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Патент USA US3029334

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April 10, 1962
3,029,323
W. L- CARLSON, JR
PRESSURE CONTROL DEVICE
Filed Dec. 10, 1956
7/5- /
[2|
‘LOAD
22 /23
36%
POWER
35,?
24
234
M
ll»
19.
Q
f
2
40
43
45
46
—i::
4|
2
-*
47/‘
POWER a
CONTROL ‘v44
48J
INVEN TOR.
WILLIAM L. CARLSON JR
BY
Z
ATTORAEY
U?ilE‘ Statgs 'Pate?t 1'
' we
$29,323
Patented Apr. 10, .1952
2
bellows 31 form a completely sealed chamber which
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.
-
I
1
a
r
has a variable volume. It ‘the bellows 31 is distorted
3,029,323
PRESSURE CONTROL DEVICE
for any particularpreason, it is apparent that ‘the total
‘volume of the ‘reservoir 19, which would ‘include the bel
William L. Carlson, Jr., Bloomington, Minrn, assignor to
Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Company, Minne
apolls, Minn”. a corporation of Delaware
lows 31 ‘and a tube 30, would be varied. Above ?uid 13
,
and ?lling bellows 31 is any type of atmosphere compat
Filed Dec-.19, 1956,‘Ser. No. 627,321
9 Claims. (Cl. ZOE-8L6)
ible with ?uid 13 so that pressures may be transmitted.
The bellows 31 ‘is enclosed in a pressure tight container
' 'l‘his (‘invention relates to ‘a ‘conductive ‘fluid or liquid
metal relayrand more particularly is .directed to a relay
used w1th an integral secondary ?uid ‘sensing element to
form a pressure ‘control device.
32 which is in turn connected to a pipe 33.
10
.
The principle of the ~col'l’duc-tive ?uid relay has been
30 and reservoir 10.
known for a number of years. in its simplest form it
consists of ‘a pump moving a conductive ?uid in or ‘out 15
of a chamber to control an electric circuit by opening or
,
7
Associated with reservoir '11 there is a tube 34, which
issimilar to tube 30 in that it connects to a bellows 35,
which in turn is enclosed in a pressure tight container 36
having a tube 37. It again is apparent that any pressure
closing an electrical path between two electrodes. This
type of relay has been of little practical use because of
or vacuum applied through tube 37 will cause the bellows
35 to collapse or eitpand, thereby changing the‘total
volume of the bellows 35, tube 34 and reservoir 11 by
acting upon an atmosphere above ?uid 13.’ ‘It is further
inherent,v complex mechanical problems and time delays
in_ ‘operation. Certain of these disadvantages can be
llil'llZEd with the novel features ‘herein disclosed, to ob
tain a new and very useful type of pressure control
device. These features will be explained in some detail
after an explanation ‘of the device has been presented.
v_ It is the object of this invention to disclose a conduc~
By apply
'ing a pressure or vacuum to the pipe 33 it would be
possible to compress or expand bellows 31 and thereby
effect the total volume contained in the bellows 31, tube
apparent that ?xed reservoirs 10, and 11 and bellows 31
and 35 could be replaced by reservoir bellows alone.
In considering the system disclosed to this point, it be
“ comes obvious that if the pump 14 is disregarded that
tive ?uid relay and pressure control device which pro
pressures or vacuums applied to tubes 33 and 37 will
normally cause a shift in the level of ?uid 13 in reservoirs
1'0 and 11. If the shift in level of the conductive ?uid
13 is adequate it is possible to short circuit the electrodes
vides; novel high and/or low pressure cutout features.
It is a further object of this invention to disclose a
pressure control device which controls electric circuits
as a function ‘of both ‘its own energization and the amount 30 15 and 16 and thereby obtain control of the load 21. It
of pressure applied ‘to the system in which it is connected.
is further understood that the tube 34 could be com
pletely sealed off and the bellows 3S, pressure container
36, and tube 37 not used. In this particular case, any
Still a further object of this invention is to disclose a
pressure control device having far ‘fewer moving parts
than normally found in devices which attempt to accom
plish the same general type of function.
. pressure or vacuum applied to tube 33 would in itself
. Another object is to provide a pressure responsive de
vice which is easily adjusted or set electrically from a
remote location.
' cause a shift of the conductive ?uid 13 in the reservoirs
10 and 11 such as to assume control of the load 21.
‘ The function and construction oflpump 14 will now be
'
disclosed‘ so that the over-all operation of the pressure
These and other objects will become apparent when the
following description is considered With the single sheet
of attached ‘drawings, wherein:
FIGURE 1 is a schematic representation of the novel
device disclosed in one'of its many embodiméntsand;
FIGURE 2 is a cross section along the lines 2-2 of
a pump shown in ‘FIGURE 1.
In FIGURE 1, two reservoirs 10 and 11 are disclosed
interconnected by a tube 12. The tube, 12 is preferably
control device will become apparent.
40
The pump 14 can
be of‘ any convenient type but is preferably of the type
known as the Faraday type. The Faraday pump 14
moves the conductive ?uid 13 in pipe 12 by the inter
action of mutually perpendicular electric currents and
magnetic ?elds. In FIGURE 2 there is disclosed a cross
45 section of a simple form of the Faraday pump. This
ptunp includes a C-shaped magnetic structure 40 having
a coil 41 encircling any part of the magnetic structure
of an insulating materialv but may be of any convenient
'40. Upon the energization of the coil 41 a magnetic
?eld is established across the tube 12 which passes through
the pump generally shown at 14. The pump 14 can be 50 ‘the open part or gap in the magnetic structure 40. In
placed at any location intermediate the reservoirs 10' and
serted into the sides of the tube 12 are two electrodes
11, but for convenience sake it vhas been disclosed as being
42 and 43. These two electrodes are placed in a line
materialif proper precautions are taken in constructing
approximately intermediate of these two reservoirs. The
details of the ‘construction of pump 14, which is known
with one another and this line is perpendicular to the
line or the ?ux ‘across tube "12. If current is passed be
as a Faraday pump, will be more fully set out below, but
for the present it is sufficient to understand that pump
14 is capable of moving a conductive ?uid 13 which par
tially ?lls the reservoirs 10 and 11 and completely ?lls
tween electrodes 42 and 43 while a magnetic ?ux exists
the tube 12.
or the pressure in the ?uid isa ‘function of the direction
'
.
across tube 12, a force is created in the conductive ?uid
13 and the ?uid is caused tobe moved or pumped. It
will be understood that the direction of ?ow of the ?uid
g Inserted in the top of reservoir 10 are two electrodes 60 of the ?ow of current with respect to the ?ux of an exist
15 and 16. .El‘ectr'ode'sls‘and 16 are insulated at 17 and
are connected in a series circuit formed of conductor 20,
a‘ load to‘ be controlled 21, conductors 22, a power source
ing magnetic ?eld. If either the direction of current or
the direction of the ?ux is altered the direction of the
force in the ?uid is reversed and thereby a completely re
23, and a conductor 24. It will be understood that if
the conductive ?uid 13' rises su?‘icicu?y in reservoir 10
that electrodes 15 and 16 will be ‘shorted together by .
the pipe 12. It will become obvious therefore that the
the?uid and the circuit through, the’ load 21 and, power
presently disclosed pump creates no interference with the
source 23’wil'l thereby be completed.‘ A, ‘small tube 30
versible pump is ‘obtained which has no moving parts and
which has a continual ‘open channel identical in size with,
movement of the conductive ?uid 13 when it is de-eneo
is 'in‘siertedjatthe top of reservoir 10 and connects the 70 gized but does in?uence the movement of the conductive
reservoir 10‘ to a bellows 31. v The‘, bellows s1 is com;
pletely sealed am therefore the‘ reservoir 10' and the,
?uid 13 when power is suppliedto the pump 14.
_
_,
In order to supply the necessary power for the pump 14
' 3,029,323
3
a power and control unit 44 is provided. The power and
.
4
in said reservoir means and including external circuit
means; and external force means acting on said reser
control unit 44 has two leads 45 and 46 which are con
voir means to change its volume in conjunction with said
nected to coil 41 and thus supply coil 41 with the necessary
pumping pressure to vary the level of said ?uid in said
electrical energy to establish a magnetic ?ux in the core 40.
reservoir means; said external circuit means controlled
The power and control unit 44; further has conductors
by said conductive ?uid acting on said current control
47 and 48 which are connected directly'to the electrodes
means when said level changes.
42 and 43. The conductors 4'7 and 48 supply the neces
2. A control device of the class described: power
sary electrical current to the electrodes so that the current
means; a conductive ?uid pump energized by said power
necessary for the operation of the pump is available. The
nature of the power and control unit 44 is well known to 10 means and having an inlet and an outlet; said pump de
veloping a pressure upon the energization of said pump
those versed in the art and will not be explained in fur
by said power means; reservoir means connected to said
ther detail.
By superimposing the pumping pressure of pump 14
(which is reversible) with that created under the in?uence
of pressure and/or vacuums supplied to pipes 33 and
inlet and outlet; said reservoir means being partially ?lled
tion of pressure or vacuum from tubes 33 or 37, or by
with an electrically conductive ?uid and further having a
variable volume; current control means operatively in
serted in said reservoir means and including external cir
cuit means; and external pressure means acting on said
reservoir means to change its volume in conjunction with
said pumping pressure to vary the level of said ?uid in
the pumping pressure developed by pump 14. It is also
possible to control load 21 by any combination of pres
said reservoir means; said external circuit means con
trolled by said conductive ?uid acting on said current '
sure and vacuum through pipes 33 and 37 and a pumping
pressure from pump 14. It becomes obvious therefore
control means when said level changes.
3. A control device of the class described: power
means; a conductive ?uid pump energized by said power
means, and having an inlet and an outlet; said pump de
veloping a pressure upon the energization of said pump
by said power means; reservoir means connected to said
37 it can be seen that a pressure control device having
unusual characteristics is provided. The operation of
load 21 can be accomplished either by the direct applica
that many possible applications for this type of pressure
control device could be established.
A speci?c example of an application and operation of
this novel pressure control device is as a low pressure
cut-in with an ‘air supply system. As such a low pres
sure cut-in,’ the pipe 33 would be connected to any point
in an air supply system (not shown) that had a pressure
present. The pipe 37 would be vented to the atomsphere,
while the load 21 would represent the compressor in
the system. When the power and control unit 44 was
energizing the pump 14 with a ?xed voltage on conduc
inlet and outlet; said reservoir means being partially
?lled with an electrically conductive ?uid and’ further
having a variable volume; electrode means operatively
inserted in said reservoir means and including external
circuit means; and external force means acting on said
reservoir means to change its volume in conjunction with
said pumping pressure to vary the level of ‘said ?uid in
said reservoir means; said external circuit means con
tors 45 and 46 and a ?xed current on conductors 47 and
48, the pump 14 would supply a constant pressure on the
?uid 13 tending to move the ?uid into reservoir 10. The
movement of the ?uid would be restrained by the pressure
in the rservoir 10‘ and bellows 31. If the pressure in the
means when said level changes.
4. A control device of the class described: power
means; a conductive ?uid pump energized by said power
air supply system (not shown) dropped the bellows 31
means and having an inlet and an outlet; said pump de
trolled by said conductive ?uid acting on said electrode
veloping a pressure which is a function of the energize
would expand and the ?uid 13 would rise in reservoir
tion of said pump; reservoir means connected to said
10. When the ?uid 13 rose enough in rservoir 10 be
inlet and outlet; said reservoir means being partially ?lled
cause of the low pressure in chamber 32, the electrodes
with an electrically conductive ?uid and further having
15 and 16 would be shorted by the conductive ?uid and
the compressor (load 21) would operate to return the 45 a variable volume; electrode means operatively inserted
in said reservoir means and including external circuit
pressure in chamber 32 to the desired level.
means; and external force means acting on said reservoir
If it became desirable to change the pressure setting
means to change its volume in conjunction with said
or control point, this can be accomplished from the re
pumping pressure to vary the level of said ?uid in said
mote location of the power and control unit by changing
either the voltage on conductors 45 and 46 or by changing 50 reservoir means; said external circuit means controlled
by said conductive ?uid acting on said electrode‘ means
the current supplied on conductors 47 and 48. Also, a new
when said level changes.
_
pressure could be set from this remote ‘location by chang
5. A control device of the class- described: power
ing both the energizing current and voltage. This ar
means; an electromagnetic pump energized by said power
rangement provides a simple electrical remote setting and
overcomes the complex mechanical arrangement currently 55 means and having ‘an inlet and an outlet; said pump de
used in general remote control mechanical systems of this
veloping a pressure which is a function of the energiza
type. In general, remote mechanical systems are di?icult
tion of said pump; reservoir means connected to said
to use due to their complexity and the present would in
inlet and outlet; said reservoir means being partially
expensively solve this long existing problem in the remote
?lled with a liquid metal and further having a variable
control ?eld.
60 volume; electrode means operatively inserted in said
With the arrangement disclosed an endless number of
reservoir means and including external circuit means;
possible combinations of pressures could be set into the
and external force means acting on said reservoirmeans
overall system shown in FIGURE 1 and it becomes ob
to change its volume in conjunction with said pumping
vious that this system could therefore be applied in
pressure to vary the level of said liquid metal in said
numerous Ways. With this in mind the applicant wishes 65 reservoir means; said external circuit means controlled
to be limited only to the scope of the appended claims.
by said liquid metal acting on said electrode means when
I claim as my invention:
1. 'A control device of the class described: power
means; a pump energized by said power means and hav~
ing an inlet and an outlet; said pump'developing a pres
sure upon the energization of said pump by said power
said level changes.
6. A control device of the class described: power
means; an electromagnetic liquid metal pump energized
by said power means and having an inlet and an outlet;
said pump developing a pressure which is substantially
proportional to the energization of said pump; reservoir
means including a bellows connected to said inlet and
let; said reservoir means being partially ?lled with an
electrically conductive ?uid and further having a vari
outlet; said reservoir means being partially ?lled with a
able volume; current control means operatively inserted 75 liquid metal and further having a variable volume; elec-A
means; reservoir means connected to said inlet and out
5
3,029,323
6
trode means operatively inserted in said reservoir means
and including external circuit means; and pressure means
acting on said bellows to change its volume in conjunc
tion with said pumping pressure to vary the level of said
liquid metal in said reservoir means; said external cir 5
current control means in one said reservoir; said liquid
metal level being varied by the joint pressures of said
cuit means controlled by said liquid metal shorting said
ervoirs joined by a pipe and including a liquid metal
therein; an electromagnetic liquid metal pump included
in said pipe; said pump being capable of moving said
pump and said differential means to operate said current
control means.
9. In a control device of the class described; two res
electrode means when said level changes.
7. In a control device of the class described: two
reservoirs joined by a passage and including a conduc
liquid metal under pressure from the said ?rst reservoir
tive ?uid therein; a conductive ?uid pump included in 10 to the said second reservoir; pressure di?erential means
said passage; said pump being capable of moving said
connected to said reservoir to vary the pressure upon the
conductive ?uid under pressure from the said ?rst res
liquid metal independently of said pump pressure; and
ervoir to the said second reservoir; pressure differential
electrodes in one said reservoir; said liquid metal level
means connected to said reservoirs to vary the pressure
being varied by the joint pressures of said pump and said
upon the conductive ?uid independently of said pump 15 di?er-ential means to short circuit said electrodes.
pressure; and current control means in one said reservoir;
said conductive ?uid level being varied by the joint
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
pressures of said pump and said differential means to
UNITED STATES PATENTS
operate said current control means. .
8. In a current control device of the class described:
two reservoirs joined by a passage and including a liquid
metal therein; a liquid metal pump included in said
passage; said pump being capable of moving said liquid
metal under pressure from the said ?rst reservoir to the
1,747,044
1,773,036
1,916,427
1,977,498
2,635,637
said second reservoir; pressure differential means con
nected to said reservoirs to vary the pressure upon the
liquid metal independently of said pump pressure; and
Bainbridge __________ __ Feb. 11,
FitzGe-rald __________ __ Aug. 12,
Korver ______________ __ July 4,
Staegemann ___________ __ Oct. 16,
Karrer _____________ __ Apr. 21,
1930
1930
1933
1934
1953
FOREIGN PATENTS
900,385
France ______________ __ Oct. 2, 1944
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