should be “substantially waterproof,” however, in the sense that while it may be porous the ratio of the volume of pores or interstices to the volume of mass re stricts the circulation of sea water around the encased timber to such an extent that the rate of circulation is less than that required to sustain marine borer life. When the salt, oxygen and organic matter which the borers extract from the sea to sustain themselves are not supplied at a sufficiently high rate the ‘borers die as a con edge of the sheet 32 ‘but at the lower ends terminate above the lower edge of the sheet 32. In order to expose the lower ends of the pole pieces 36 so that they can be cou pled in a manner hereinafter set forth, the opposite ver tical. edge as of the sheet 32 are cut out and ‘relieved as indicated at 44. As is indicated in FlGURES 2 and 2a the pole pieces are preferably a?ixed to the vertical edges of the sheet 34 with their flat sides on the same must be restricted will vary according to the type of borer, surface of the sheet. Thus, when the encasement 39 is placed in tubular con?guration around a pile the flat sides of the pole pieces face one another and their lower ends the salt, oxygen and organic matter content of the sea are exposed to one another without any barrier of por and other local conditions and is therefore subject to tions of the sheet 32. sequence. the extent to which the rate of circulation Those portions of the pole pieces 36 which extend many variables. In any event, the total rate of circulation into the en casement, through ‘the material of the sheet or into the ends of the encasement, must be low enough to arrest or prevent marine borer activity, i.e. create a toxic condi tion of stagnation inside the encasement wherein the wa— handles 48 by means of which the encasement 36 can be manipulated for placement around a pile St) in the manner shown in FIGURE 3. Thus, a man standing in ter lacks supplies of salt, oxygen and organic matter in both pole pieces 36 in one hand by means of the hen amounts su?icient to sustain life. dles 48 while the other hand is passed around the pile. above the upper edge of the sheet 32 provide a pair of a skiff or the like on the surface of the water can hold The other hand then takes one of the pole pieces 36 to draw the sheet 32 around the pile Sii. It will particularly encasement with two different modes of application to be observed that the encasement 30 for the major por piles. In each case, the encasement is shown with cer tion of its length can be submerged in the body of water tain details of construction. However it is to be un derstood that such details of construction are not neces 30 52 during this operation and the encasement 30 will therefore assume a buoyancy which makes it relatively sarily con?ned to the species of encasement with which easy for a single man to manipulate even a very long they are shown and in many instances can be applied to encasement 3ft. It also frequently happens that a num either of the illustrated species of encasement. ber of piles will be closely spaced together so that it Referring now to FIGURE 1, a ?rst species of encase would be quite dii?cult to apply a ‘tubular casing thereto mentis’illustrated therein and identi?ed generally by the by ?rst aligning it above the pile and then lowering it numeral 30. This encasement includes a substantially around the pile. With the method of installation just de rectangular thin sheet 32 of a pliable substantially water In the drawings I have shown two speci?c species of proof material, preferably elastic in nature, cut to a length at least as great as the area’ of the pile to be pro tected against marine borer attack. The sheet 32 through out its length ‘is of a width preferably greater than the corresponding circumference of the pile and the opposite vertical edges 34 of the sheet are preferably cut with a taper conforming to the taper of the pile. Where the area of the pile which is to be protected is relatively short, the taper of the pile can be ignored. However in orderv to achieve a- neat construction it is ordinarily pref~ erable to tailor the sheet with tapered opposite vertical edges. . Each of the edges 34 is rigidly reinforced against bending by a pole piece 36 whose detail construction is illustrated in FIGURE 2. Each of the pole pieces 36 in scribed, as long as there is su?icient space between ad jacent piles for a person to pass his hand therethrough, or to admit the thickness of one of the pole pieces 36 my improved encasement can quite easily be placed around the pile. This method of installation is also important in those instances where a deck (not shown) is support ed on top of the piles in close proximity to the Surface of the body of water 52. Where the upper end of the piles are obstructed-whereby working space is limited in this fashion no difficulty has been encountered in making successful installations of encasements. After the encasement 3%} has been ‘wrapped around the pile 50 in the manner shown in FIGURE 3 the lower ends of the two pole pieces 36 are releasably joined by means provided on the lower ends of the two pole pieces. The lower end of one of the pole pieces 36 is provided with a semi-cylindrical socket 525‘ having a cavity 54 adapt portion of the sheet 32 is placed. A semi-cylindrical ed to loosely or slidably receive the exposed lower end member 40, preferably of metal and having a cavity of the wooden member 38 of the other pole piece 36, adapted to receive both the edge portions of the sheet the socket 52 being held on its pole piece 36 by screws 56 or other suitable fastening means' As is indicated in 32 and ‘the ?ller member 38, is then placed around these FIGURE 3, by manipulation of the handles 48, the ex elements and the Whole held in assembled relationship by a plurality of rivets 42 or other suitable fastening means. 60 posed lower end of the wooden member 38 of the one The metal parts can be made of ordinary steel, galvan~ pole piece 36 can be inserted into the cavity 54 of the socket 52 on the other pole piece 36. Thereafter the ized metal, copper alloy or hearing metals such as brass two pole pieces 36 are brought together to de?ne a sub or Monel metal, and like materials such as are adapted stantially cylindrical unit or assembly. to resist the corrosive effects of sea water. cludes a semi-cylindrical ?ller member 38 of wood, met al, plastic or the like over whose arcuate face one edge Instead of the pole piece construction just described, in some cases it is preferable to employ a pair of pole pieces’ 36a of the type shown in FIGURE 2a. This al ternative comprises a semi-cylindrical wooden member, preferably creosoted to resist attack by marine borers. It is to be understood however that treatment with creo sote or other arti?cial chemical agents is not essential since the wooden pole pieces 36a can ‘be protected against borers in the same way as a pile; i.e. by wrapping them in portions of the sheet 32. I have also found that while many species of wood are satisfactory for use as pole FIGURE 7a illustrates another type of socket 52a on one of the wooden pole pieces 36a. In this case a semi cylindrical cavity 5% is defined by a portion of the sheet 32 such as would otherwise be a part of one of the cutout portions 44. Alternatively the socket 52a can be made of a separate piece of elastic waterproof material vul canized or otherwise a?ixed in position on the sheet 32. The socket 52a is utilized in precisely the same manner as the socket 52.. To facilitate connection of the two pole pieces, the socket cavity can be enlarged and can also be tapered. 3,627,610 6 After the two pole pieces 36 have been brought to gether to de?ne a complete cylindrical enclosure around the pile 50, the encasement 30 is moved to the desired vertical position on the pile. Thereafter the pair of pole cated in FIGURE 9 and indicated by the numeral 68. to hold the two pole pieces together during contraction on the inside of band 68 than on the outer surface of the band. The stem 78 is therefore wedge-shaped in cross section and narrows as it develops toward the adjacent end of the band 68. The head 80 of hook 72 is of the same width as the major portion or the band 68 proper and has a junction with the stem portion 78 in a pair This band 68 has a length approximately the same as the circumference of pileStl. one end band 63 is formed with a longitudinally elongate eye 70 adapted for coopera pieces 36 are rotated in unison, as is indicated in FIGURE tive engagement by a hook 72 formed in the opposite 4, to contract the encasement 39 into engagement with end of band 68. Since band 68 is preferably in a state the pile 5t} (FIGURE 5). The force of this engagement of tension when applied to the skirt 46, the eye 76 and will be sufficient to hold the encasement 30‘ against slip hook 72 should be of such a con?guration as to avoid ping downwardly on the pile 50. However, in order to rupture of the material of the band, particularly at the aid in holding the encasement 36 in place, but primarily 10 eye 70. This is important for insuring a long service to hold the pair of pole pieces 36 against counter-rotation life for the band 63. in a direction such as would permit loosening of the sheet To accomplish this, the eye 76 comprises a longitudinal 32, a lag bolt 60 is inserted through aligned bores 62 in ly elongate slit 74 of a length approximately the same the handle portions 48 of the pole pieces and fastened as the width of band 63 and terminating at both ends in directly to the pole 50. arcuate openings '76 adapted to avoid the concentration I have found that the use of a socket at the lower end of rupturing stresses in the ends of eye 79 when hook 72 of the pole pieces and a fastener, such as the lag bolt 6%}, is placed therein. The hook 72 is generally T-shaped in at the upper end of the pole pieces is ordinarily su?icient con?guration and has a stem section 78 which is wider of the encasement. However, in some instances it may be desirable to fasten the two pole pieces 36 or 364: to gether at spaced intervals along their length. For such a purpose I have shown in FIGURE 1 a plurality of spaced bores 64 in one pole piece 36 adapted for align ment with other bores 64 formed in the other pole piece. 25 of opposite shoulders 82, which are preferably CtIlgUi'a‘i‘ly When the two pole pieces 36 are brought together suit~ related and convergent towards the adjacent end of the able fasteners can be inserted through the aligned bores band 68. 64 to securely maintain the pair of pole pieces in as The band 68 can be installed either from the surface sembled relationship. of the body of water 52 or by a diver. With the former In order to protect the pole pieces against deteriora 30 procedure the hook 72 and eye 74) are connected after tion from exposure to the water, and in the case of wood band 63 has been placed around the pile 56}, or around en pole pieces 36a, to prevent attack by marine borers, the upper end of the encasement 3t}. Thereafter, even it is preferable that the sheet 32 have a width greater than the circumference of the pile 50 as is indicated in FIG— URE 4. This excess width should be at least suf?cient through the band 68 is under tension, it can he slid down to wrap the pair of pole pieces in edge portions of the sheet 32 one or two times when the pair of pole pieces are rotated to contract the encasement against the pile 5t). end of the pole pieces 36. This can be accomplished by using a pair of long poles, notched at their lower ends to hold the band, inserted on opposite sides of the pole Thereafter, the pair of pole pieces are protected against between the pile and band, to push the hand down. As wardly over the encasement 31) until it snaps or contracts into place around skirt 46 after passing over the lower the corrosive e?ect of the ambient water or against marine 4-0 is apparent, when the band 63 is to be installed by a diver borer attack. it can be carried in open condition to the bottom of en The wrapped pair of pole pieces 36 and edge portions casement 30 by the diver, who thereafter stretches it of the sheet 32, have a substantial combined girth. As around the skirt 46 and then connects the hook 72 through a result, a part of the sheet 32 extends tangentially be the eye 70. In making this connection it is preferable tween the pile 59 and the wrapped pole pieces 36 leaving to twist the head 89 of hook 72 90° from its normal con gap 66 between the sheet 32 and pile 50 running the dition to pass it through the slit 74 of eye 70, which is length of pole pieces 36. As a result, some of the am of approximately the same width as the head 3t}. After bient water may circulate through the gap 66, thus hin engagement it will be noted that the wedge-‘like contigu dering the maintenance of a stagnant condition inside ration of stem portion 78 of the hook 72 prevents a sharp the encasement. In some ports or geographical locations 50 ly divergent separation of the opposite sides of the slit this may not be critical, but in other localities where ma 74 of eye 70 so that concentration of stresses is mini rine borer attack is severe and continuous it is desirable mized. to close the gap 66, at least at the lower end of the en It will be apparent that other fastening means can be casement 39. utilized in lieu of the hook-and~eye means 70 and 72. A skirt 46, comprising a portion of sheet 32 depend 55 For example, opposite ends of an elastic band can be vul ing beneath the pole pieces 36, aids in closing the gap 66 at the lower end of the encasement 30, and in pro tecting the extreme lower ends of the pole pieces 36 against exposure to the sea water or marine borer attack. Since the pole pieces 36 terminate short of the lower end of the sheet 32, the skirt 46 can be completely circum ferentially clamped against the pile 50 without obstruc tion by the pole pieces 36 so that formation of any gap in the skirt portion of the sheet 32 is avoided. It will be understood however that the skirt 46, like the balance of the sheet 32, is in contact with the pile 50 for the major portion of the circumference of the pile and is open only at gap 66. However a complete band around the skirt 46 can be very readily applied and enhances the intimacy of the engagement of the skirt with the pile 5i} 70 p and therefore the use of a complete circular band is pre ferred, rather than some less than circular means adapted to ?t only over the gap 66. The skirt closing bands can be made of any suitable canized or cemented together, or stapled or riveted. However these alternate fastening means involve expendi tures of time and labor which are avoided by the band 68. Vulcanizing or cementing involve lapses of time merely in waiting for the joined parts to be securely con nected and also require the use of specialized equipment. On the other hand the band 68 can be fabricated easily, even in the ?eld. The upper end of the encasement 30 will normally be positioned above the high~tide line of the body of water 52 where it will usually be safe from marine borer at tack. If desired, the further precaution may be taken of closing the gap 66 at the upper end of the encasement 30 in order to restrict circulation of the ambient Water therein. due to Wave action. Where closure of the upper end of the encasement 30 is desired a band 84-, such as that shown in FIGURE 13, can be employed for the pur pose. The band 84 is also preferably made of a rubber-like plastic material. A preferred form of such band is indi— 75 material and includes an integral rigid U~shaped section 3,027,610 8 86 adapted for semi-circularly embracing the pair of Wrapped pole pieces 36 at the upper end of the encase ment 30. The U-shaped portion 86 may be de?ned by a complementarily shaped metal insert molded within the band 34 or may be otherwise reinforced against separa tion of the opposite arms thereof when the band 815 is stretched. in use, the band 84 is positioned at the upper end of the encasement 30' with the wrapped pole pieces as received within the U-shaped portion 86, thus closing he encasement 100, like encasement 30, has particular utility in situations such as those just mentioned. Encasement 100 comprises a substantially rectangular sheet 101% of a substantially Waterproof pliable material and a tubular pole piece 106. The sheet 104 is made of the same class of materials as sheet 32 and is of a length. sufiicient to reach from a point above the mean tide level of the body of water 52 down to a point one or two feet below the mud line 92. This sheet 104 is the gap 60. Thereafter, the ends 84 can be vulcanized 10 also preferably tapered to conform to the pile taper and or cemented together. Alternatively the opposite ends of the band 04 can be formed with hook-and-eye means '70-—72 as illustrated in FIGURE 11a. has a width throughout its length exceeding the corre sponding circumference of the pile 102, this excess width preferably being su?icient to provide enough material to wrap the pole piece ‘106 within the pair of vertical edge In order to minimize the circulation of Water behind the encasement ‘30 I have utilized a pair of elastic boots 15 portions of the sheet 104 when the sheet is contracted into 83, also preferably made from a rubber-like material. Such boots can be used in addition to, or in lieu of the gap closing bands. Referring to FIGURE 10 it will be seen that the boots 88 comprise relatively Wide elastic bands Whose opposite ends are vulcanized or cemented snug engagement with the pile 102. Each of the opposite vertical edges of the sheet 104 is provided with an enlarged bead 103 that is preferably integrally formed and semi-cylindrical in con?guration, both of the heads 108 preferably being disposed on the together after the band has been stretched and placed in tension around the pile 50. This operation preferably same surface of the sheet 104. However, it will be ap parent that the beads may assume other con?gurations and may also be separately formed and a?xed to oppo takes place on the pile above the upper end of encase site vertical edges of the sheet 104 by vulcanizing, ce ment 30. After fabrication, one band 88 is expanded by any suitable means, such as a plurality of poles, and 25 menting, or suitable fasteners. guided and slipped downwardly over the pile 50 and en The pole piece res is preferably made of a metal, such as Monel, adapted to successfully resist corrosion from casement 30 to be positioned around the skirt 46, imme diately beneath the lower ends of the pole pieces 36. sea water action but may also be of wood or plastic. As Another band 88 is then slipped down to the position in indicated in FIGURE 22, the pole piece 106 is thin dicated ‘in FlGURE 11 to embrace both the pile 50 and 30 walled, but should have su?icient rigidity to support the the extreme upper end of the pole pieces 36 and sheet ‘32. sheet 104 during installation and be capable of with Another form of boot 90 is illustrated in FIGURE standing the forces applied to it during the twisting oper 11a. In this instance the boot 90 comprises a relatively ation without undue distortion. Along one side, the pole wide band of rubber-like material wrapped in a position piece 106 is formed with a longitudinally extending slot around the pile 50, the extreme upper end of pole pieces 110, preferably running the entire length of the pole 36, and the upper edge of sheet 32 and is held in place piece 106, and this slot should be wide enoughto easily by nails or other suitable fasteners 92. It will be ob accommodate twice the thickness of the intermediate served that the nails $2 are not driven through any part portions of the sheet 104, so that a double thickness of of the sheet 32 since itis desirable to maintain the in sheet 104 can be readily slid through the slot 110. By tegrity of the sheet. the same token, the interior diameter of the tube 106 If desired, any of these boots which are to be used at should be large enough to easily slidably accommodate the upper end of an encasement can be made of a heavy the pair of beads 103. The combined thickness of the material to also serve as fenders. The boots can also be beads 108 is greater than the Width of the slot 110 where relatively short encasements secured in place by a fas by th eedges of the sheet 104 are restrained against tener in their pole pieces and the pole pieces placed on top of the gap 66 of the main encasement to close the gap. movement radially outwardly of the pole piece 106. In the installation of the encasement 100, the sheet 104 is rolled up about a transverse axis on a spindle or other suitable support and held in position adjacent the Depending upon local conditions, the area of the pile upper end of the pile 102. The pole piece 106 is then which is subject to marine borer attack may extend from placed in a vertical position adjacent the pile 102 with well above the tide line to the mud line of the body of its lower end supported on the bottom or mud line 92. water. Although the encasement 30 has been illustrated It will be observed that the pole piece 106 is disposed in the drawings as being ?nally installed with its lower on the side of pile 102 opposite from the rolled up sheet end terminating above the mud line 92 of the body of water 52, it is tobe understood that, with or without 55 104 and the slot 110 of pole piece 106 confronts the pile 102. The pair of beaded edges 108 of the free end of the the skirt portion 46, it can equally well be installed with sheet 104 are then slid into the open upper end of the its lower end positioned beneath the mud line 92. By pole piece 106 with a double thickness of the sheet 104 the same token, the alternate form of encasement 100 slidably entering the slot 110. Thus, as the sheet 104 is illustrated in FIGURES 14 through 21, while illustrated slid downwardly over the pile 102 and as the beaded as being ?nally installed with its lower end beneath the 60 edges 108 concurrently are moved downwardly through mud line §2, can equally well be installed in the position the pole piece 106, the sheet as it is unrolled assumes a illustrated for the encasement 30. The encasement 100 is particularly well adapted for tubular con?guration surrounding the pile 102. application to extremely long piles 102‘ where the pile accomplished, if desired, with the aid of a diver to pull the sheet 104 downwardly. However, in order to make must be protected down to the mud line 92 of the body of water 52. As with the encasement 30, it may fre quently be necessary to make such installation within a limited working space as when a decking is supported On the piles 102 in close proximity to the surface of the body of water 52. It is, of course, desirable to be able to make such an installation Without tearing up any This installation of sheet 104 around pile ‘102 can be an installation of encasement 100 entirely from the sur face of the body of Water 52, a pusher rod 112 can be used, such as is generally shown in FIGURE 17. The pusher rod 112 is conveniently made up of a number of telescopically connectable short tubular sections 114. A lowermost section 116 is provided at its lower end with a decking and it is also desirable to be able to make such clamping means ‘118 for gripping the lower edges of the an installation entirely from the surface of the body of sheet 104. The clamp means 118 is actuated by an elon water 52 without the aid of any underwater workers. 75 gate member (not shown) passing through the tubular 3,027,610 9 10 sections 114 and 116 and connected to a handle device minimum expenditure of time and effort to expose the pile to view to ascertain whether or not any marine borer activity is going on. This removable feature also permits vertical adjustment of the encasement to change 1120 at the upper end of rod 112 for releasing the clamp means 118 from engagement with the sheet 104. As many tubular intermediate sections 114 as desired can be em ployed for making up a pusher rod 112 of the length necessary to push the sheet 164 downwardly to the mud line 92 and through the pole piece 106. To facilitate contraction of the sheet 104, the sheet should be pushed downwardly to a position in which its its position to meet a change in the area of the pile sub jected to marine borer attack. For example, if the mud line 92 should lower, as it will in some locations, to such an extent that it exposes the lower end of the surround ing encasement, the encasement can be quickly removed upper edge is beneath the upper end of the pole piece 10 and lowered into a new position in a new crater and once 106 whereby a handle portion 122 of the pole piece pro again fastened into place. jects above the upper edge of the sheet 104. At the same In the use of these encasements, they can be applied time, if it is desired to have a skirt portion 124 at the to new pilings in lieu of any of the conventional creosote lower end of the sheet 194, the sheet 104 should be or any other protection. Alternatively, a newly creo pushed downwardly until its lower end is beneath the 15 soted pile may be put in place and left without the pro lower end of the pole piece 106. tection of my encasements until such time as a substan When the encasement 109 is in the position of FIG tial part of the creosote has leached from the pile. These URE 18, the pusher rod 112 is removed by actuation of encasements are then applied to the pile to arrest any the handle portion 122. Thereafter, the pole piece 106 marine borer activity which has already ensued and to is rotated, as indicated by the directional arrow 126 in prevent any further marine borer attack. This greatly FIGURE 21, in order to take up the slack in the sheet extends the service life of an initially creosoted pile which, 104, but not fully contracting the sheet into engagement without my invention, would very shortly be condemned with the pile 192. A lance 128 is then directed to the as structurally unsound. junction of the pile 102 with the bottom 92 and com Although the species of the invention herein shown pressed air or water directed through the lance to create and described are fully capable of achieving the objects a small crater 13%, one or two feet in depth. Since the and providing the advantages hereinbefore mentioned, encasement llltl has already been preliminarily closed into contact with the pile 1&2, none of the material removed it is to be understood that they and the several details of construction thereof are merely illustrative and that I from the crater 130 will enter thereinto. In some in stances, if the water is made turbid by the action of the do not mean to limit myself to the details of construc tion shown and described other than as de?ned in the fol lance 128, it may be desirable to employ the services of lowing claims. a diver to ascertain that the crater 130 is properly formed. Alternatively, the diver may, of course, create the crater 130 with hand tools. After removal of the lance 128, encasement ‘10b is low ered into its ?nal position, indicated in FIGURE 20, with its lower end seated in the bottom of the crater 130. Pole piece W6 is then further twisted in the same I claim: 1. A method of protecting against marine borer attack a partially submerged structure-bearing wooden pile, the upper end of which is obstructed, comprising: positioning a sheet of pliable substantially waterproof material along side of a section of said pile to be protected, wrapping said sheet around said pile section to dispose opposite direction until the sheet 1d4 ?ts smoothly around the longitudinal edges of said sheet in substantial juxtaposi pile 102. A lag bolt 132 is then inserted through a bore 40 tion extending generally longitudinally of said pile, over— 134 in the handle portion 122 of the pole piece 106 and lapping the opposite longitudinal edges of said sheet, draw fastened into the pile 1&2 whereby the pole piece 106 is ing said sheet about said pile section to reduce the effec held against counter-rotation and the ?t of the encase tive diameter enclosed by said sheet until said sheet en ment 1% on the pile 162 is maintained. Tidal action gages said pile throughout a substantial portion of the of the body of water 52 will very shortly ?ll in the crater 45 length of said pile section, securing said sheet about said 13%} so that the lower end of the encasement 104) is e?'ec pile section in reduced diameter condition to de?ne a tively sealed against penetration by marine borers or ex generally circumferential water-?lled space between said cessive circulation of water. pile and said sheet, and retaining water within said space If desired, a suitable band or other clamping means may with ‘circulation between said space and the water sur_ be al?xed around the skirt portion 124, in the same man 50 rounding said sheet being restricted to thereby maintain ner as with the encasement 30. Similarly, the upper end the water in said space stagnant to prevent marine borer of encasement 1% can also be further closed by a clamp attack on the submerged portion of said pile encased by ing band. If desired, any water entrapped within the said sheet. pole piece 106 can be evacuated by ?lling it with a ma 2. A method of protecting against marine borer at terial such as oil, mastic, or paint which will displace the tack a partially submerged structure~bearing wooden pile, trapped water and thus inhibit corrosion of the pole piece the upper end of which is obstructed, with such piling ex— 106. The pole piece ‘1th’; may be protected against cor tending upwardly ‘from the mud line of a body of water, rosion by providing enough width in the sheet .104 to comprising: forming a crater lower than the mud line ad completely wrap the pole piece 106. The use of the sin gle tubular pole piece 106 results in the creation of a gap 60 jacent said pile, positioning a sheet of pliable substan tially water-proof material alongside of a section of said similar to the gap 66 de?ned with the use of encasement pile to be protected, wrapping said sheet around said pile 30. However, if desired, this gap is elfectively sealed section to dispose opposite longitudinal edges of said sheet by the back ?lled crater 139. If the encasement 100 is not installed with its lower end in the bottom 92, the gap can be closed, if desired, by a clamping means around the skirt 124 or, if no skirt is provided, by a clamping band similar to either one of the boots 8S and 90. A number of important advantages arise out of the removable construction of the encasements 30 and 100‘. For example, in the event of rupture of the material of the sheet of these encasements, by ?oating debris or other mechanical action, the encasement can be quickly re~ moved and readily repaired by a conventional patch. If it is desired to make periodic inspections of the piles, in substantial jutaposition extending generally longitudi~ nally of said pile, overlapping the opposite longitudinal edges of said sheet, drawing said sheet about said pile section to reduce the effective diameter enclosed by said sheet until said sheet engages said pile throughout a sub stantial portion of the length of said pile section, lowering said sheet until its lower end is disposed within said crater, securing said sheet about said pile section in reduced di ameter condition to de?ne a generally circumferential water-?lled space between said pile and said sheet, and retaining water within said space with circulation between the encasements can be removed and replaced with a 75 said space and the water surrounding said sheet being 1\ 8,027,610 1 l. portion of said pile encased by said sheet. 3. A method of protecting against marine borer attack a partially submerged structure-bearing wooden pile, the upper end of which is obstructed, comprising: positioning sheet engages said pile throughout a substantial portion of the length of said pile section, lowering said sheet un til its lower end is disposed within said'erater, securing said sheet about said pile section in reduced diameter condition to de?ne a generally circumferential water-?lled space between said pile and said sheet, and retaining water asheet of pliable substantially waterproof material along within said space with circulation between said space and restricted to thereby maintain the water in said space stag nant to prevent marine borer attack on the submerged the water surrounding said sheet being restricted to there by maintain the water in said space stagnant to prevent said sheet around said pile section to dispose opposite longitudinal edges of said sheet in substantial juxtaposi 10 marine borer attack on the submerged portion of said pile encased by said sheet. tion extending generally longitudinally of said pile, sti?fen ing said opposite longitudinal edges, overlapping the op References Eite-d in the ?le of this patent posite longitudinal edges of said sheet, drawing said sheet side of a section of said pile to be protected, wrapping about said pile section to reduce the eifective diameter enclosed by said sheet until said sheet engages said pile 15 throughout a substantial portion of the length of said pile section, securing said sheet about said pile section in re duced diameter condition to de?ne a generally circum ferentially water-?lled Space between said pile and said sheet, and retaining Water within said space With circula 20 tion between said space and the water surrounding said sheet being restricted to thereby maintain the water in said space stagnant to prevent marine borer attack on the sub merged portion of said pile encased by saidsheet. 4. A method of protecting against marine borer attack 25 a partially submerged structure-bearing wooden pile, the upper end of which is obstructed, with such piling ex tending upwardly from the mud line of a body of Water, comprising: forming a crater lower than the mud line adjacent said pile, positioning a sheet of pliable substan tially waterproof material alongside of a section of said pile to be protected, wrapping said sheet around said pile section to dispose opposite longitudinal edges of said sheet in substantial juxtaposition extending generally longitudi nally of- said pile, stiffening said opposite longitudinal edges, overlapping the opposite longitudinal edges of said sheet, drawing said sheet about said pile section to reduce the effective diameter enclosed by said sheet until said UNITED STATES PATENTS 62,295 333,204 395,866 942,761 Smith _______________ __ Feb. 19, Dolbeer _____________ __ Dec. 29, Anderson et al. ________ __ Jan. 8, Voynow ______________ __ Dec. 7, 1867 1885 1889 1909 1,244,119 Mulnix et a1. _________ __ Oct. 23, 1917 1,252,645 1,353,598 Baier ________________ __ Jan. 8, 1918 Lewis _______________ __ ept. 21, 1920 1,546,860 Neubort _____________ __ July 21, 1925 1,963,436 2,385,869 2,659,687 2,757,428 Durnke ______________ __ June 19, Lane ________________ __ Oct. 2, Moore ______________ __ Nov. 17, Stark ________________ __ Aug. 7, 2,853,758 Topf ________________ __ Sept. 30, 1958 669,489 331,576 Germany ____________ __ Dec. 28, 1938 Italy _________________ __ Nov. 9, 1935 1934 1945 1953 1956 FOREIGN PATENTS OTHER REFERENCES Smith: “Preservation of Piling Against Marine Wood 35 Borers,” U.S. Dept. of Agr., Forest‘ Service, Circ. 128, 1908, 16 pp.; esp. pp. 8-11. Atwood: “Marine Piling Investigation,” National Re search Council, Washington, D.C., 1924, pp. 87-106.