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Патент USA US3027620

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April 3, 1962
3,027,610
O. E. LIDDELL
METHOD OF PROTECTING TIMBERS AGAINST MARINE BORER ATTACK
Filed June 4, 1958
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April 3, 1962
o. E. LIDDELL
3,027,610
METHOD OF PROTECTING TIMBERS AGAINST MARINE BORER ATTACK
Filed June 4, 1958
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
INVENTOR.
0mm E. 000511.
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April 3, 1962
o. E. LIDDELL
3,027,610
METHOD OF PROTECTING TIMBERS AGAINST MARINE BORER ATTACK
Filed June 4, 1958
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
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3,027,619
Patented Apr. 3, 1962.
2
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3,627,619
PRGTEQTING TIMBERS AGAINST
l‘i/IARINE IlGRER ATTAEK
Grval E. Liddell, R0. Box 142, Avalon, Calif.
Fiied June 4, 1953, Ser. No. 739,771
4 Eiairns. (til. Ell-1W)
the method of maintaining the encasement in snugly ?t
ting engagement with the pile;
FIGURE 7 is a partial sectional view, on an enlarged
scale, taken along the line 7—7 of FIGURE 1 and show
ing a ?rst form of socket means for holding a pair of
pole pieces together;
FIGURE 7a is a view similar to FIGURE 7 showing
The present invention relates to a novel method for
the protection of submerged wooden structures against
another ‘form of socket construction;
FIGURE 8 is an elevational view of an encasement in
marine borer attack.
10 place on a pile with a skirt portion at the lower end
It is a major object of my invention to provide an
thereof held closed against the pile by a novel form of
improved means and method of protecting a submerged
skirt closing means;
wooden structure against marine borer attack.
FIGURE 9 is a perspective view showing the form of
Another object of my invention is to provide a method
skirt closing means utilized in FIGURE 8;;
for contracting a loosely ?tted tubular encasement into 15
FIGURE 9a is a partial perspective view, on an en
engagement with a pile throughout the length of the
encasement from the surface of the body of water in
which the pile is located without the aid of any under
larged scale, showing certain details of construction of a
skirt closing means;
FIGURE 10 is a view similar to FIGURE 8 showing
a form of protective boot applied over the lower end of
Yet another object of the invention is to provide a 20 the encasement and showing another form of band for
method of applying a protective encasement of this type
closing the upper end of an encasement, another boot
within a limited ‘working space, as between the deck of a
being illustrated in position for lowering into place above
pier and the water line, and by unskilled workers working
the upper end of the encasement;
on the surface of the water without the use or" specialized
FIGURE 11 is a partial elevational view, on an en
water workers.
equipment whereby installation can be accomplished with
larged scale, showing the upper end boot of the encase
out removal of the decking.
ment in place;
A further object of the invention is to provide a
FIGURE 11a is a view similar to FIGURE 11 showing
method of this type capable of use on all lengths and
an alternate form of upper end boot;
diameters of piles and especially on older but still usable
FIGURE 12 is a horizontal sectional view, on an en
piles such as have had large surface areas eaten away by 30 larged scale, taken along the line 12-12 of FIGURE 10;
borers so that they no longer have a uniform taper or
diameter.
It is also an object of the invention to provide an en
casement for piles that can be fabricated from commer
cially available materials at a cost lower than that of
FIGURE 13 is a perspective view of an alternate form
of closing band particularly adapted for use at the upper
end of an encasement;
.
FIGURE 14 is a plan view of a part of another species
of encasement of my invention;
FIGURE 15 is a partial sectional view, on an enlarged
prior devices and having a simpli?ed method of installa
tion whereby the expense of protecting new and old piles
scale, taken along the line 15-15 of FIGURE 14;
against marine borer attack is greatly reduced.
FIGURES 16 through 20 are elevational views illus
A more particular object of the present invention is to
trating successive steps in applying the encasement sheet
provide a method of protecting a submerged wooden pile 40 of FIGURE 14 to a pile; _
against marine borer attack by wrapping a sheet of pliable
FIGURE 21 is a horizontal sectional view, on an en
substantially waterproof material about said pile until
larged scale, taken along the line 21-21 of FIGURE 18
said sheet engages said pile throughout the pile section to
illustrating the manner of contracting the encasement in
be protected. Thereafter, the sheet is secured about said
to intimate engagement with the pile; and
V
.
pile to de?ne a generally circumferentially water-?lled
FIGURE 22 is a detail sectional view, on a further 'en-t
45
space ‘between the pile and the sheet to thereby restrict
larged scale, of the area 22 of FIGURE 21.
circulation between said space and the water surrounding
In the drawings, I have illustrated my improved en
said sheet. In this manner the water in said space is
casement as being particularly adapted for application to
maintained stagnant and marine borers are prevented from
piles. However, it will appear to those skilled in the art
sustaining themselves within this space.
that the principles of construction herein disclosed are
These and other objects and advantages of my invention
not necessarily so limited and can be utilized with certain
other types of submerged structures.
will be apparent from the following description thereof
when taken in conjunction with the annexed drawings in
In general the encasement comprises a substantially
which:
‘
rectangular sheet of a pliable material preferably tailored
FIGURE 1 is a plan view of a ?rst form of encase
ment embodying my invention;
FIGURE 2 is a partial sectional view, on an enlarged
scale, taken along the line 2—-2 of FIGURE 1 and show
55 to conform to the dimensions of the pile to which it is to
be applied, including any taper that may be present on,
the pile. This sheet is rigidly reinforced against bending
along at least a portion of the opposite vertical edges of
the sheet. The rigidity of the reinforced edges enables
FIGURE 2a is a view similar to FIGURE 2 showing 60 the entire unit to be manipulated ‘from the surface of the
ing a ?rst form of pole piece construction;
another type of pole piece construction;
FIGURE 3 is a perspective view showing a method of
installation of the encasement illustrated in FIGURE 1;
FIGURE 4 is a horizontal sectional view showing an
water, as from a small skiff, to arrange the encasement
in tubular con?guration around the pile. Thereafter, the
pair of reinforced edges are brought together and rotated
in unison to contract the encasement into engagement
with
the pile. A fastening means on the pair of rein
encasement loosely arranged in tubular con?guration 65 forced edges is then connected to the pile to hold the
around a pile and indicating the method of contracting
reinforced edges against counter rotation whereby the
the encasement into snug engagement with the pile;
engagement of the encasement around the pile is main
FIGURE 5 is a View similar to FIGURE 4 but show
tained.
ing the encasement in fully contracted condition;
The encasement sheet is preferably made of a water
70
FIGURE 6 is a partial sectional View of the area 6 of
proof material which is also preferably elastic, but it is
FIGURE 5, on an enlarged scale, particularly showing
believed that neither of these qualities is essential. I
.1 .A
3,027,610
ll
prefer to use rubber or neoprene which have these quali
pieces, a close, straight grain wood such as clear white
ties but may also use polyvinyl chloride which has these
pine or apitong mahogany is preferred.
qualities to a lesser degree, or may use a woven fabric
Referring now to FEGURE 1 it will be seen that both
of the pole pieces 36 extend upwardly above the upper
which is practically inelastic and still less waterproof.
The sheet should be “substantially waterproof,” however,
in the sense that while it may be porous the ratio of the
volume of pores or interstices to the volume of mass re
stricts the circulation of sea water around the encased
timber to such an extent that the rate of circulation is
less than that required to sustain marine borer life.
When the salt, oxygen and organic matter which the
borers extract from the sea to sustain themselves are not
supplied at a sufficiently high rate the ‘borers die as a con
edge of the sheet 32 ‘but at the lower ends terminate above
the lower edge of the sheet 32. In order to expose the
lower ends of the pole pieces 36 so that they can be cou
pled in a manner hereinafter set forth, the opposite ver
tical. edge as of the sheet 32 are cut out and ‘relieved
as indicated at 44. As is indicated in FlGURES 2 and
2a the pole pieces are preferably a?ixed to the vertical
edges of the sheet 34 with their flat sides on the same
must be restricted will vary according to the type of borer,
surface of the sheet. Thus, when the encasement 39 is
placed in tubular con?guration around a pile the flat sides
of the pole pieces face one another and their lower ends
the salt, oxygen and organic matter content of the sea
are exposed to one another without any barrier of por
and other local conditions and is therefore subject to
tions of the sheet 32.
sequence.
the extent to which the rate of circulation
Those portions of the pole pieces 36 which extend
many variables.
In any event, the total rate of circulation into the en
casement, through ‘the material of the sheet or into the
ends of the encasement, must be low enough to arrest or
prevent marine borer activity, i.e. create a toxic condi
tion of stagnation inside the encasement wherein the wa—
handles 48 by means of which the encasement 36 can
be manipulated for placement around a pile St) in the
manner shown in FIGURE 3. Thus, a man standing in
ter lacks supplies of salt, oxygen and organic matter in
both pole pieces 36 in one hand by means of the hen
amounts su?icient to sustain life.
dles 48 while the other hand is passed around the pile.
above the upper edge of the sheet 32 provide a pair of
a skiff or the like on the surface of the water can hold
The other hand then takes one of the pole pieces 36 to
draw the sheet 32 around the pile Sii. It will particularly
encasement with two different modes of application to
be observed that the encasement 30 for the major por
piles. In each case, the encasement is shown with cer
tion of its length can be submerged in the body of water
tain details of construction. However it is to be un
derstood that such details of construction are not neces 30 52 during this operation and the encasement 30 will
therefore assume a buoyancy which makes it relatively
sarily con?ned to the species of encasement with which
easy for a single man to manipulate even a very long
they are shown and in many instances can be applied to
encasement 3ft. It also frequently happens that a num
either of the illustrated species of encasement.
ber of piles will be closely spaced together so that it
Referring now to FIGURE 1, a ?rst species of encase
would be quite dii?cult to apply a ‘tubular casing thereto
mentis’illustrated therein and identi?ed generally by the
by ?rst aligning it above the pile and then lowering it
numeral 30. This encasement includes a substantially
around the pile. With the method of installation just de
rectangular thin sheet 32 of a pliable substantially water
In the drawings I have shown two speci?c species of
proof material, preferably elastic in nature, cut to a
length at least as great as the area’ of the pile to be pro
tected against marine borer attack. The sheet 32 through
out its length ‘is of a width preferably greater than the
corresponding circumference of the pile and the opposite
vertical edges 34 of the sheet are preferably cut with a
taper conforming to the taper of the pile. Where the
area of the pile which is to be protected is relatively
short, the taper of the pile can be ignored. However in
orderv to achieve a- neat construction it is ordinarily pref~
erable to tailor the sheet with tapered opposite vertical
edges.
.
Each of the edges 34 is rigidly reinforced against
bending by a pole piece 36 whose detail construction is
illustrated in FIGURE 2. Each of the pole pieces 36 in
scribed, as long as there is su?icient space between ad
jacent piles for a person to pass his hand therethrough,
or to admit the thickness of one of the pole pieces 36 my
improved encasement can quite easily be placed around
the pile. This method of installation is also important
in those instances where a deck (not shown) is support
ed on top of the piles in close proximity to the Surface
of the body of water 52. Where the upper end of the
piles are obstructed-whereby working space is limited in
this fashion no difficulty has been encountered in making
successful installations of encasements.
After the encasement 3%} has been ‘wrapped around the
pile 50 in the manner shown in FIGURE 3 the lower
ends of the two pole pieces 36 are releasably joined by
means provided on the lower ends of the two pole pieces.
The lower end of one of the pole pieces 36 is provided
with a semi-cylindrical socket 525‘ having a cavity 54 adapt
portion of the sheet 32 is placed. A semi-cylindrical
ed to loosely or slidably receive the exposed lower end
member 40, preferably of metal and having a cavity
of the wooden member 38 of the other pole piece 36,
adapted to receive both the edge portions of the sheet
the socket 52 being held on its pole piece 36 by screws
56 or other suitable fastening means' As is indicated in
32 and ‘the ?ller member 38, is then placed around these
FIGURE 3, by manipulation of the handles 48, the ex
elements and the Whole held in assembled relationship by
a plurality of rivets 42 or other suitable fastening means. 60 posed lower end of the wooden member 38 of the one
The metal parts can be made of ordinary steel, galvan~
pole piece 36 can be inserted into the cavity 54 of the
socket 52 on the other pole piece 36. Thereafter the
ized metal, copper alloy or hearing metals such as brass
two pole pieces 36 are brought together to de?ne a sub
or Monel metal, and like materials such as are adapted
stantially cylindrical unit or assembly.
to resist the corrosive effects of sea water.
cludes a semi-cylindrical ?ller member 38 of wood, met
al, plastic or the like over whose arcuate face one edge
Instead of the pole piece construction just described,
in some cases it is preferable to employ a pair of pole
pieces’ 36a of the type shown in FIGURE 2a. This al
ternative comprises a semi-cylindrical wooden member,
preferably creosoted to resist attack by marine borers.
It is to be understood however that treatment with creo
sote or other arti?cial chemical agents is not essential
since the wooden pole pieces 36a can ‘be protected against
borers in the same way as a pile; i.e. by wrapping them
in portions of the sheet 32. I have also found that while
many species of wood are satisfactory for use as pole
FIGURE 7a illustrates another type of socket 52a on
one of the wooden pole pieces 36a. In this case a semi
cylindrical cavity 5% is defined by a portion of the sheet
32 such as would otherwise be a part of one of the cutout
portions 44. Alternatively the socket 52a can be made
of a separate piece of elastic waterproof material vul
canized or otherwise a?ixed in position on the sheet 32.
The socket 52a is utilized in precisely the same manner
as the socket 52.. To facilitate connection of the two
pole pieces, the socket cavity can be enlarged and can
also be tapered.
3,627,610
6
After the two pole pieces 36 have been brought to
gether to de?ne a complete cylindrical enclosure around
the pile 50, the encasement 30 is moved to the desired
vertical position on the pile. Thereafter the pair of pole
cated in FIGURE 9 and indicated by the numeral 68.
to hold the two pole pieces together during contraction
on the inside of band 68 than on the outer surface of the
band. The stem 78 is therefore wedge-shaped in cross
section and narrows as it develops toward the adjacent
end of the band 68. The head 80 of hook 72 is of the
same width as the major portion or the band 68 proper
and has a junction with the stem portion 78 in a pair
This band 68 has a length approximately the same as the
circumference of pileStl.
one end band 63 is formed
with a longitudinally elongate eye 70 adapted for coopera
pieces 36 are rotated in unison, as is indicated in FIGURE
tive engagement by a hook 72 formed in the opposite
4, to contract the encasement 39 into engagement with
end of band 68. Since band 68 is preferably in a state
the pile 5t} (FIGURE 5). The force of this engagement
of tension when applied to the skirt 46, the eye 76 and
will be sufficient to hold the encasement 30‘ against slip
hook 72 should be of such a con?guration as to avoid
ping downwardly on the pile 50. However, in order to
rupture of the material of the band, particularly at the
aid in holding the encasement 36 in place, but primarily 10 eye 70. This is important for insuring a long service
to hold the pair of pole pieces 36 against counter-rotation
life for the band 63.
in a direction such as would permit loosening of the sheet
To accomplish this, the eye 76 comprises a longitudinal
32, a lag bolt 60 is inserted through aligned bores 62 in
ly elongate slit 74 of a length approximately the same
the handle portions 48 of the pole pieces and fastened
as the width of band 63 and terminating at both ends in
directly to the pole 50.
arcuate openings '76 adapted to avoid the concentration
I have found that the use of a socket at the lower end
of rupturing stresses in the ends of eye 79 when hook 72
of the pole pieces and a fastener, such as the lag bolt 6%},
is placed therein. The hook 72 is generally T-shaped in
at the upper end of the pole pieces is ordinarily su?icient
con?guration and has a stem section 78 which is wider
of the encasement. However, in some instances it may
be desirable to fasten the two pole pieces 36 or 364: to
gether at spaced intervals along their length. For such
a purpose I have shown in FIGURE 1 a plurality of
spaced bores 64 in one pole piece 36 adapted for align
ment with other bores 64 formed in the other pole piece. 25 of opposite shoulders 82, which are preferably CtIlgUi'a‘i‘ly
When the two pole pieces 36 are brought together suit~
related and convergent towards the adjacent end of the
able fasteners can be inserted through the aligned bores
band 68.
64 to securely maintain the pair of pole pieces in as
The band 68 can be installed either from the surface
sembled relationship.
of the body of water 52 or by a diver.
With the former
In order to protect the pole pieces against deteriora 30 procedure the hook 72 and eye 74) are connected after
tion from exposure to the water, and in the case of wood
band 63 has been placed around the pile 56}, or around
en pole pieces 36a, to prevent attack by marine borers,
the upper end of the encasement 3t}. Thereafter, even
it is preferable that the sheet 32 have a width greater than
the circumference of the pile 50 as is indicated in FIG—
URE 4. This excess width should be at least suf?cient
through the band 68 is under tension, it can he slid down
to wrap the pair of pole pieces in edge portions of the
sheet 32 one or two times when the pair of pole pieces
are rotated to contract the encasement against the pile 5t).
end of the pole pieces 36. This can be accomplished by
using a pair of long poles, notched at their lower ends
to hold the band, inserted on opposite sides of the pole
Thereafter, the pair of pole pieces are protected against
between the pile and band, to push the hand down. As
wardly over the encasement 31) until it snaps or contracts
into place around skirt 46 after passing over the lower
the corrosive e?ect of the ambient water or against marine 4-0 is apparent, when the band 63 is to be installed by a diver
borer attack.
it can be carried in open condition to the bottom of en
The wrapped pair of pole pieces 36 and edge portions
casement 30 by the diver, who thereafter stretches it
of the sheet 32, have a substantial combined girth. As
around the skirt 46 and then connects the hook 72 through
a result, a part of the sheet 32 extends tangentially be
the eye 70. In making this connection it is preferable
tween the pile 59 and the wrapped pole pieces 36 leaving
to twist the head 89 of hook 72 90° from its normal con
gap 66 between the sheet 32 and pile 50 running the
dition to pass it through the slit 74 of eye 70, which is
length of pole pieces 36. As a result, some of the am
of approximately the same width as the head 3t}. After
bient water may circulate through the gap 66, thus hin
engagement it will be noted that the wedge-‘like contigu
dering the maintenance of a stagnant condition inside
ration of stem portion 78 of the hook 72 prevents a sharp
the encasement. In some ports or geographical locations 50 ly divergent separation of the opposite sides of the slit
this may not be critical, but in other localities where ma
74 of eye 70 so that concentration of stresses is mini
rine borer attack is severe and continuous it is desirable
mized.
to close the gap 66, at least at the lower end of the en
It will be apparent that other fastening means can be
casement 39.
utilized in lieu of the hook-and~eye means 70 and 72.
A skirt 46, comprising a portion of sheet 32 depend 55 For example, opposite ends of an elastic band can be vul
ing beneath the pole pieces 36, aids in closing the gap
66 at the lower end of the encasement 30, and in pro
tecting the extreme lower ends of the pole pieces 36
against exposure to the sea water or marine borer attack.
Since the pole pieces 36 terminate short of the lower end
of the sheet 32, the skirt 46 can be completely circum
ferentially clamped against the pile 50 without obstruc
tion by the pole pieces 36 so that formation of any gap
in the skirt portion of the sheet 32 is avoided. It will
be understood however that the skirt 46, like the balance
of the sheet 32, is in contact with the pile 50 for the
major portion of the circumference of the pile and is open
only at gap 66. However a complete band around the
skirt 46 can be very readily applied and enhances the
intimacy of the engagement of the skirt with the pile 5i} 70
p and therefore the use of a complete circular band is pre
ferred, rather than some less than circular means adapted
to ?t only over the gap 66.
The skirt closing bands can be made of any suitable
canized or cemented together, or stapled or riveted.
However these alternate fastening means involve expendi
tures of time and labor which are avoided by the band
68. Vulcanizing or cementing involve lapses of time
merely in waiting for the joined parts to be securely con
nected and also require the use of specialized equipment.
On the other hand the band 68 can be fabricated easily,
even in the ?eld.
The upper end of the encasement 30 will normally be
positioned above the high~tide line of the body of water
52 where it will usually be safe from marine borer at
tack. If desired, the further precaution may be taken of
closing the gap 66 at the upper end of the encasement 30
in order to restrict circulation of the ambient Water
therein. due to Wave action. Where closure of the upper
end of the encasement 30 is desired a band 84-, such as
that shown in FIGURE 13, can be employed for the pur
pose.
The band 84 is also preferably made of a rubber-like
plastic material. A preferred form of such band is indi— 75 material and includes an integral rigid U~shaped section
3,027,610
8
86 adapted for semi-circularly embracing the pair of
Wrapped pole pieces 36 at the upper end of the encase
ment 30. The U-shaped portion 86 may be de?ned by a
complementarily shaped metal insert molded within the
band 34 or may be otherwise reinforced against separa
tion of the opposite arms thereof when the band 815 is
stretched. in use, the band 84 is positioned at the upper
end of the encasement 30' with the wrapped pole pieces
as received within the U-shaped portion 86, thus closing
he encasement 100, like encasement 30, has particular
utility in situations such as those just mentioned.
Encasement 100 comprises a substantially rectangular
sheet 101% of a substantially Waterproof pliable material
and a tubular pole piece 106. The sheet 104 is made
of the same class of materials as sheet 32 and is of a
length. sufiicient to reach from a point above the mean
tide level of the body of water 52 down to a point one
or two feet below the mud line 92. This sheet 104 is
the gap 60. Thereafter, the ends 84 can be vulcanized 10 also preferably tapered to conform to the pile taper and
or cemented together. Alternatively the opposite ends of
the band 04 can be formed with hook-and-eye means
'70-—72 as illustrated in FIGURE 11a.
has a width throughout its length exceeding the corre
sponding circumference of the pile 102, this excess width
preferably being su?icient to provide enough material to
wrap the pole piece ‘106 within the pair of vertical edge
In order to minimize the circulation of Water behind
the encasement ‘30 I have utilized a pair of elastic boots 15 portions of the sheet 104 when the sheet is contracted into
83, also preferably made from a rubber-like material.
Such boots can be used in addition to, or in lieu of the
gap closing bands. Referring to FIGURE 10 it will be
seen that the boots 88 comprise relatively Wide elastic
bands Whose opposite ends are vulcanized or cemented
snug engagement with the pile 102.
Each of the opposite vertical edges of the sheet 104
is provided with an enlarged bead 103 that is preferably
integrally formed and semi-cylindrical in con?guration,
both of the heads 108 preferably being disposed on the
together after the band has been stretched and placed in
tension around the pile 50. This operation preferably
same surface of the sheet 104. However, it will be ap
parent that the beads may assume other con?gurations
and may also be separately formed and a?xed to oppo
takes place on the pile above the upper end of encase
site vertical edges of the sheet 104 by vulcanizing, ce
ment 30. After fabrication, one band 88 is expanded by
any suitable means, such as a plurality of poles, and 25 menting, or suitable fasteners.
guided and slipped downwardly over the pile 50 and en
The pole piece res is preferably made of a metal, such
as Monel, adapted to successfully resist corrosion from
casement 30 to be positioned around the skirt 46, imme
diately beneath the lower ends of the pole pieces 36.
sea water action but may also be of wood or plastic. As
Another band 88 is then slipped down to the position in
indicated in FIGURE 22, the pole piece 106 is thin
dicated ‘in FlGURE 11 to embrace both the pile 50 and 30 walled, but should have su?icient rigidity to support the
the extreme upper end of the pole pieces 36 and sheet ‘32.
sheet 104 during installation and be capable of with
Another form of boot 90 is illustrated in FIGURE
standing the forces applied to it during the twisting oper
11a. In this instance the boot 90 comprises a relatively
ation without undue distortion. Along one side, the pole
wide band of rubber-like material wrapped in a position
piece 106 is formed with a longitudinally extending slot
around the pile 50, the extreme upper end of pole pieces
110, preferably running the entire length of the pole
36, and the upper edge of sheet 32 and is held in place
piece 106, and this slot should be wide enoughto easily
by nails or other suitable fasteners 92. It will be ob
accommodate twice the thickness of the intermediate
served that the nails $2 are not driven through any part
portions of the sheet 104, so that a double thickness of
of the sheet 32 since itis desirable to maintain the in
sheet 104 can be readily slid through the slot 110. By
tegrity of the sheet.
the same token, the interior diameter of the tube 106
If desired, any of these boots which are to be used at
should be large enough to easily slidably accommodate
the upper end of an encasement can be made of a heavy
the pair of beads 103. The combined thickness of the
material to also serve as fenders. The boots can also be
beads 108 is greater than the Width of the slot 110 where
relatively short encasements secured in place by a fas
by th eedges of the sheet 104 are restrained against
tener in their pole pieces and the pole pieces placed on
top of the gap 66 of the main encasement to close the
gap.
movement radially outwardly of the pole piece 106.
In the installation of the encasement 100, the sheet
104 is rolled up about a transverse axis on a spindle or
other suitable support and held in position adjacent the
Depending upon local conditions, the area of the pile
upper end of the pile 102. The pole piece 106 is then
which is subject to marine borer attack may extend from
placed in a vertical position adjacent the pile 102 with
well above the tide line to the mud line of the body of
its lower end supported on the bottom or mud line 92.
water. Although the encasement 30 has been illustrated
It will be observed that the pole piece 106 is disposed
in the drawings as being ?nally installed with its lower
on the side of pile 102 opposite from the rolled up sheet
end terminating above the mud line 92 of the body of
water 52, it is tobe understood that, with or without 55 104 and the slot 110 of pole piece 106 confronts the pile
102. The pair of beaded edges 108 of the free end of the
the skirt portion 46, it can equally well be installed with
sheet
104 are then slid into the open upper end of the
its lower end positioned beneath the mud line 92. By
pole piece 106 with a double thickness of the sheet 104
the same token, the alternate form of encasement 100
slidably entering the slot 110. Thus, as the sheet 104 is
illustrated in FIGURES 14 through 21, while illustrated
slid
downwardly over the pile 102 and as the beaded
as being ?nally installed with its lower end beneath the 60 edges 108 concurrently are moved downwardly through
mud line §2, can equally well be installed in the position
the pole piece 106, the sheet as it is unrolled assumes a
illustrated for the encasement 30.
The encasement 100 is particularly well adapted for
tubular con?guration surrounding the pile 102.
application to extremely long piles 102‘ where the pile
accomplished, if desired, with the aid of a diver to pull
the sheet 104 downwardly. However, in order to make
must be protected down to the mud line 92 of the body
of water 52. As with the encasement 30, it may fre
quently be necessary to make such installation within a
limited working space as when a decking is supported
On the piles 102 in close proximity to the surface of the
body of water 52. It is, of course, desirable to be able
to make such an installation Without tearing up any
This installation of sheet 104 around pile ‘102 can be
an installation of encasement 100 entirely from the sur
face of the body of Water 52, a pusher rod 112 can be
used, such as is generally shown in FIGURE 17. The
pusher rod 112 is conveniently made up of a number of
telescopically connectable short tubular sections 114. A
lowermost section 116 is provided at its lower end with a
decking and it is also desirable to be able to make such
clamping means ‘118 for gripping the lower edges of the
an installation entirely from the surface of the body of
sheet 104. The clamp means 118 is actuated by an elon
water 52 without the aid of any underwater workers. 75 gate member (not shown) passing through the tubular
3,027,610
9
10
sections 114 and 116 and connected to a handle device
minimum expenditure of time and effort to expose the
pile to view to ascertain whether or not any marine
borer activity is going on. This removable feature also
permits vertical adjustment of the encasement to change
1120 at the upper end of rod 112 for releasing the clamp
means 118 from engagement with the sheet 104. As many
tubular intermediate sections 114 as desired can be em
ployed for making up a pusher rod 112 of the length
necessary to push the sheet 164 downwardly to the mud
line 92 and through the pole piece 106.
To facilitate contraction of the sheet 104, the sheet
should be pushed downwardly to a position in which its
its position to meet a change in the area of the pile sub
jected to marine borer attack. For example, if the mud
line 92 should lower, as it will in some locations, to such
an extent that it exposes the lower end of the surround
ing encasement, the encasement can be quickly removed
upper edge is beneath the upper end of the pole piece 10 and lowered into a new position in a new crater and once
106 whereby a handle portion 122 of the pole piece pro
again fastened into place.
jects above the upper edge of the sheet 104. At the same
In the use of these encasements, they can be applied
time, if it is desired to have a skirt portion 124 at the
to new pilings in lieu of any of the conventional creosote
lower end of the sheet 194, the sheet 104 should be
or any other protection. Alternatively, a newly creo
pushed downwardly until its lower end is beneath the 15 soted pile may be put in place and left without the pro
lower end of the pole piece 106.
tection of my encasements until such time as a substan
When the encasement 109 is in the position of FIG
tial part of the creosote has leached from the pile. These
URE 18, the pusher rod 112 is removed by actuation of
encasements are then applied to the pile to arrest any
the handle portion 122. Thereafter, the pole piece 106
marine borer activity which has already ensued and to
is rotated, as indicated by the directional arrow 126 in
prevent any further marine borer attack. This greatly
FIGURE 21, in order to take up the slack in the sheet
extends the service life of an initially creosoted pile which,
104, but not fully contracting the sheet into engagement
without my invention, would very shortly be condemned
with the pile 192. A lance 128 is then directed to the
as structurally unsound.
junction of the pile 102 with the bottom 92 and com
Although the species of the invention herein shown
pressed air or water directed through the lance to create
and described are fully capable of achieving the objects
a small crater 13%, one or two feet in depth.
Since the
and providing the advantages hereinbefore mentioned,
encasement llltl has already been preliminarily closed into
contact with the pile 1&2, none of the material removed
it is to be understood that they and the several details of
construction thereof are merely illustrative and that I
from the crater 130 will enter thereinto. In some in
stances, if the water is made turbid by the action of the
do not mean to limit myself to the details of construc
tion shown and described other than as de?ned in the fol
lance 128, it may be desirable to employ the services of
lowing claims.
a diver to ascertain that the crater 130 is properly formed.
Alternatively, the diver may, of course, create the crater
130 with hand tools.
After removal of the lance 128, encasement ‘10b is low
ered into its ?nal position, indicated in FIGURE 20,
with its lower end seated in the bottom of the crater
130. Pole piece W6 is then further twisted in the same
I claim:
1. A method of protecting against marine borer attack
a partially submerged structure-bearing wooden pile, the
upper end of which is obstructed, comprising: positioning
a sheet of pliable substantially waterproof material along
side of a section of said pile to be protected, wrapping
said sheet around said pile section to dispose opposite
direction until the sheet 1d4 ?ts smoothly around the
longitudinal edges of said sheet in substantial juxtaposi
pile 102. A lag bolt 132 is then inserted through a bore 40 tion extending generally longitudinally of said pile, over—
134 in the handle portion 122 of the pole piece 106 and
lapping the opposite longitudinal edges of said sheet, draw
fastened into the pile 1&2 whereby the pole piece 106 is
ing said sheet about said pile section to reduce the effec
held against counter-rotation and the ?t of the encase
tive diameter enclosed by said sheet until said sheet en
ment 1% on the pile 162 is maintained. Tidal action
gages said pile throughout a substantial portion of the
of the body of water 52 will very shortly ?ll in the crater 45 length of said pile section, securing said sheet about said
13%} so that the lower end of the encasement 104) is e?'ec
pile section in reduced diameter condition to de?ne a
tively sealed against penetration by marine borers or ex
generally circumferential water-?lled space between said
cessive circulation of water.
pile and said sheet, and retaining water within said space
If desired, a suitable band or other clamping means may
with ‘circulation between said space and the water sur_
be al?xed around the skirt portion 124, in the same man 50 rounding said sheet being restricted to thereby maintain
ner as with the encasement 30. Similarly, the upper end
the water in said space stagnant to prevent marine borer
of encasement 1% can also be further closed by a clamp
attack on the submerged portion of said pile encased by
ing band. If desired, any water entrapped within the
said sheet.
pole piece 106 can be evacuated by ?lling it with a ma
2. A method of protecting against marine borer at
terial such as oil, mastic, or paint which will displace the
tack a partially submerged structure~bearing wooden pile,
trapped water and thus inhibit corrosion of the pole piece
the upper end of which is obstructed, with such piling ex—
106. The pole piece ‘1th’; may be protected against cor
tending upwardly ‘from the mud line of a body of water,
rosion by providing enough width in the sheet .104 to
comprising: forming a crater lower than the mud line ad
completely wrap the pole piece 106. The use of the sin
gle tubular pole piece 106 results in the creation of a gap 60 jacent said pile, positioning a sheet of pliable substan
tially water-proof material alongside of a section of said
similar to the gap 66 de?ned with the use of encasement
pile to be protected, wrapping said sheet around said pile
30. However, if desired, this gap is elfectively sealed
section to dispose opposite longitudinal edges of said sheet
by the back ?lled crater 139. If the encasement 100 is
not installed with its lower end in the bottom 92, the gap
can be closed, if desired, by a clamping means around
the skirt 124 or, if no skirt is provided, by a clamping
band similar to either one of the boots 8S and 90.
A number of important advantages arise out of the
removable construction of the encasements 30 and 100‘.
For example, in the event of rupture of the material of
the sheet of these encasements, by ?oating debris or other
mechanical action, the encasement can be quickly re~
moved and readily repaired by a conventional patch. If
it is desired to make periodic inspections of the piles,
in substantial jutaposition extending generally longitudi~
nally of said pile, overlapping the opposite longitudinal
edges of said sheet, drawing said sheet about said pile
section to reduce the effective diameter enclosed by said
sheet until said sheet engages said pile throughout a sub
stantial portion of the length of said pile section, lowering
said sheet until its lower end is disposed within said crater,
securing said sheet about said pile section in reduced di
ameter condition to de?ne a generally circumferential
water-?lled space between said pile and said sheet, and
retaining water within said space with circulation between
the encasements can be removed and replaced with a 75 said space and the water surrounding said sheet being
1\
8,027,610
1 l.
portion of said pile encased by said sheet.
3. A method of protecting against marine borer attack
a partially submerged structure-bearing wooden pile, the
upper end of which is obstructed, comprising: positioning
sheet engages said pile throughout a substantial portion
of the length of said pile section, lowering said sheet un
til its lower end is disposed within said'erater, securing
said sheet about said pile section in reduced diameter
condition to de?ne a generally circumferential water-?lled
space between said pile and said sheet, and retaining water
asheet of pliable substantially waterproof material along
within said space with circulation between said space and
restricted to thereby maintain the water in said space stag
nant to prevent marine borer attack on the submerged
the water surrounding said sheet being restricted to there
by maintain the water in said space stagnant to prevent
said sheet around said pile section to dispose opposite
longitudinal edges of said sheet in substantial juxtaposi 10 marine borer attack on the submerged portion of said pile
encased by said sheet.
tion extending generally longitudinally of said pile, sti?fen
ing said opposite longitudinal edges, overlapping the op
References Eite-d in the ?le of this patent
posite longitudinal edges of said sheet, drawing said sheet
side of a section of said pile to be protected, wrapping
about said pile section to reduce the eifective diameter
enclosed by said sheet until said sheet engages said pile 15
throughout a substantial portion of the length of said pile
section, securing said sheet about said pile section in re
duced diameter condition to de?ne a generally circum
ferentially water-?lled Space between said pile and said
sheet, and retaining Water within said space With circula 20
tion between said space and the water surrounding said
sheet being restricted to thereby maintain the water in said
space stagnant to prevent marine borer attack on the sub
merged portion of said pile encased by saidsheet.
4. A method of protecting against marine borer attack 25
a partially submerged structure-bearing wooden pile, the
upper end of which is obstructed, with such piling ex
tending upwardly from the mud line of a body of Water,
comprising: forming a crater lower than the mud line
adjacent said pile, positioning a sheet of pliable substan
tially waterproof material alongside of a section of said
pile to be protected, wrapping said sheet around said pile
section to dispose opposite longitudinal edges of said sheet
in substantial juxtaposition extending generally longitudi
nally of- said pile, stiffening said opposite longitudinal
edges, overlapping the opposite longitudinal edges of said
sheet, drawing said sheet about said pile section to reduce
the effective diameter enclosed by said sheet until said
UNITED STATES PATENTS
62,295
333,204
395,866
942,761
Smith _______________ __ Feb. 19,
Dolbeer _____________ __ Dec. 29,
Anderson et al. ________ __ Jan. 8,
Voynow ______________ __ Dec. 7,
1867
1885
1889
1909
1,244,119
Mulnix et a1. _________ __ Oct. 23, 1917
1,252,645
1,353,598
Baier ________________ __ Jan. 8, 1918
Lewis _______________ __ ept. 21, 1920
1,546,860
Neubort _____________ __ July 21, 1925
1,963,436
2,385,869
2,659,687
2,757,428
Durnke ______________ __ June 19,
Lane ________________ __ Oct. 2,
Moore ______________ __ Nov. 17,
Stark ________________ __ Aug. 7,
2,853,758
Topf ________________ __ Sept. 30, 1958
669,489
331,576
Germany ____________ __ Dec. 28, 1938
Italy _________________ __ Nov. 9, 1935
1934
1945
1953
1956
FOREIGN PATENTS
OTHER REFERENCES
Smith: “Preservation of Piling Against Marine Wood
35 Borers,” U.S. Dept. of Agr., Forest‘ Service, Circ. 128,
1908, 16 pp.; esp. pp. 8-11.
Atwood: “Marine Piling Investigation,” National Re
search Council, Washington, D.C., 1924, pp. 87-106.
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