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Патент USA US3029571

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April 17, 1962
Filed. July 17, 1959
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
F161 /
#47 6/401:
April 17, 1962
Filed July 17, 1959
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
FIG‘. 3
BY Q7 5. Mi
April 17, 1962
Filed July 17, 1959
5 Sheets-Shea}; 3
. hire
Patented Apr. 17, 1962
bustible beams to secure them to the inner metal sheet.
The outer metal sheet is fastened to the outer surface
of the transverse beams by means of fasteners extending
through the outer metal sheet into the transverse beams.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the longi
Richard H. Clay, Pittsburgh, Pa., assignor to
H. H. Robertson Company
Filed July 17, 1959, Ser. No. 827,750
2 Claims. (Cl. 50-348)
tudinally extending members are inwardly ?anged chan~
nels in which shaped, nonmetallic, noncombustible blocks
are slidably movable. The shaped blocks have an outer
surface corresponding to the con?guration of the outer
metal sheet and a central portion which engages the ends
lates to a thermally insulated, ?reproof building panel
of the transverse, noncombustible beams.
which may be employed in buildings which are to be
In a further embodiment, the two longitudinally ex
tending members are U-shpaed angle sections having a
shielded against transmission of radio-frequency radi
web and two legs. One leg of each member is secured
Insulated building panels have been constructed in the 15 to the inner metal sheet whereby the web is substantially
perpendicular to the inner metal sheet and the remaining
past to provide an outer surface for a building. See, for
unsecured leg is substantially parallel to the inner metal
example, US. Patent 2,696,281, A. W. Hedgren et a1.
sheet. A noncombustible, nonmetallic transverse beam
Such insulated panels have employed wooden frame spac
having slotted end portions extends between the angle
ing elements to separate inner and outer metal sheets of
sections so that each unsecured channel leg ?ts into one
the building panel thereby avoiding any metal-to-metal
of the slots and the channel web engages the transverse
contact through which thermal energy might be trans—
beam end.
ferred. While the wooden spacing frames may be chemi
The invention will be more fully understood by refer
cally treated to render them ?re-resistant, nevertheless,
ence to the following detailed description and accom
wooden frames remain combustible. Hence such panels
are not ?reproof, but merely ?re-resistant. Where ab 25 panying drawings in which:
FIGURE 1 is a fragmentary illustration of an outer wall
solute ?reproof construction is required, completely non
of a building, as viewed from inside the building, illus
combustible materials must be employed internallyin the
trating the manner in which the building panels of the
fabrication of building panels. Nonmetallic ?reproof
present invention are employed;
materials are, virtually without exception, conglomerate
FIGURE 2 is a fragmentary plan view of the building
masses, whether of natural or fabricated origin. Non 30
panel which is a preferred embodiment of this inven
combustible materials of natural origin include rocks and
The present invention relates to a thermally insulated,
?reproof building panel for use as the outer surface of
a building. More particularly, the present invention re
stone. Noncombustile materials of fabricated origin in
FIGURE 3 is a cross-section view of a complete build
clude various glasses, cements, concretes, agglomerates
and ceramics.
While these materials can sustain com
pressive loading, their resistance to tensile and shear 35
ing panel taken along the line 3—3 of FIGURE 2;
FIGURE 4 is a perspective illustration of a preferred
longitudinally extending element 19 of FIGURE 2;
stresses is slight. In general, such materials possess alter~
FIGURE 5 is a perspective illustration of a block 27,
nate tensile strength less than about 3008 pounds per
suitable for use in combination with the longitudinally
square inch.
Despite many attempts in the past to develop a ?re 40 extending element shown in FIGURE 4;
FIGURE 6 is a perspective illustration showing a block
proof, insulated building panel, the limited mechanical
27 positioned within a channel 19 otherwise shown in
properties of nonmetallic, noncombustible materials have
interposed substantial obstacles.
The principal object of this invention is to provide a
?reproof, thermally insulated building panel having inner
and outer metal sheets.
FIGURE 7 is a perspective illustration of one end of a
transversely extending beam member 32 of FIGURE 2;
FIGURE 8 is a perspective illustration of a metal
Another object is to provide a ?reproof, thermally in
sulated building panel embodying nonmetallic, noncom
bustible materials having an ultimate tensile strength less
FIGURE 9 is a fragmentary cross-sectional illustration
showing the side-by-side assembly of two panel units in a
than about 3000 pounds per square inch.
50 building structure;
FIGURE 10 is a fragmentary cross-section illustra
A further object is to provide a building structure
tion showing the top-to-bottom assembly of two panel
which is thermally insulated and ?reproof and which is
units in a building structure;
constructed from insulated, ?reproof building panels.
FIGURE 11 is a perspective illustration of an alterna
A still further object of this invention is to provide a
thermally insulated, ?reproof building panel which may
be employed in constructing a building in which shield
ing against transmission of radio-frequency radiation is
An additional object of this invention is to provide a
building panel which is thermally insulated and ?reproof
and which may be employed in the construction of a
tive sealing means forming a side-by-side juncture be
tween two building panels;
FIGURE 12 is a fragmentary perspective illustration of
a building panel according to an alternative embodiment
of this invention;
FIGURE 13 is a perspective illustration of a transverse
beam element for use in the panel of FIGURE 12;
vapor tight building.
FIGURE 14 is a cross-section illustration of the build
ing panels of FIGURE 12 showing their side-by-side as
According to the present invention I have provided a
building panel having an inner metal sheet and an outer
FIGURE 15 is a perspective illustration of an alter
metal sheet which are spaced apart by means of non~ 65
native transverse beam element which can be substituted
combustible materials. A pair of longitudinally extend
for that shown in FIGURE 13; and
ing bent metal elements is secured to the inner metal
FIGURES l6 and 17 are perspective illustrations of
sheet. A plurality of nonmetallic, noncombustible beam
fragments of alternative channel sections for use in the
members extend transversely between the longitudinally
extending elements. A plurality of pronged metal clips 70 building panels of FIGURE 12. .
are secured to the inner metal sheet in such manner that
the prongs thereof penetrate into the transverse noncom
Referring to FIGURE 1, there is illustrated a frag
ment of an outer wall of a building structure as viewed
from inside the building. Vertical columns 10 and hori
zontal girts 11 form the skeleton of the building. A
plurality of building panels 12 are ai'?xed to the skeleton
of the building in side-by-side and top-to-bottom relation.
metal sheet 16, preferably by means of resistance welding
of the welding surface 37 to the inner metal sheet 16.
12 is secured to at least one girt 11 or column 10 where
Thereafter the transverse beam 32 may be twisted into
position as indicated in phantom outline in FIGURE 2
by sliding the transverse beam 32 in the direction of the
arrows A whereby simultaneously the prongs 39 of each
Welding clip 36 enter the drilled holes 35; the cutout
portion 33 and the end portion 34 frictionally engage re
spectively the channel leg 23 and the central portion of
by the building panels 12 serve as an outer sheath of a
a block 27.
Horizontal seams 13 are formed where the building
panels 12 are joined in top-to-bottom relation. Vertical
seams 14 are formed where the building panels 12 are
.joined in side-by-side relation.
Each individual panel
Rectangular batts 49 of insulating material such as
building and are not dead load bearing elements of the 10
glass ?bers, mineral wool and the like may be inserted
in the rectangular space bounded by the channels 19 and
adjacent transverse beams 32. Strips 40' of insulating
be described. The building panel 12 includes an inner 15 material may be placed in the channels 19 between
metal sheet 16 of generally rectangular con?guration
blocks 27.
Referring to FIGURES 2 and 3, the construction of a
preferred embodiment of the present building panel will
having a tongue 17 along one side and a groove 18 along
A corrugated outer metal sheet 41 has a plurality of
the other side. The inner metal sheet 16 preferably is
crests 42 and valleys 43. Preferably the outer metal
constructed of light gauge metal, for example, 22 gauge
sheet 41 is formed from a protected metal which will
through 12 gauge. Its width and length correspond to 20 resist atmospheric deteriorations, for example, galvanized
selected building modules. Widths of 2 to 6 feet are
steel sheets coated wtih asphalt or plastics. The corru
preferred; lengths of from about 8 to 22 feet are pre
gated outer sheet 41 is positioned above the assembled
ferred. Two inwardly ?anged channels 19 are secured
structure illustrated in FIGURE 2 whereby the lateral
to the inner metal sheet 16 adjacent to its sides prefer
crests 42 conform to the upper portion 29 of each of
ably by means of welding, for example by means of a
the blocks 27. Each of the valleys 43 rests upon the
plurality of resistance spot welds 20. The channels 19
upper surface of the transverse beams 32. Fasteners 44
preferably are formed from metal which is thicker than
are driven through the Valleys 43 into the transverse
the inner metal sheet 16, e.g., from about 14 gauge to
about one~eighth inch. At each corner of the inner metal
beams 32 to secure the outer metal sheet 41 into the
assembled panel 12. Where shielding against transmis
sheet 16 a rectangular metal block 21 is secured, prefer 30 sion of radio~frcquency radiation is desired in thc assem
ably by resistance welding through the base of the chan
bled building, the fasteners 44 preferably are of non
nel 19. The rectangular blocks 21 preferably from about
metallic construction, e.g., plastic nails or screws, such
one-eighth to one-half inch thick, are employed to se
cure the building panels to the structural elements of a
building as will be hereinafter described.
as nylon screws.
No fasteners are employed to secure
the lateral crests 42 to the blocks 27 until the panel 12
is assembled in position into a building structure.
The channels 19, illustrated in FlGURE 4, include
A preferred nonmetallic, noncombustible material for
a Web 22 and two legs 23 and 24, each having an in
ward ?ange 25 and 26. Note that one leg 24 is longer
than the other leg 23. Blocks 27 are shaped from non
use as transverse beams and blocks in the present panel,
is cement ?lled with long ?bers, for example Portland ce
ment ?lled with long ?ber asbestos. Such material is
metallic, noncombustible materials preferably asbestos ~10 commercially available under the trade name Transite
?lled cement or similar arti?cial stone which may be
having a density of about llO to 125 pounds per cubic
drilled, cut and formed readily. The block 27, illustrated
foot and an ultimate tensile strength of about 1200
in FIGURE 5, has a bottom portion 28 having a shape
pounds per square inch. Other suitable materials in—
which corresponds in cross-section to that of the channel
clude cement ?lled with glass ?bers. Further suitable
19. The block 27 has an upper portion 29 corresponding
materials include ?red silica refractories, which can be
to corrugations in the outer metal sheet as will be here
formulated in a wide spectrum of densities; the inclusion
inafter described.
of glass ?bers or asbestos ?bers in refractories desirably
Blocks 27 can be slidably inserted into the channels 19
reduces their brittleness. In general a density of from
as illustrated in FIGURE 6. When the block 27 has
70 to 150 pounds per cubic foot is desired.
been positioned at the desired location along the channel
19, it may be secured against further movement by sev
The side-by-side juncture of two panel units is illus
As shown in FIGURE 6, a depression 39
trated in FIGURE 9. For convenience the panel on the
left will be identi?ed by the numeral 46 and the panel on
may be punched into the ?anges 25 and 26 at each side
of the block 27 to prevent further longtiudinal move
is welded to the outer surface of a horizontal girt 11.
eral means.
the right by the numeral 47. A pair of Z-brackets 458
Alternatively a tab 31 may be punched out of 55 The left hand panel 46 is secured to the outboard ?ange
the leg 24 into the bottom portion 28 of the block 27.
Blocks 27 are positioned in pairs along each of the
of the Z-bracket 48 by welding to the rectangular metal
plate 21. It will be understood that the left hand panel
channels 19 as illustrated in FIGURE 2.
46 is secured at more than one point to one or more girts
Transverse beams of nonmetallic, noncombustible ma
11 or columns ‘10 by means of Z-brackets 48 which are
terial are provided to extend across the inner metal sheet 60 Welded to other rectangular metal plates 21. Thus the
16 between pairs of blocks 27.
One end portion of a
transverse beam 32 is illustrated in FIGURE 7. A cor
ner portion 33 is cut away from the transverse beam 32
left hand panel 46 is independently secured to the build
ing skeleton. Hence the building panel 46 is not a (lead
load bearing element in the building construction.
to correspond in shape to the channel 19 along the short
leg 23 and ?ange 25. The extreme end portion 34 of
The right hand building panel 47 thereafter is a?ixed
to the building skeleton by welding the rectangular metal
the transverse beam 32 engages the central portion of
plate 21 to the Z-bracket 43. The tongue 17 of the left
hand panel 46 is inserted into the groove 18 of the right
hand panel 47 to provide the side-by-side vertical seam
the block 27. One or more holes 35 are drilled into the
transverse beam 32 to provide additional securing means.
A plurality of metal welding clips 36 are secured to
14 between the two building panels.
the inner metal sheet 16 by means of resistance welding. 70
A corrugated cover plate 49 having two crests 50 and
The welding clips 36, illustrated in FIGURE 8, have a
one valley 51 overlaps the adjacent lateral crests 42.
welding surface 37, a body portion 38 and a prong 39.
Fasteners 52 extend through the cover sheet 49 and the
The prongs 39 are insertable into the drilled holes 35
adjacent outer crests 42 into the blocks 2'7. Thus the
in ,the transverse beams 32.
end portions of the outer metal sheets 41 are secured
The weld clips 36 may be initially secured to the inner
into the assembled building.
Where it is desired to provide shielding against trans
mission of radio-frequency radiation through the walls of
the building, it is necessary that the inner metal surface
of the building be imperforate and free from metal dis
continuity. As thus far described, the inner metal sheet
16 is free from perforations. The only metal discon
tinuities exist along the seams between adjacent building
panels. Because the panel units are spaced outwardly
from the building skeleton (by virtue of the Z-brackets
48) it is a simple matter to provide shielding against
transmission of radio-frequency radiation at any time.
As shown in FIGURE 9, an arcuate cover strip 53 is
provided over the vertical seam 14. The outer ends of
the cover strip 53 are secured by seam welds 54 to each
seam 64 is required. The V-notch 6-2 has the resiliency
to absorb stresses resulting from thermal contraction and
expansion to avoid undue stresses in the single weld seam
An alternative embodiment of this invention is illus
trated in FIGURES 12 through 17. Many of the ele
ments in these drawings correspond to elements already
described in connection with FIGURES 1 through 11.
Corresponding numerals identify corresponding elements
throughout the speci?cation.
As shown in FIGURES 12 and 14, the longitudinal
elements are three-sided channel sections 70 having two
legs separated by a web. One leg of each channel sec
tion 70 is secured to the inner metal sheet 16 preferably
arcuate con?guration of the cover strip 53 permits ther
by means of spot welds 71. The secured leg of channel
section 70 preferably is longer than the unsecured leg
mal expansion and contraction to occur through the cover
to allow access for resistance welding apparatus. Several
side of the abutting building panels 46 and 47.
noncombustible, nonmetallic transverse beams 72 extend
strip 53 without introducing undue stresses into the welds
between the parallel channel sections 70. The transverse
If desired, the void space 55 which is enclosed by the 20 beams 72 have slots 73 at each end which are adapted
to receive the unsecured leg of the channel sections 76.
cover plate 49 may be ?lled with loose insulating material
The end surfaces of the transverse beams 72 engage the
such as glass ?bers, vmineral wool and the like.
inner face of the web of the channel sections 70.
It will be noted that none of the metallic elements
Sufficient holes 74 are drilled into the transverse beams
associated with the inner metal sheets ‘16 is in metal-to
72 to receive prongs (32 of FIGURE 8) extending from
metal contact with the outer metal sheets 41. With a
weld clips 36.
maximum thickness of the panel unit about 41/2 inches,
Alternative construction of the channel sections 71} are
the minimum metal-to-metal spacing distance in the struc
shown in FIGURES 16 and 17 wherein webs 80, long
ture is greater than about 2 inches which is su?icient to
secured legs 81 and folded unsecured legs 82 and 83
prevent arcing of radio-frequency radiation across the
building panels. All of the metallic elements associated 30 are illustrated. In FIGURE 16 the unsecured leg 82
is internally folded; in FIGURE 17 the unsecured leg 82
with the inner metal sheet 16 are welded thereto whereby
is externally folded. By providing folded unsecured legs
their sporadic mechanical vibration is avoided.
82 or 83, additional metal can be introduced into the
channel section 70 for added ?exural strength without
increasing the thickness of the metal sheet or reducing the
arcing distance between the unsecured legs 82 or 83 and
in FIGURE 2 is preferred. Referring to FIGURE 2, one
the outer sheet 41.
end of the inner metal sheet .16 is countersunk by a thick
If desired, the end portions of the transverse beams 72
ness of the metal gauge along a line 56 to provide a
have a rabbet 75 to receive the secured leg of the chan
countersunk portion 57 which is depressed inwardly from
40 nel sections 70. The rabbeted end portion is of value
the plane of the inner metal sheet 16.
where the channel sections 70 are formed from relatively
For convenience in FIGURE ‘10, the bottom panel unit
thick metal sheets or strips. Preferably the channel sec
will be identi?ed by the numeral 58 and the top panel unit
tions 70 are formed from sheet metal having a greater
will be identi?ed by the numeral 59. The bottom panel
thickness than the inner metal sheet 16, for example,
53 is affixed to the building by welding of the rectangu
lar metal plate 21 to a Z-bracket 48 which is welded 45 from about 14 gauge to about one-eighth inch thickness.
The transverse beams 72 are secured to the inner metal
to the outer surface of a horizontal girt 11. The top
sheet 16 ‘by means of metal weld clips 36 as already de
panel unit 59 thereafter is secured to the building skeleton
scribed. As shown in phantom outline in FIGURE 12,
by welding the horizontal plate 21 to the Z-bracket 48
a transverse beam 72a may be angularly positioned
in such manner that the countersunk portion 57 of the
inner metal sheet 16 is positioned outside the flat end of 50 against the inner metal sheet 16 and be turned into as
sembled position. The act of turning causes the prong
the inner metal sheet 16 of the lower panel 58 to provide
The assembly of building panels in top-to-bottom rela
tion is illustrated in FIGURE 10. To facilitate the top
to-bottom assembly, a countersinking feature illustrated
a horizontal seam 13. The corrugated outer metal sheet
41 extends beyond the metal sheet 16 at one end to pro
vide an overlap.
The horizontal seam 13 may be ?lled with a weld seam 55
60 at any time after the building has been assembled to
provide shielding against transmission of radio-frequency
of the'weld clip 36 to enter a drilled hole 74a and con
currently the slots 73a move to receive the unsecured
legs of the channel sections 70.
If desired, the transverse beams may be further secured
against movement by deforming the channel sections 70
adjacent to the point of engagement.
A corrugated metal sheet 41 may be secured to the
radiation. It may also be desirable to ground the outer
transverse beams 75 by means of fasteners 44 extending
metal sheets 41. This may be accomplished as shown in
FIGURE 10 by providing a bead of welding material 61 60 through valleys 43 into the transverse beams 72. It is
not necessary that the crests 42 of the corrugated metal
on each of the outer metal sheets 41 and joining the beads
outer sheet 41 be secured into the assembled panel by
61 with a metallic strap 62.
An alternative side-by-side juncture construction is
illustrated in FIGURE 11. The juncture construction in
direct fastening. If desired, however, shaped vblocks 76,
also of non-metallic, non-combustible material, may be
FIGURE 11 is an alternative to the elements 17 and 13 65 provided at the outside corners of the transverse beams
72. The shaped blocks 76 provide an upper surface
shown in FIGURES 3 and 9. As shown in FIGURE 11,
which corresponds in con?guration to the crests 42 of the
two inner metal sheets 16’ and ‘16" from adjacent panels
corrugated outer metal sheet 41. The shaped blocks 7 6
in side-by-side relation are lapped. The left hand sheet
may be glued, doweled, keyed or otherwise fastened in
16' has three bends to provide a V-shaped depression 62
and an outboard ?ange 63 which is depressed by the 70 position. The blocks 76 have a right angle notch 77
which conforms to the outer corner con?guration of the
thickness of the metal gauge from the plane of the inner
transverse beams 72. The blocks 76 have an upper por
metal facing sheet 16” is ?at. The sheet 16” and the
tion 78 conforming to the crests 42. Fasteners 52 may
outboard ?ange 63 are lapped and a weld seam 64 is
be provided through a cover strip 51 and the lateral crests
applied along the juncture. By this construction a com
pletely ?at inner wall is presented; only a single Weld 75 42 into the shaped blocks 76.
non-resilient properties, are difficult to secure in such
Note in FIGURE 14 that rectangular metal plates 21
may be fastened securely to the inner metal sheet 16 by
materials. A preferred fastener in the present panel is
described in co~pending US. patent application SN. 734,
967 ?led May 13, 1958, by Arthur P. Jentoft and assigned
a resistance weld from the channel section 70.
An alternative construction for the transverse beam '72
is illustrated in FIGURE 15 wherein end portions 84 of
to the assignee of the present invention. Such fasteners
preferably are formed from resilient plastic materials such
as polycarbonate and polyamide resins of the type com
the beam are formed as a unitary structure with the beam
of being
12 independently
and 14.
provided as the blocks
mercially available under the trade names Lcxan or ny
The resilient plastic fasteners have further advantages
ably have a thickness of about one to two inches.
in the panels of this invention which are used to provide
Where the assembled panel has a thickness of about
shielding against transmission of radio~frequency radiation
four and one-half inches, the open channel sections 70
because of their dielectric properties.
have a web about two to three inches long, a secured leg
And now, according to the provisions of the patent
about two to four inches long, and an unsecured leg about
one to three inches long.
statutes, I have explained the principle, preferred con
struction and mode of operation of my invention and
Where radio-frequency radiation shielding is not re
have illustrated and described what I now consider to
quired in a building structure, the present panels may be
represent its best embodiment. However, I desire to have
bolted directly to structural girts without requiring out
it understood that within the scope of the appended
wardly extending Z-brackets 48. Where bolted construc
claims, the invention may be practiced otherwise than as
tion is employed, it is preferred to a?ix small angle plates
speci?cally illustrated and described.
in the corner formed by the metal inner sheet 16 and the
The transverse beams of the present invention preter
web of the channel sections 70.
I claim:
Bolts may extend
through such angle plates.
1. A thermally insulated, ?reproof building panel com~
Alternatively‘ such bolts may be placed through drilled
holes in the channel sections.
Note that the channel section 70 is positioned in op
prising a flat inner metal sheet and a corrugated metal
10 C1
position to a crest 42 of the outer metal sheet 41 where
by the arcing distance (for radio-frequency radiation)
between inner and outer metal elements is conveniently
Each panel unit according to the present invention has
an imperforate inner metal sheet which is spaced apart
from an outer weather-resistant sheet.
The imperforate
outer sheet spaced therefrom, a pair of parallel ?anged
channel sections extending lengthwise of said inner sheet
adjacent to its edges and being welded thereto to provide
lengthwise rigidity to said panel, each of said ?anged
channel sections having a web, parallel legs extended
from the ends of said web and inwardly directed ?anges at
the ends of said legs overlying said web, each said web
being attached in abutment with said inner metal sheet,
a plurality of nonmetallic, noncombustible blocks each
inner metal sheets, by virtue of being spaced outwardly
having a base portion corresponding to said channel sec
from the building framework or skeleton may be welded C13 tions and a top portion corresponding to the crests of the
together at any time (during construction or after build
corrugations in said outer sheet, each of said ‘blocks being
ing completion and occupancy) to provide shielding
secured Within said channel sections, transverse non
against transmission of radio-frequency radiation which
presents known physiological hazards to man. The Weld
ing can be accomplished without dismantling of any por
tion of the assembled panels. The construction alter
natively may be considered of value where a vaportight
building is desired.
While the preferred embodiment of the present inven
tion which has been speci?cally illustrated and described
possesses a completely ?at inner metal sheet and a cor
metallic, noncombustible beams extending between pairs
of said blocks and having end portions cngageablc with
facing side portions of said blocks, said beams being se
cured to said fiat inner sheet by means of metallic clips
partly inserted therein and having their exposed portion
welded to said inner metal sheet, said beams being of such
height as to correspond to the valleys of corrugations of
said outer sheet, said outer sheet being secured by means
of fasteners extending through the crests of its corruga~
tions into the top portion of each of said blocks and being
secured by means of resilient fasteners extending through
rugated outer metal sheet, it is apparent that the par—
ticular con?gurations of the inner and outer metal sheets
can be altered without departing from the scope of the
the valleys of its corrugations into said beams, whereby
all metallic portions of said outer sheet are spaced from
Where welding has been illustrated and described as
all other metallic portions of the said inner sheet to avoid
a means for securing the various elements of the present
direct metallic conduction through said panel.
invention, it should be recognized that other securing
2. The panel of claim I wherein said nonmetallic, non~
means may be employed Where the imperforate character
combustible material comprises long ?ber asbestos ?lle
of the inner metal sheet is unimportant. If, for example,
Portland cement having a density from 70 to 150 pounds
the channels 19 (FIGURE 2) were bolted to the inner
per cubic foot and an ultimate tensile strength less than
metal sheet 16 by means of screws extending through
3000 pounds per square inch.
both elements, the exposed periphery of the screws could
be covered with weld metal, if desired, to retain the
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
inner metal sheet 16 free from metallic discontinuity.
The fasteners 44 and 52 employed in the present panel 60
Kirk _________________ __ Jan. 1, 1929
preferably are constructed of resilient plastic material
having high impact resistance, high shear strength, and
Harrington ____________ __ Apr. 6, 1937
good weathering properties. Such resilient fasteners can
be securely held in the non-metallic, non'combustible
materials which comprise the transverse beams 32 and 72
and the blocks 76. Metallic fasteners, by virtue of their
Hensel ______________ __ Jan. 20, 1942
Palmer ______________ -_ May 26, l942
Hedgren et al. _________ _- Dec. 7, l954
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