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Патент USA US3028115

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April 3, 1962
2 Shéets-Sheet 1
Filed June 26, 1961
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Apnl 3, 1962
N. |_. HALL
Filed June 26, 1961
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Fig. 44.
St ms atent ‘Or-1
Patented Apr. 3, 1962
mill of large diameter using large balls, and in turn
delivering the product to secondary ball mills using small
ball for extreme ?ne grinding. Rod mills are of the same
construction as ball mills and use steel rods or bars of
Newton L. Hall, 130. Box 83, Salt Lake City, Utah
Filed June 26, 1961, Ser. No. 119,362
3 Claims. (Cl. 241-—176)
substantially the length of the cylindrical mill interior.
Steel rods are of diameters up to 4 inches and a mill
load of rods may ?ll the mill almost to half of the vol
umetric mill capacity. The long rod are in axial aline
ment within the mill and turn diametrally of the bar in
This invention relates to horizontal rotary grinding
mill and apparatus of the conical ball mill type used for 10 radial movement with the rod tumbling over the rod load
in a position which is out of alinement with the plane
the comminution, processing, or classi?cation of- rock or
of load and mill rotation.
granular products.
In the following speci?cation the apparatus outlined
The particular application as described in this speci?ca
includes a load-rotor which acts as an impeller, crusher
tion relates to the manufacture and use of a horizontal
rotary conical ball mill with a granular load of material 15 and grinder upon the load in conjunction with the rotat
ing conical mill shell and particularly with the discharge
to be ground with a grinding media of steel elements
cone section.
used for the comminution of rock or granular products,
the material to be crushed or ground being combined
with the grinding elements, the combination forming the
The rotating rams not only offer a crush
ing force, but the load-rotor being within itself a rigid
construction, and operating within a moving and massive
rotating mill load. The extended application of this type 20 rotating load, can carry the forces over its structure as
a unit, for example, one ram of the rotor exerting a
downward crushing movement over the load toe with the
of mill may be used for crushing, grinding, or processing
of ore or cement, other uses being for the mixing, classi
fying, processing and ?nishing of chemicals, and the
agglomerating and pelletizing of granular substances for
following ram being enclosed in the upward moving mill
and high capacity.
a concentrated shock upon the transient or movable
and rods in mill of several diameters in length of cylin
ment; of itself, the rotating mill is a hollow cylinder
load and possessing a force which can be distributed to
extension of a processing treatment. The horizontal 25 the preceding ram via the spreader rings to which they
are rigidly attached. Mill load are measured in tons and
rotary mill has a wide application in the industries due
when halted under rotation their interrupted force exerts
to its practical shape, low upkeep, efficiency of operation,
bodies within the mill.
Ball mills are so termed in the trade when using balls
Horizontal rotary grinding mills have mill cylinders
as a grinding media in the mill load; rod mills when using 30
necessarily involved with an inclosed load grinding ele
rods or bars, and tube mills when using balls, or balls
which does not perform an effective service without the
tumbling or revolving action of a contained grinding
Conical mills refer to mill of coniform, i.e. cone shaped
form of structure. The standard conical mill as the 35 ele1nent—the combination of a mill cylinder as a unit
with a grinding element as balls, rods, rotors or walls as
type is known to the trade, has a cylindrical section of
another unit to perform an effective grinding result. The
uniform diameter terminating in cone sections at the
rotating mill cylinder combined with the active grinding
terminals of the cylindrical section and upon which the
elements comprise the mill and apparatus.
conical shapes are based.
Useless each without the other.
In the following descriptions the trade name “conical” 40
One of the objects of this invention is to develop a
and terms will be used. No de?nite dividing line exists
milling action within a rotating mill which can accom
in size reduction between the term crushing and grinding.
modate a milling load of approximately 50 percent of
One is a term of violent'compression, and the other is
the volumetrical capacity of the mill cylinder and main
a compression extended to a microscopic state-the break
tain a suf?cient area of the cross section of the mill
ing of one part into two, crushing into grinding. ' The
cylinder to allow for ample working space for milling
division conforms to the trade parlance, an idiom of
common speech.
Ball mills are in common use for ?ne grinding and
A further object is to provide a grinding mill which
may be of the horizontal rotary cylinder of uniform
diameter or of the conical mill type and produce a prod
has an open and clear axial area through which the
ground ?nes of the load may pass through and from the
uct of over 200 mesh per square inch in screen size.
mill with a minimum of obstruction.
A further object is to increase the speed of transit of
Large steel balls of over 4 inches in diameter are used
the ground product through the mill thereby reducing
for crushing in mills approximating 10 feet in diameter,
and balls of less than 2 inches in diameter are used for 55 the transient time required for the grinding with con
sequent increase of the mill capacity.
?ne grinding.
A further object is to provide a mill action which will
utilize the maximum cross sectional space of the mill,
The collective weight of steel balls will average 300
pounds per cubic foot and with mill pulp, i.e. ore and
eliminating quiet areas of non-action, and utilizing the
maximum sectional area practicable for milling opera
moisture, ?lling the voids between the balls, will increase
the weight to 400 pounds per cubic foot. Grinding mill
will average from 5 to 14 feet or more in diameter with
allocation of over to under size to place a properly sized
wet crushing and grinding and tube mills may operate
on ?ne grinding or processing under intense heat.
The common type of power applied for operation of
rotary mills is the conventional, i.e. customary type of
feed in the areas of most ef?cient action.
geared motor drive. For ore reduction, the mine run
of ore is reduced in mill of gyratory or jaw crusher types
and'pass the broken ore over a coarse screen, termed 70
grizzley or grate, and in turn deliver the undersize'to a
primary roll or disc crusher, and then to a primary ball
A further object is to provide a milling action which
develops a classi?cation of milling load to the proper
ball mills of two diameter and tube mills of several
diameters in tubular length. Mills operate on dry or
Other objects will become apparent as the invention
is disclosed.
Referring to the drawings:
FIGURE 1 is a vertical and longitudinal section of a
conical mill and’ apparatus with load in a staticposition
partially submerging a rotatable load-rotor B—R com
posed of three spreader rings 7 rigidly supporting three
‘rams 7~a comprising a load-rotor as further illustrated in
FIG. 3.
load-rotor concentrically within the mill is substantially
The conical mill cylindrical section is noted by the
numeral 1 and the special steel lining plates as 1-0.
The feed cone head is noted as 2 and the discharge
cone head as Z-a, with the feed trunnion bearing as 3 and
automatic. A change of level for the mill apparatus as
a whole will alter the action of the discharge conical sec
tion in its load classi?cation. This alteration is only
slight but it will effect the positioning of the load-rotor
within the cylindrical section of the mill if altered to an
extreme. No plausible reason exists for a disturbance
the discharge trunnion hearing as 3—a. A frictional hear
of load action by a failure to keep the mill substantially
ing is shown although a roll or other type of hearing may
level and in balance.
be’ used‘ to suit a bearing of larger diameter at 3-11.
The load-rotor 7 and 7-a ?oats independently in the
The feed trunnion is fed by the feed scoop 4 with the 10
load and is not attached to the mill shell but maintains
central inspection opening 4—a to provide for a visual
its position with each rotation of the mill and load. The
inspection of the mill interior between the feed scoop 4
and the discharge opening at 5.
I ,
load-rotor is of less diameter than the mill interior, and
in general terms, for each four rotations of the mill, the
The mill is operated by the geared drive 6 being driven
from the gear pinion and shaft 6—a from any suitable 15 battering-ram will rotate ?ve revolutions in the same pe
riod of time, placing the battering-ram with respect to the
motive power as shown in FIG. 2. The mill bearing ro
mill cylinder it is under a constant change, accordingly
tates on the bearing 3 supported from the abutment S
with the discharge bearing 3-a being supported by the
abutment 8-a.
the wearing action of the ram on the mill lining is never
concentrated to the same point but is undergoing a con
FIGURE 2 is a cross section of the apparatus under 20 stant variation of positions during mill rotations.
In FIGURE 3 the rams C and B are submerged with
rotation, the view being taken on line 2—2 of FIG. 1.
in the ‘load and virtually combine any movement or slip
The load-rotor of FIG. 2 is shown in operative position
of load therebetween to hold the load during the mill
with the ram A striking the load toe T, with the ram B
starting movement.
in position carrying its proportionate load towards the
In FIGURE 2 the ram A is exerting an impact upon
zenith of the mill interior and delivering the load portion 25
the load toe T to consolidate the load existing between
in an over-fall to further strike the load toe T. Between
the ram and the shell. After ram B carries a load por
the rams B and C the load is under a forcible movement
tion to the mill zenith it moves in over-fall towards the
in rising to the load crest at the line of normal crest NC,
load T exerts the same action as previously exerted by
theapproxi'mate line of normal cascade.
VFIGURE 3 is a cross section taken on line 3—3 of 30 the. ram A, and following in sequence ram C will carry'
through a like action.
FIG. 1, showing the load in a static position with the
As ram C_ is ascending in FIG. 2, it will serve to carry
load-rotor partially submerged with two rams B and C
all in a starting position.
the load before it and the mill shell and serve to check
consequent load-slipping over the mill shell, with portions
FIGURE 4 is a part section and elevation of a load
rotor the section being taken on line 4—4 of FIG. 5, also 35 of the load falling through the open load-rotor and to
wards the load toe T. Following such actions, the as—
cending rain will carry a load portion above the normal
cascadeslope of 38 degrees from the horizontal and throw
FIGURE 5 is an end view of a load-rotor with two
the load portion in overfall towards the load toe T.
rams in opposite position, the view being taken on line
The various number of peculiar, inherent, and different
5--5 of FIG. 4.
showing a means of attachment and bracing between the
ram and spreader rings.
FIGURE 6 is an end view of a load-rotor with three
rams attached to the spreader ring, similar to FIG. 5
Referring to the drawings:
actions of the mill load are well distributed over the mill
section and the load maintains a violent activity in passing
through the various grinding phases.
Milling loads vary in weight, size of crush, moisture
FIGURE 1 is a vertical and longitudinal section of a
grinding mill of the conical mill type with a half volume 45 content, and texture in being hard and soft, and such
characteristics will vary over a crushing period of time
load shown in a static position with a load-rotor of triple
so that the conditions underlying the crushing of granu
rams and spreader rings, all partially submerged in the
lar bodies will constantly vary, but a close similarity ex
mill load which can be of balls and ore mixture prefer
ists regarding the laws governing the falling of such
ably to a half volume capacity. The diameter of the
load-rotor outside to outside of the rams is substantially 50 bodies and one set rule for falling bodies in a tumbling
load can not be formed for all material being processed,
less than the mill interior diameter sufficient to allow at
nevertheless there is a practical speed of cascade for a
least a 10 percent load cushion to be maintained between
theoretical fall of all bodies and the variation of differ
the outer edge of the ram and the mill cylindrical lining.
ences is not extreme.
The interior diameter of the load-rotor, which is also the
All ball milling operations should have that slight
centric diameter of the rams and spreader rings is suiti 55
means for speed adjustment, for the speed of operation
cient to provide a free and open zone along the axis of
is the most important factor to be constantly maintained
the ‘cylinder for passage of ground product and ore from
in all milling operations. The ideal of practical speed
the feed scoop and the discharge funnel. The feed trun
is just under 400 feet per minute for the movement of
nion 3 has an interrupted thread or vane which advances
the feed from the feed scoop to the mill conical section 60 the perimeter of the mill load. Mills will vary in their
characteristics and any difference for adjustment required
2 where it is ‘free to enter the mill load under operation,
will come between 380 and 410 feet per minute of travel
undergo the various crushing and grinding operations,
for the load perimeter.
and then pass to the discharge cone for classi?cation of
Tumbling mills which operate at a cascade slope of
?nes to be discharged as the mill product.
The rotating load-rotor rotates in line with the mill 65 approximately 38 degrees from the horizontal and the
common loading of a ‘free cascading ball load is at a 42
diametral rotation and with the mill being on a level
plane, and the load-rotor being of uniform diameter, the
load action will hold the load-rotor positioned within the
length of the mill cylindrical section. The load-rotor
percent capacity.
The loading of the herein described
mill can operate at a loading of 50v percent capacity for
the reason of a variety of load actions being involved
rides upon the load with two rams submerged in the load 70 which serve to open the mill load to action and prevent
a sluggish consolidation of load portions in transit. The
and, under a proper mill loading the load-rotor will be
additional 8 or 10 percent of loading is carried over the
automatically positioned practically concentric to the mill
mill trunnions and only a portion is carried by the driving
cylinder and will always have a load cushion existing be
tween the ram and the mill shell and lining while the ram
is submerged in the load portion. The positioning of the 75 In operation, this invention utilizes the standard coni
cal mill as the operative portion of the grinding mill
apparatus in combination with the action of the inde
pendently rotating load-rotor, the rotation of the conical
mill shell being in alinement with the rotation of the
load-rotor with the length of the battering-ram being in
alinement with the mill cylinder. The actions of the
mill, battering-ram and the mill load are in unison radially.
spreader rings in mill radial position, said spreader
rings attached to and rigidly supporting several rams
positioned externally to said spreader rings and in
The conical mill serves to motivate the grinding media
inder sectional length and greater than said mill in
ternal diameter and in axial alinement to said cyl
inder and unattached thereto in independent rela
mill axial position, said grinding unit comprising an
independent and unattached rotative load-rotor of
single diameter of less than mill cylindrical interior
diameter and of axial length less than said mill cyl
and the load Within the mill, grinding elements, and the
load rotating in uniform radial alinement, with only the 10
processing mill feed and mill product passing in ‘axial
alinement to the mill.
Several different milling actions take place within the
mill cross section and the various load portions through
out the load receive different milling actions, such as; 15
the impact crushing action as illustrated in FIG. 2 where
in the ram A strikes the load toe T. In practically all
milling actions which develop a load toe, there is a change
of direction of the part in movement upward to the load
crest and then downward to follow the descending mill
shell, and during this action the over-fall of the load por
tion from ram B strikes the load toe and the ram A
tion, said ‘grinding elements being partly immersed
in said mill load containing indiscriminate load
grinding media and adapted to rotate radially and
independently in random rotative movement within
said rotating mill unit for impelling, crushing and
grinding action upon said transit circulating load.
2. A horizontal rotary grinding mill and apparatus of
the cylindrical ball mill type, said mill having a clear in
terior and imperforate shell of uniform diameter, open
at both ends for respective entry and discharge of a
transient circulating load of discrete material to be ground
or processed, comprising;
a mill shell of single cylindrical section and of uniform
diameter supported for rotation on open trunnion
strikes the load toe with a decided impact which crowds
the load toe against the mill shell, consolidating that por
tion of the load. The rams are held rigidly to the 25
spreader rings and being under motion form an added
force to the ram A against the load toe, The ram B has
bearings, said mill being adapted to maintain and
service a transient circulating load of discrete mate
rial combined with a single unattached and inde
pendent load~rotor of several rams rigidly attached
to several spreader rings, said load-rotor being par~
tially submerged and ?oating and rotating in an ap
proximate 50 percent volume of indiscriminate load
grinding elements disposed within and of said mill
a residual load portion before it which is carried towards
the mill interior zenith and then liberated the load por
tion which passes in over-fall to further strike the load
toe T.
As the load portion behind the ascending ram 13 reaches
and load.
the normal line of cascade slope NC, and being without
3. A horizontal rotary grinding mill and apparatus of
support from below, the load will fall through and be
tween the spreader rings and towards the line of mill 35 the cylindrical ball mill type, said mill having a clear
interior of uniform diameter and imperforate shell, open
axis. As the load-rotor is advancing with the rams
at both ends for respective entry and discharge of a
rigidly connected to the spreader rings and serving to
transient circulating load of discrete material under proc
form a unit, the advancing ram C will move the load
essing or comminution, comprising;
portion before it and the mill shell and lift the load por
a mill cylindrical section of uniform shell diameter in
tion with liner plates lining the mill cylinder being devoid 40
single axial alinement rotative upon open trunnion
of lifters.
The rams are rigidly connected to the spreader rings
and serve as a unit carrying the active forces from one
portion of the mill sec-tion across to a neighboring ram,
and make an active action over the entire load.
The load-rotor is not only a combination of parts
serving to crush, grind or pulverize the load but it is
an impeller to the load working in combination with the
rotating mill and also working in conjunction with the
classifying actions of the discharge cone section 2—a.
I claim:
1. A horizontal rotary grinding mill and apparatus of
the conical mill type, said mill having a clear interior
and imperforate shell open at both ends for respective
entry and discharge of a transient circulating load of dis 55
crete material under processing or comminution, com
a mill cylindrical section of uniform shell diameter
interposed between two coniform shell sections, one
posed in axial ‘alinement to float within an inclosed
mill load, said load having a combination of mill
feed with grinding elements contained within said
mill cylinder, said load-rotor provided with several
centrally open spreader rings placed in mill radial
position with several rams rigidly and regularly at
tached thereto and projecting outward from the ex
terior rim of said spreader rings to a diameter of
load-rotor less than said mill interior diameter and
?oating in said mill load containing indiscriminate
grinding elements rotating practically concentric to
said mill shell and adapted to impel, crush and grind
load-rotor and said mill shell to serve in unison with
sections basing separately on each end of said cy
lindrical section and apeXing in open trunnion bear
a rotative mill unit of single alinement, said mill unit
inclosing a centrally open grinding unit of several
independent and unattached load-rotor of less than
said mill cylindrical internal diameter and of length
less than the length of said mill cylinder and dis
a mill load and provide a protective cushion of load
to be regularly deposited between the rams of said
i at each end of said cylindrical section, said coniform
ings, said cylindrical and coniform sections with
trunnion bearings attached in combination forming
bearings and positioned separately at each end of
said cylindrical section, said mill inclosing a single
the rotation of said mill and load-rotor.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
Hill _________________ __ Dec. 25, 1888
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