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Патент USA US3029053

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Apl'll 10, 1962
cs. B. CHURCHILL
FREE FLOATING wmc STRUCTURE AND CONTROL
3,029,043
SYSTEM FOR CONVERTIBLE AIRCRAFT
Filed Jan. 27, 1958
INVENTOR
GARY B CHURCH/LL
AGENT
Unite States
3,929,043‘
A latent O "ice
Patented Apr. 10, 1962
1
2
3,029,043
A still further object of the invention is the provision ‘
of a control system for a free ?oating wing on converti
FREE FLOATING WENG STRUCTURE AND CQN
TRQL SYSTEM FGR CONVERTIBLE AXRCRAFT
Gary B. Churchill, 469 Fox Hill Road, Hampton, Va.,
assignor of ten percent to Robert D. Lindeman,
Hampton, Va., and ?fteen percent to John R. Church
ill, New Kensington, Va.
Filed .‘lan. 27, 1958, Ser. No. 711,500
10 Claims. (Cl. 244-7)
.
ble aircraft in which the angular position of the wing
relative to the fuselage is controlled solely by movement
of a ?ap disposed in the slipstream of the propellers.
Another object of the invention is the provision of a
control system for a free ?oating wing on convertible air
craft'in which the angular position of the wing and motors
and propellers carried thereby relative to the fuselage is
10 controlled solely by the operation of ?aps on the wing, the
operation of the ?aps being controlled either manually or
This invention relates to aeronautics and more partic
ularly to a control system for a free ?oating wing pri
marily for use in convertible aircraft which provides for
vertical takeoff and landing and for transition from ver
tical to horizontal or level ?ight while maintaining the
fuselage in substantially horizontal position.
As is Well known, aircraft capable of taking off and
landing vertically have many advantages, particularly for
in response to angular movement of the fuselage with re
spect to the wing or angular movement of the wing with
respect to the fuselage.
'
A further object of the invention is the provision of a
control system for a free ?oating wing on convertible 'air
craft in which the pilot, in the event of overload, may
adjust the angle of attack of the wing for maximum lift
military use where only relatively short landing strips or
and takeoff as a conventional aircraft.
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runways are frequently available, but this type of aircraft 20 ‘~'A still further object of the invention is the provision
of a method for-controlling the angular position of a‘
also has numerous advantages for commercial use. While
wing with respect to the fuselage on convertible aircraft
the conventional helicopter is perfectly suitable for ver
in which the wing is mounted on the'fuselage for free ro
tical takeoifs and landings and is extremely useful for
tation about an axis substantially coinciding with the can;
certain types of operations, nevertheless, this type of air
ter of lift of the wing, such method including manual and
craft is inherently relatively slow in horizontal or level
automatic control of wing position solely by controlling
?ight and consequently an aircraft which is capable of
vertical takeolfs and landings, as well as relatively high
aerodynamic forces exerted on the wing structure, auto
matic'control occurring in response to angular movement
speed level ?ight would provide a signi?cant step forward
of the wing or fuselage with respect to‘the other.
in the art.
‘
Numerous types of aircraft capable of vertical takeoff 30 Further objects and ‘advantages of the invention will
and landing, as well as relatively high speed level ?ight i be apparent from the following description taken in’cone
have been proposed and some of these move the fuselage
junction'with the accompanying'drawing wh'erein
from a vertical to a horizontal position for transition from
‘ FIG. -1 is'a view inperspective showing a convertible
vertical to level ?ight while others maintain the fuselage
aircraft constructed in accordance with this invention and
in a horizontal position at all times. Obviously, it would 35 including a free floating wing ‘as well as a control’systern
controlling the position of such wing; ~
'
be preferable to maintain the fuselage of the aircraft
FIG. 2, a side elevational view showing an aircraft
horizontal at all times, but it has proven di?icult to control
constructed in accordance with this invention in level
the aircraft in such a manner as to maintain adequate
?ight and showing in dotted‘lines the position of the con
control of the aircraft during transition from vertical to
level ?ight and vice versa.
.
It is accordingly an object of the present invention to
provide a control system for a free ?oating wing on con
vertible aircraft which provides for vertical takeolfs and
40 trol ?ap for moving the wing from vertical‘to horizontal
position;
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FIG. 3, a side elevational view showing the aircraft of
this invention at rest upon the ground and with the wing
and power plant disposed in position for vertical takeoff
landings, as well as relatively high speed level ?ight while
maintaining the fuselage of the aircraft in a substantially 45 or landing and showing in dotted lines the position of th
?ap for moving the wing to such position;
'
horizontal position at all times and while maintaining con
FIG. 4, a diagrammatic view with certain parts in sec;
tinuous and adequate control of the aircraft during transi
tion and showing one form of a control system'for the
tion from vertical to level ?ight and vice versa.
A further object of the invention is the provision of a
FIG. 5,- a diagrammatic side elevational view showing
control system for a free ?oating wing on convertible 50
the control system with certain parts in section and with
aircraft in which the wing is mounted for free pivotal
the sidewall of the fuselage omitted for greater clarity.
movementv on the fuselage of the aircraft and in which the
With continued reference to the drawing there is shown
angular position of the wing, as well as the motors and
an aircraft constructed in accordance with this invention
propellers carried thereby relative to the fuselage is con
trolled by pivotally mounted ?aps on the wing and dis 55 and which may well include a fuselage 10 having con;
posed in the slip stream from the propellers.
ventional tail surfaces 11, elevators 12, a tail ?n 13 and
a rudder 14. The aircraft may also be provided with
A still further object of the invention is the provision
suitable landing gear 15 shown diagrammatically in
of a control system for a free floating wing 0n convertible
aircraft in which the angular position of ‘the wing and mo
FIG. 3.
~
A wing 16 of substantially conventional airfoil cross
tors and propellers carried thereby relative to the fuselage 60
section is divided in the center to provide port and star
is manually controlled solely by the operation of ?aps on
?aps;
the wing disposed in the slip stream from the propellers.
Another object of the invention is the provision of a
control system for a free ?oating wing on convertible air
and
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board wing sections 17 and 18 respectively. A rotatably
mounted shaft 19‘, preferably hollow, extends transversely
of the fuselage 1t! and is rotatably mounted therein and
craft in which the position of the wing during transition 65 the outer ends of shaft 19 extend into the root portions of
from vertical to level ?ight and vice versa is continuously
subject to control by the pilot of the aircraft.
A further object of the invention is the provision of a
control system for a free floating wing on convertible air
craft which provides for vertical takeoifs and landings
and for level ?ight at a speed comparable to that of con
ventional aircraft of comparable size and power plant.
the wing sections 17 and 18 respectively and are secured
thereto to pivotally mount said wing sections on the
fuselage for free ?oating pivotal movement as a unit
about an axis substantially coinciding with the center of
lift of the wing sections to provide a substantially bal
anced structure.
Mounted on the leading edges of port and starboard
‘3,029,043
3
wing sections 17 and 18 are motors 22 and 23 or other
suitable power plants and propellers 24 and 25 are driven
by the motors 22 and 23 to provide motive power for the
A
ly extending stud 50 which is rotatably received in a slot
51 in the disk 36.
In the operation of this control system to move the flap
2%, it will be seen that movement of the control lever 39
aircraft. While two motors 22 and 23 have been shown,
it is to be understood that this is for illustrative purposes C21 will result in rotating the disk 36 which in turn, through
the stud 5i), crank arm 49, shaft 47, arm 43, link 31 and
only and that any desired number of motors and pro
arm 30 will pivotally move the ?ap 23 about the mounting
pellers may be provided, depending upon the ‘size of the
‘aircraft and the power requirements. It is to be particu
larly noted, that the motors 22 and 23 are carried solely
thereof on the wing section 17. As was stated above, this
control system is duplicated on the opposite side of the
movement thereof about a transverse axis substantially
faces of the wing sections 17 and 18 in order to con
trol the movement of such wing sections about the shaft
19. It will also be seen, that with the shoe 42 engaging the
segment 41, that movement of the fuselage 10 with rela
tion to the wing sections 17 and 18 will also result in
pivotally moving the flaps 2S and 29 in one direction or
the other depending upon the direction of such relative
by the wing sections 17 and '18 and consequently, such 10 aircraft and consequently, operation of the control lever
39 will result in moving both the flaps 28 and 29 in
motors 22 and 223 as well as the propellers 24 and 25
synchronism, with relation to the upper and lower sur
move with the winding sections 17 and 18 during pivotal
at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the fuselage 10
of the aircraft.
Conventional ailerons 26 and 27 may be provided on
the trailing edges of the wing sectionsj17 and 18 for con
ventional control of the aircraft and inwardly of the
ailerons 26 and 27 there may be provided control ?aps
28 and 29 pivotally‘ymounted on the trailing edges of the 20 movement. This results in providing an automatic con
trol of the operation of the ?aps 28 and 29 in addition
wing‘sections 17 and 18 respectively and disposed in the
to the manual control provided by moving the control
slipstreams from the propellers 24 and 25. An arm 30
lever 39 with respect to the fuselage 10.
may be ?xed to the flap 28 and link 3-1 maybe pivotally
connected to the arm 30 and the link 31_may pass
through an opening 32 in the upper surface of the wing
section 17 and be connected to a control system in a
manner to be presently described. In a similarmanner,
an upstanding arm 33, may be-secured to, the “?ap 29 on
the wing section 18 and pivotally'connected to the arm 33
is a link 34 extending through an opening 35, in the
upper surface of 'wing section 18v and link 34 may be con
nected by a control system in ‘a manner to be presently
described.
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, With particular reference to FIGS. 4 and -5, there ‘is
shown diagrammatically one form of ‘control system
While one type of manual control system for operat
ing the ?aps 28 and 29 has been shown and described, it
is to be understood, that this is for illustrative purposes
only and that any other type of manual or power operated
‘control system incorporating servo motors or other mecha
nisms may be employed and this, of course, will in no
way affect the operation of the free floating wing or the
control system for controlling the position of such wing
‘structure. If desired, there may also be provided a means.
not shown, for locking the wing sections 17 and 13 in the
horizontal position shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, or in the
vertical position as shown in FIG. 3.
In operation and with the motors 22 and 23 as'well as
the propellers 24 and 25 operating, the flaps 28 and 29
maybe moved by operation of the control lever 39 to
the dotted line position shown in FIG. 3 whereupon the
40 slipstreams from the propellers 24 and 25 will impinge
upon the normal upper surfaces of the ?aps 28 and 29
which may be utilized to move the?aps 28 and 29 and
since, such control system is duplicated on each side of
the aircraft for operating the flaps 28 and Y29, the same
will be described only in connection with the system
for operating the ?ap 28, it being understood that a sim
ilar system is provided on the opposite side ‘for operating
to move the wing sections 17 and 18 to a vertical posi
the ?ap 29. As shown in FIGS. 4 and 5, a disk 36 is
tion’a's shown in FIG. 3. Upon the application of addi
disposed between the sidewall 37 of the fuselage 10 of
tional power to the propellers 24 and 25 by the motors
the aircraft and the inner end of the wing section 117 and
22 ‘and ‘23, the aircraft will takeoff vertically with the
the disk ‘36 is provided with a sleeve 38 which'extends 45 wing sections 17 and 18 maintained in proper position
through the sidewall 37 and is rotatably mounted therein.
by control of the ?aps 28 and 29 and the fuselage 10 will
A control lever 39 having a hand engaging ‘knob 40 may
remain in a substantially horizontal position during such
be ?xed to the sleeve 38 in any desired manner, or may
vertical takeoff. Upon reaching the desired altitude, the
be connected thereto through a suitable linkage system.
pilot ‘by operation of the control lever 39 may move the
For simplicity, the lever 39 is shown and described as
control flaps 28 and 29 to the dotted line position shown
mounted directly on the sleeve 38. A segment or quad
in FIG. 2 which will result in the slipstrcams from the
rant 41 ‘may be ?xed to the fuselage of the aircraft‘in
propellers 24 and 25 impinging on the normal lower sur
any desired manner and the control lever 39 may be
locked in any desired position by a shoe or pawl 42 en
gaging the segment or quadrant 41. In order to dis~
engage the shoe 42 from the segment 41 to permit rota
tion of the disk 36, there may be provided a rod'43 con
nected to a bell crank lever 44 pivotally mounted on the
control lever 39 with a hand engaging portion 45 of
faces of the flaps 28 and 29 thereby moving the wing
sections 17 and 18 to a substantially horizontal position
a'sshown in FIG. 2. While the movement of the wing
sections 17 and 18 from vertical to horizontal position
during transition from vertical to level ?ight is normally
under control of the pilot, nevertheless. in the event the
wing sections 17 and 18 tend to suddenly move in one
the bell crank lever 44 being disposed adjacent the hand 60 direction or the other and where such movement is more
engaging knob 40 in such a manner that gripping of the
sudden than would normally be sensed and compensated
knob 40 and squeezing of the hand engaging portion 45
for by the pilot, since it is to be assumed that his hand
of the bell crank lever 44 will operate to move the shoe
42 away from the surface of segment 41 and against the
action of compression spring 46. Release of the bell
crank lever 44 will result in the spring 46 moving the
shoe 42 into engagement with the segment 41 in such a
manner as to prevent movement of the disk 36 with re
spect to the fuselage 16' for a purpose to be later de
scribed.
is grasping the control lever 39, this sudden movement will
result in relative movement between the fuselage and the
wing sections and consequently, since the disk 36 re
mains ?xed with respect to the fuselage. this will auto
matically operate to move the control ?aps 28 and 29 to
compensate for such sudden movement. In a similar
manner, if for any reason the pilot has released the
bell crank lever 44 thereby locking the control lever 39
to the segment 41, any movement of the fuselage with
relation to the wing sections 18 and 17 will result in mov
from the arm 30 on the ?ap 28 is pivotally connected to
ing the control ?aps 28 and 29 to compensate for such
the arm 48 on the shaft 47. The shaft 47 is provided at
relative movement. As will be noted, the transition from
the inner end thereof with a crank arm 49 having a lateral 75 vertical to horizontal ?ight and vice versa is gradual and
Rotatably mounted in the wing section 17 is a shaft 47
having an arm 48 ?xed thereto and the link 31 extending
3,029,043
is
'0
consequently full control of the aircraft is maintained at
substantially conventional airfoil cross sections, a rotat
all times merely by proper manipulation of the flaps 28
and 29. The operation of the ?aps 28 and 29 for transi
tion from level ?ight to vertical landing is the opposite
able hollow shaft extending transversely of said fuselage
and secured to said wing sections for pivotally mounting
said wing sections on said fuselage for ‘free ?oating pivotal
to that described above and consequently a detailed de
movement as a unit about an axis substantially coincid
scription of this operation is not considered desirable or
necessary.
_
It will be seen that by the, above described invention
there has been provided a relatively simple free ?oating
wing which may be utilized in an otherwise substan
tially conventional aircraft and which will serve to render
such aircraft capable of vertical takeo?s and landings as
well as relatively high speed level or horizontal ?ight.
Furthermore, the control system of this invention provides
for convenient and complete manual control of the free
ing with the center of lift of each wing section to provide
a substantially balanced wing structure, a motor and pro
peller mounted on the leading edge of each wing section,
a flap pivotally mounted on the trailing edge of each
10 Wing section and combined manual and automatic control
means for simultaneous operation of said ?aps, said con
trol means comprising a control lever and linkage system
mounted on said fuselage and connected to said ?aps and
wings for manually moving said ?aps in either direction
with respect to the normal upper and lower surfaces of
?oating wing as well as automatic control thereof in
response to relative movement between the fuselage and
the wing and such manual or automatic control serves
system and means to ?x said control lever and part of
ment of the invention.
It will be obvious to those skilled in the art that various
the slipstream from said propellers will impinge on said
?aps to move said wing sections, motors and propellers
said wing sections upon manual operation of said control
said linkage system against operative control movement
to afford a smooth and safe transition from vertical to
with respect to said fuselage and ?aps, whereby upon
level ?ight and vice versa and it is to be understood that 20 movement of said wing section with respect to said fuse
various types of suitable mechanism may be employed for
lage said ?aps will be automatically moved in either di
this purpose and it is further to be understood that the
rection by automatic operation of another part of said
invention is not to be considered as limited to the particu
linkage system to automatically compensate for such
lar structures and mechanisms shown as these have been
movement of said wing sections whereby with said motors
illustrated and described merely for illustrative purposes
and propellers running and upon movement of said ?aps
and in order to show and describe one operative embodi
toward the normal upper surfaces of said wing sections,
changes may be made in the invention without departing
from the spirit and scope thereof and therefore the
invention is not limited by that which is shown in the
drawing and described in the speci?cation, but only as
indicated in the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
l. in an aircraft having a fuselage, a wing divided in.‘
the center to Provide port and starboard sections having
substantially conventional airfoil cross sections, a rotat
able hollow shaft extending transversely of said fuselage
and secured to said wing sections for pivotally mounting
said wing sections on said fuselage for free ?oating pivotal
movement as a unit about an axis substantially coinciding
with the center of lift of each wing section to provide a
substantially balanced wing structure, a motor and pro
peller mounted on the leading edge of each wing section,
a flap pivotally mounted on the trailing edge of each
wing section and control means for simultaneous opera
tion of said ?aps, said control means comprising a sleeve
rotatably mounted on said shaft, a disk ?xed to said sleeve
exteriorly of said fuselage on each side, each disk having
an aperture therein disposed outwardly of the axis, a con
trol lever ?xed to said sleeve, a segment ?xed to said
fuselage adjacent said lever, means to releasably lock said
into vertical position for vertical takeoff of said aircraft
and upon reaching the desired altitude and upon move—
ment of said flaps toward the normal lower surfaces of
said wing sections, the slipstream from said propellers will
impinge on said ?aps to move said wing sections, motors
and propellers into horizontal position for transition from
vertical to horizontal ?ight.
3. In an aircraft having a fuselage, a wing divided in
the center to provide port and stanboard sections, a rotat
able shaft extending transversely of said fuselage and
secured to said wing sections for pivotally mounting said
4-0 wing sections on said fuselage for ‘free ?oating pivotal
movement as a unit about an axis substantially coinciding
with the center of lift of each wing section to provide a
substantially balanced wing structure, a motor and pro
peller mounted on the leading edge of each wing section,
a ?ap pivotally mounted on the trailing edge of each wing
section and combined manual and automatic control
means for simultaneous operation of said ?aps, said con
trol means comprising a control lever and linkage sys~
tern mounted on said fuselage and connected to said ?aps
and wings for manually moving said ?aps in either direc
tion with respect to the normal upper and lower surfaces
of said wing sections upon manual operation of said con
lever to said segment, a second shaft rotatably mounted
in each wing section, a crank on each of said second
shafts, a stud on each crank received in the aperture in
each disk, an arm on each last named shaft and a link
connecting each arm with each ?ap for manually or auto
trol system and means to ?x said control lever ‘and pant
wing sections, motors and propellers into vertical posi
and upon reaching the desired altitude and upon move
ment of said ?aps toward the normal lower surfaces of
of said linkage system against operative control move
ment with respect to said fuselage and flaps, whereby upon
movement of said wing section with respect ‘to said fuse
lage said ?aps will be automatically moved in either
matically moving said ?aps in either direction with. re
direction by automatic operation of another part of said
spect to the normal upper and lower surfaces of said wing
linkage system to automatically compensate for such.
sections upon operation of said control lever or upon 60 movement of said wing sections whereby with said motors
movement of said fuselage with respect to said wing sec
and propellers running ‘and upon movement of said ?aps
tions, whereby with said motors and propellers running
toward the normal upper surfaces of said wing sections,
and upon movement of said ?aps toward the normal up
the slip stream from said propellers will impinge on said
per surfaces of said wing sections the slipstream from
?aps to move said wing sections, motors and propellers
said propellers will impinge on said ?aps and move said
into vertical position for vertical takeoff of said aircraft
tion for vertical takeoff of said aircraft and upon reach
ing the desired altitude and upon movement of said ?aps
toward the normal lower surfaces of said wing sections,
the slipstream from said propellers will impinge on said
?aps to move said wing sections, motors and propellers
into horizontal position for transition from vertical to
horizontal ?ight.
said wing sections, the slipstream from said propellers
will impinge on said ?aps to move said wing sections,
motors and propellers into horizontal position for transi?
tion from vertical to horizontal ?ight.
4. In an aircraft having a fuselage, a wing divided in
the center to provide port and starboard sections, a rotat-v
2. In an aircraft having a fuselage, a wing divided in
able shaft extending transversely of said fuselage and
the center to provide port and starboard sections having 75 secured to said wing sections for pivotally mounting said
ape-9,043
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movement as a unit about an axis substantially coinciding
with respect to said fuselage said ?aps will be automati
cally moved in either direction by automatic operation of
with the center of lift of each wing section to provide a
another part of said control means to automatically com
wing sections on said fuselage for free ?oating pivotal
pensatc for such movement of said wing sections whereby
substantially balanced wing structure, a motor and pro~
pcller mounted on the leading edge of each wing section, Ct with said motors and propellers running and upon move
ment of said flaps toward the normal upper surfaces of
a ?ap pivotally mounted on the trailing edge of each wing
section and combined manual and automatic control
means mounted on said ‘fuselage and connected to said
flaps and wings for simultaneous operation of said flaps
'
said wing sections, the slipstream from said propellers
will impinge on said ?aps to move said wing sections,
rotors and propellers into vertical position for vertical
in response to manual operation of said control means 10 takeoff of said aircraft and upon reaching the desired
altitude and upon movement of said ?aps toward the nor
and means to for part of said control means against opera
tive control movement with respect to said fuselage and
mal lower surfaces of said wing sections, the slipstream
?aps, whereby upon movement of said wing sections with
respect to said fuselage said ?aps will be automatically
from said propellers will impinge on said ?aps to move
moved in either direction ‘by automatic operation of an
other part of said control means to automatically com
said wing sections, motors and propellers into horizontal
position for transition from vertical to horizontal ?ight.
7. In an aircraft having a fuselage, a wing divided in
pensate for such movement of said wing sections whereby
the center to provide port and starboard sections, means
with said motors and propellers running and upon move
ment of said flaps toward the normal upper surfaces of
for pivotally mounting said wing sections on said fuselage
for free ?oating pivotal movement as a unit about a longi
said wing sections, the slipstream from said propellers 20 tudinal axis of said ‘wing, 21 motor and propeller mounted
will impinge on said ?aps to move said wing sections,
motors and propellers into vertical position for vertical
takeoff of said aircraft and upon reaching the desired
altitude and upon movement of said ?aps toward the
normal lower surfaces of said wing sections, the slip
stream from said propellers will impinge on said flaps to
move said wing sections, motors and propellers into
horizontal position for transition from vertical to hori
zontal ?ight.
on the leading edge of each wing section, a flap pivotally
mounted on the trailing edge of each wing section and
combined manual and automatic control means mounted
on said fuselage and connected to said ?aps and wings for
simultaneous operation of said flaps in response to manual
operation of said control means and means to ?x part of
said control means against operative control movement
with respect to said fuselage and flaps, whereby upon
movement of said wing sections with respect to said fuse
5. In an aircraft having a fuselage, a wing divided in 30 lage said flaps will be automatically moved in either direc
tion by automatic operation of another part of said con
the center to provide port and starboard sections, a rotat
trol means to automatically compensate for such move
able shaft extending transversely of said fuselage and
ment of said wing sections whereby with said motors
secured to said wing sections for pivotally mounting said
wing sections on said fuselage for free ?oating pivotal
movement as a unit about a longitudinal axis of said wing,
21 motor and propeller mounted on the leading edge of
each wing section, a ilap pivotally mounted on the trail
ing edge of each wing section and combined manual and
automatic control means mounted on said ‘fuselage and
connected to said flaps and wings for simultaneous opera
tion of said flaps in response to manual operation of said
and propellers running and upon movement of said ?aps
toward the normal upper surfaces of said wing sections,
the slipstream from said propellers will impinge on said
?aps to move said wing sections, motors and propellers
into vertical position for vertical takeoff of said aircraft
and upon reaching the desired altitude and upon move
ment of said flaps toward the normal lower sections of
said wing sections, the slipstream from said propellers
will impinge on said flaps to move said wing sections,
motors and propellers into horizontal position for transi
means against operative control movement with respect
tion from vertical to horizontal ?ight.
to said fuselage and ?aps, whereby upon movement of
8. In an aircraft having a fuselage, a wing divided in
said wing section with respect to said fuselage said flaps
the center to provide port and starboard sections. means
will be automatically moved in either direction by ‘auto
for pivotally mounting said wing sections on said fuselage
matic operation of another part of said control means to
for free floating pivotal movement as a unit about a longi
automatically compensate for such movement of said
tudinal axis of said wing, a motor and propeller mounted
wing sections whereby with said motors and propellers
running and upon movement of said ?aps toward the so on the leading edge of each wing section, a ?ap pivotally
mounted on the trailing edge of each wing section and
normal upper surfaces of said wing sections, the slipstream
combined manual and automatic control means mounted
from said propellers will impinge on said flaps to move
on said fuselage and connected to said flaps and wings
said wing sections, motors and propellers into vertical
for moving said flaps in response to manual operation of
position for vertical takeoff ‘of said aircraft and upon
said control means and means to ?x part of said control
reaching the desired altitude and upon movement of said
means against operative control movement with respect
?aps toward the normal lower surfaces of said wing sec
to said fuselage and ?aps, whereby upon movement of
tions, the slipstream from said propellers will impinge
said wing with respect to said fuselage said ?ap will be
on said flaps to move said wing sections, motors and pro
automatically moved in either direction by automatic
pellers into horizontal position for transition from vertical
to horizontal flight.
60 operation of another part of said control means to auto
matically compensate for such movement of said wing
6. In an aircraft having a fuselage, a wing divided in
sections whereby with said motors and propellers run
the center to provide port and starboard sections, a shaft
ning and upon movement of said flaps toward the nor
extending transversely of said fuselage and secured to
mal upper surfaces of said wing sections, the slipstream
said wing sections for pivotally mounting said wing sec
from said propellers will impinge on said flaps to move
tions on said fuselage for free ?oating pivotal movement
said wing sections, motors and propellers into vertical
as a unit about a longitudinal axis of said wing, a motor
position for vertical takeoff of said aircraft and upon
and propeller mounted on the leading edge of each wing
reaching the desired altitude and upon movement of said
section, a flap pivotally mounted on the trailing edge of
?aps toward the normal lower surfaces of said wing sec
each wing section and combined manual and automatic
control means and means to ?x part of said control
control means mounted on said fuselage and connected 70 tions, the slipstream from said propellers will impinge
on said ?aps to move said wing sections, motors and pro
to said flaps and wings for simultaneous operation of said
flaps in response to manual operation of said control
pellers into horizontal position for transition from verti
means and means to ?x part of said control means against
cal to horizontal ?ight.
operative control movement with respect to said fuselage
9. in an aircraft having a fuselage, a wing, means for
and ?aps, whereby upon movement of said wing sections
piv'otally mounting said ‘wing on said fuselage for free
3,029,043
10
?oating pivotal movement about a longitudinal axis of
said wing, 21 motor and propeller mounted on the lead
ing edge of said wing, a ?ap mounted on the trailing edge
of said wing and combined manual and automatic con
trol means mounted on said fuselage and connected to
said ?ap and wings for moving said ?ap in response to
manual operation of said control means and means to
?x part of said control means against operative control
movement with respect to said fuselage and ?ap, whereby
upon movement of said wing with respect to said fuse
lage said ?ap will be automatically moved in either di
motion by automatic operation of another part of said
control means to automatically compensate for such
to said ?ap and wings for moving said ?ap in response to
manual operation of said control means and means to
?x part of said control means against operative control
movement with respect to said fuselage and ?ap, where
by upon movement of said wing with respect to said fuse
lage said flap will be automatically moved in either di
rection by automatic operation of another part of said
control means to automatically compensate for such
movement of said wing whereby with said motor and
propeller running and upon movement of said ?ap to
ward the normal upper surface of said wing, the slip
stream from said propeller will impinge on said ?ap to
move said wing, motor and propeller into vertical posi
movement of said Wing whereby with said motor and
tion for vertical takeoff of said aircraft and upon reach
propeller running and upon movement of said ?ap toward 15 ing the desired altitude and upon movement of said ?ap
the normal upper surface of said wing, the slip stream
toward the normal lower surface of said wing, the slip
from said propeller will impinge on said ?ap to move I stream from said propeller will impinge on said ?ap to
said wing, motor and propeller into vertical position for
move said wing, motor and propeller into horizontal posi
vertical takeoif of said aircraft and upon reaching
tion for transition from vertical to horizontal ?ight.
the desired altitude and upon movement of said ?ap to 20
ward the normal lower surface of said wing, the slip
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
stream from said propeller will impinge on said flap to
UNITED STATES PATENTS
move said wing, motor and propeller into horizontal posi'
tion for transition from vertical to horizontal ?ight.
2,708,081
Dobson ______________ __ May '10, 1955
10. In an aircraft having a fuselage, a wing, means for 25 2,835,456
pivotally mounting said wing on said fuselage for free
?oating pivotal movement about a longitudinal axis of
said wing, a motor and propeller mounted on said Wing,
a ?ap pivotally mounted on said wing in the slipstream
from said propeller and combined manual and automatic 30
control means mounted on said fuselage and connected
Kaplan ______________ __ May 20, 1958
FOREIGN PATENTS
615,418
793,426
437,447
France _______________ __ Apr. 29, 1926
France ______________ __ Apr. 16, 1935
Great Britain _________ __ Oct. 28, 1935
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