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Патент USA US3030689

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April 24, 1962
Filed June 1'7, 1958
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
April 24, 1962
Filed June 17, 1958
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
mm .
April 24, 1962 '
Filed June 17-, 1958
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
K41 K45
‘El fir
April 24, 1962
Filed June 1'7, 1958 >
5 Sheets-Sheet 4
April 24, 1962
H. J.
3 030,679
Filed June 17, 1958
5 Sheets-Sheet 5
United Stats ate
Patented Apr. 24, 1962
3 030 679
(0) Water of constitution and/or crystallization ‘which
is liberated and then evaporated by the heat emanating
from the poured metal by utilizing, for example, boric
acid B'O3H3 containing 43.7% Water of ‘composition,
5 borax (B4OqNa210H2O) which when heated loses its
Henri Jean Daussan, 9, Avenue Leclerc 'de Hautecloque,
water of vcrystallization, or a mixture of these products
Metz, France
in any proportion, or alternatively hydrated neutral car
_ Filed June 17, 1958, Sen‘No. 742,640
Claims prierity, application France June '21, 1957
7 Claims. (Cl. 22-147)
v The present invention relates to treating ingots of steel,
bonate of sodium CO3Na2lOI-I2'O which could also be
utilized in the ‘form of an aqueous solution.
ferrous alloys or other alloys in a mould, such as an ingot
mould for the purpose of controlling the solidi?cation of
The liquid, whether free or liberated by heat is dis
posed on or within a retaining support of such shape that
it covers said peripheral portion of the ingot.
Another object of the" invention is to provide a device
for use in carrying out the aforementioned method and
known to spray the surface of the bath of molten metal
at the end of pouring after a lapse of time (very limited
invention placed on an effervescent steel ingot in the
course of solidi?cation;
the head of the ingot.
Whatever method of casting is employed, and more 15 comprising a support which, owing to the shape of its
particularly when it concerns ferrous metals cast in ingot
upper'face and/or to the nature of its wall, forms ‘for
the liquid to be evaporated a ring-shaped or frame-shaped
moulds open at their upper end, advantage is to be gained
1n accelerating the solidi?cation of the surface of the
vessel Whose contour corresponds to that of the peripheral
bath of molten metal at the end of ?lling the mould or
portion of the ingot surface to be cooled.
even during the ?lling (notably when bottom casting)
Further features and advantages of the invention will
so as to avoid discharges and projections of steel resulting
be apparent from the ensuing description, with reference
from rupture of the upper crust, notably in the case of
to the accompanying drawings, to which the invention is
in no way restricted.
e?ervescent steels, and to reduce hollows and defects
In the drawings:
in the head and consequent large amount of waste, segre
gations and notably sulphides.
FIG. 1 is a partial vertical longitudinal sectional view
In the case of bottom casting killed steel, it is already
of an ingot mould provided with a device embodying the
by the solidi?cation of the metal in the molten metal
FIG. 2 is a corresponding plan view;
supply passageways) so ‘as to initiate the shrinkage 30
FIG. 3 is a sectional view taken along line 3-3 of
hollow which is fed with metal more or less eifectively
FIG. 1;
by a short pouring of some seconds.
FIG. '4 is a partial view similar to FIG. 3 on an en
A spraying or the like has been attempted in the case
larged scale;
of non-killed effervescent steels, but the danger of sudden
FIG. 5 is a vertical sectional view of a modi?cation
contact of water and molten metal renders the operation 35 of the device of the invention in position on a bottom
practically impossible.
cast killed steel ingot;
In both cases, and above all in the case of effervescent
FIGS. 6 and 7 are views in vertical section and plan
steels, spraying effected without precautions could indeed
respectively of another modi?cation of the device of the
cause explosion of the ingot in the course of solidi?cation
when it would seem that danger no longer exists and 4:0
FIG. 8 is a vertical longitudinal sectional view of an
fatal accidents have occurred. In any case, spraying
other device embodying the invention in position on an
with water could only result in the sudden solidi?cation
of the head of the freshly poured ingot without it being
FIG. 9 is a plan view of the device shown in FIG. 8;
possible to choose the moment or to methodically con
FIG. 10 is a sectional view taken along line 10-10
trol the region where the solidi?cation should start or
‘in FIG. 8;
should be accelerated and with no other physico-chemical
FIG. 11 is a vertical elevational partly sectional view
intervention than a pure and simple cooling.
on a scale larger than that of FIGS. 8 and 10 of a nest or
The purpose of the invention is to permit not only
multitude of passageways in the ?rst stage of production;
cooling in a ‘controlled manner the head of ingots at
FIG. 12 is a partial sectional view taken along the
the chosen moment after pouring but also immediately 50 line 12-12 of FIG. 11 perpendicular to the passageways;
after the pouring jet has stopped and even during the
FIG. 13 is a sectional view similar to that of FIG. 11
?lling of the ingot mould in the case of bottom casting,
of said series of passageways at another stage of pro
with the possibility of localizing the cooling at a pre
'FIG. 14 is a sectional view similar to FIG. 13 of the
determined region of the surface of the molten metal
bath without danger of projection and/or discharge of 55 ?nished series of passageways forming the support in posi
tion on the ingot;
molten metal thereby avoiding formation in the head
FIG. 15 is a view of the underside of a portion of one
of the ingot of large hollows and segregations.
of ‘the liquid supply pipes;
An object of the invention is to provide a method of
FIG. 16 is a sectional view taken along line 16-16
treating an ingot in the course of its solidi?cation in an
ingot mould, which comprises cooling in a controlled 60
manner the periphery of the surface of the poured metal
by providing a cooling effect on the peripheral portion
of said surface by evaporation, employing the heat of
said metal, of a liquid which is supplied progressively
and maintained on said peripheral portion without pos
sibility of violent contact with the poured metal.
To this end there can be used:
(a) A liquid and in particular water in the free state.
(b) A liquid solution and in particular an aqueous solu
tion of nsiOz-mNazO the ratio Na2O/SiO-2 being for
example between 1/ 1.5 and 1/4.
of FIG. 15;
FIG. 17 is an elevational view, with parts cut away,
of, on one hand, supports for two ingot moulds placed
side by side and forming annular vessels placed at the
upper part of the moulds on top of the poured metal,
and, on the other hand, a water supply device supplying
water-to said supports by way of spray heads;
FIG. 18 is a correspondingrplan View:
FIG. 19 is a vertical sectional view on an enlarged
scale of one of the supports forming a vessel;
FIG. 20~is a sectional view of a strip of a single wall
corrugated board vwhich is progressively ‘onushed in the
direction‘ toward the end from which ‘said band is ‘rolled
in the form of a spiral to form the support shown in
FIG. 19;
When the mould L1 has been ?lled with non-killed steel,
that is, a molten steel giving off large amounts of gases
in the course of its solidi?cation, the peripheral solidi?ca
tion (denoted by the hatching) is allowed to reach the
lines 8 (FIGS. 1 to 4) that is,‘until a ‘face substantially
'homothetic to the inner face 9 of the ‘mould L1 has been
obtained, the cross-sectional shape of this face 9 being
a rectangle abca‘ (FIG. 2) in the plane of the top sur
face of the ingot. This solidi?cation necessarily starts
FIG. 21 is a vertical sectional view of one of the spray
heads on a scale larger than that of FIGS. 17 and 18;
'FIG. 22 is a partial horizontal sectional view taken
along line 22-42 of FIG. 17 on an enlarged scale;
FIG. 23 is-a vertical sectional view of a modi?cation
of the spray head, and
‘FIG. 24 is a partial plan view of the base of the spray
head and a sectional view of the auxiliary conical mem 10 at the periphery of the molten metal bath due to contact
ber disposed in the latter.
with the inner face 9 of the cold wall of the mould L
In the embodiment shown in FIGS. 1 to 4, the device ‘ and spreads toward the axis XX of the ingot and mould,
A1 embodying the invention is adapted to control the
in a direction parallel with the inner face 9 of the mould
cooling of the head of an ingot x of effervescent steel
unless scum, slag or an accumulation of impurities ris
top cast in an ingot mould L1 having a rectangular hori
ing from the bottom of the mould starts a premature
zontal cross-sectional shape the corners of which are
solidi?cation at the center of the bath, which could be
avoided by distributing over the surface of the bath a
The device A1 consists of a rectangular support or
?uidifying agent or suitable product or by drossing the
frame which has a size in plan smaller than that of the
bath in accordance with the known practice.
inner cross-section of the mould L1 and is substantially 20
At this moment the support A1 is placed on the al
homothetic to the inner cross-sectional shape of the
ready solidi?ed peripheral zone of the surface 10, water
mould. The frame has a substantially U-shaped cross
7 having been previously poured in the support. There
section. “Its base 1 is ?at and its outer ?ange 2 and inner
after it is merely necessary to continue to supply water
?ange 3 are perpendicular to the base. The ?ange 2 is
without danger, for example by a controlled jet or stream
larger than the flange 3 which latter forms a central pas 25 of water so that the solidi?cation of the head of the ingot
sage 4.
occurs under the best conditions, that is, by a progres
The support A1, which constitutes a ring-shaped (the
sive centripetal shrinkage of the cross-section of the un
terms ring-shaped, annular and the like are used in the
solidi?ed part 11.
broad sense and may include supports of square and
The gases formed during solidi?cation of the effer
rectangular and other such shapes in addition to gen
vescent ferrous metal, of which the major part is CO
erally circular shapes) or frame-shaped vessel, can be
and a smaller part notably CO2, hydrogen and nitrogen,
of any material (for example sheet steel, substantially
are given off progressively toward the center of the head
.calendered cardboard, thick paper, wood, or plastic ma
of the ingot in accordance with the shrinkage of the rec
terial) which is a good or bad heat conductor. This
tangle abcd, which is controlled by the regulated cooling
material can be porous or water-tight if it is a good heat 35 resulting from evaporation of the water 7. This is ob
conductor. *Its thickness must be such that it does not
viously the most rational safe method of obtaining a
oppose the cooling effect due to evaporation of the liquid
sound ingot up to complete solidi?cation of the ingot.
- under the effect of the heat given off by the head of
The shapes in the lengthwise direction of the not yet
the ingot due to conductivity, if the wall of the device is
solidi?ed part in the successive stages of solidi?cation
composed of a liquid-tight material which is a good con
are shown in FIGS. 1 and 3 by dot-dash lines 12 and
ductor (for example metal), to contact with this liquid
which ?lters through the porous wall if the porous ma
terial (-for example cardboard) is not a heat conductor
what in the central passage formed by the support and
solidi?es, for example in ‘accordance with the contour
14 and in extremis the pro?le 148' shown in dot-dash
or is a bad heat conductor, or to conductivity and con
In the course of the process, the metal rises some
tact if the material is a good conductor and porous (for 4 en line (FIG. 4) substantially without over-?owing which
example powdered metal).
The thickness of the wall of the support A1 for exam
ple if sheet metal is used, could be about 1 mm. or even
in any case would not present a grave inconvenience,
'since the over-?owing metal is received in the annular
vessel A1 where it solidi?es.
It will be observed that it is always possible to cause
less present there are provided inside the U-shaped sec
tion vessel rein-forcing ribs or webs which impart there 50 the metal to descend in the central passageway 4 of the
to suf?cient strength for handling and transport and pos
support A1 by means of any of the known materials having
a calming action on the effervescent steel (for example
sibly re-use of the device, since it could be abandoned
,on the head of the ingot or retrieved after the ?nal
solidi?cation of the ingot.
This central passageway 4 could be used for supplying
To ‘facilitate handling, the support could advantageous 5Ch in extremis the ingot with active elements, such as bcrax,
ly comprise rings 5 or other handling means.
?uoride of calcium or sodium, hydrated sodium carbonate,
The annular vessel or trough formed by the support
slaked lime, excess silica, or hydrated sodium silicate.
A1 should be free so as to receive when in use for ex
Without the support A1—as is known by steel makers
ample water 7, or a liquid solution, or a product con
the closure of the head of the ingot occurs in a haphazard
taining water of constitution or crystallization, or a ?brous 60 manner very often prematurely with formation of a
mass (for example ‘felt, cotton waste, tow, shavings or
wrappings), or a spongy mass (natural or arti?cial
sponge), or a granulous mass (wood saw-dust), or a
powdered mass (crushed clay), or a porous mass (for
bridge across the rectangle abcd which gives rise to multiple
craters and discharge of steel with the consequential
known disadvantages of various types or explosions of the
‘ingots well after closure of the ingot head.
‘example wood, charcoal, or pozzolana) comprising cells
, All these disadvantages are therefore avoided by using
or small cavities which when impregnated with water or
a liquid solution absorb and retain the latter while per
the device of the invention owing to the perfect progres
sivene-ss of the solidi?cation in the direction from the pe
riphery toward the axis of the ingot, if the latter has a
cross-sectional shape substantially in the form of a square,
mitting evaporation. Alternatively, the annular trough
or vessel could be previously ?lled with such a mass
which could be rendered unitary therewith by any suit 70 regular polygon or a circle, or toward the plane of sym
able means, for example by a network or fabric which
metry Y—Y (FIG. 3) parallel with the large sides if the
covers it and is ?xed, for example by clips or an ad
ingot has a substantially ?at rectangular cross-sectional
hesive, to the upper edge of the outer ?ange 2 over a
part of,.or the whole of, the periphery of the latter.
The device is media the following manner:
shape as shown.
The foregoing is obviously true, whatever the cross~
75 sectional shape of the ingot mould.
FIG. 5 concerns the bottom casting of killed steel in an
ingot mould having any horizontal cross-sectional shape,
such as a square, rectangle or circle.
hereinbefore. This ?brous mass has an area slightly great
er than that of the cross-section of the mould at the head
of the ingot in the course of solidi?cation so that by forc
ing it into position it forms a cup-like vessel. It will be
In the absence of the device of the invention, it is
observed that the opening formed by the frame 29 is
known, as mentioned hereinbefore, to spray the upper
surface of the ingot so as to accelerate the solidi?cation
slightly shorter and wider in plan (at a2
. d2) than the
of its head.
inner limit of the solidi?cation of the peripheral part
The killed steel x3 solidi?es very rapidly on the surface
shown by the contour a1 . . . d1.
of the molten metal bath in the ingot mould L2, as soon
The ingot is closed in exactlythe same manner as de
as the jet of molten metal 18 in the bottom casting method 10 scribed hereinbefore in respect of unkilled steel.
is stopped and very often during the ?lling of the mould,
It should be noted that, according to the invention, an
and this is manifested by formation, on the surface of
aqueous solution or even merely water could be poured
the bath, of a crust whose thickness varies with the com
at 31 into the cup formed by the layer 3% if this is found
position of the metal but which is at least about one centi
necessary. Another feature is that the device A3 could be
metre. After a pause of several minutes after pouring
covered with a fabric 32 soaked in accordance with the
the metal into the mould to allow the crust to become
invention if the steel has a tendency to overflow from the
suf?ciently thick, the head of the ingot in the course of
frame 29, which would not incidentally present any grave
solidi?cation is abundantly sprayed with water under pres
inconvenience since it would solidify upon contact with
sure without particular attention and in a substantially
the soaked fabric 30.
oblique direction so as to accelerate formation of the 20
shrinkage hollow within the ingot where the metal is still
A similar layer or fabric could of course be used in
the other foregoing examples, if necessary.
in the liquid state and is substantially viscous or even
According to an improvement of the method of the
pasty, for example in the zone pqrs. This spraying, effectinvention described hereinbefore, the cooling effect in the
ed without regard to the amount, does not permit localizing
direction from the periphery toward the center of the upper
in a certain manner the formation of the shrinkage hol 25 surface of the ingot could be graduated by varying the sup
low on the axis of the ingot, which in consequence cannot
ply of liquid in contact with the poured metal by vary
be ?lled as it should be by successively starting and stop
ing at least one of the following factors: the duration, the
ping once or a plurality of times the jet of molten metal
amount and moment of the supply of liquid, and the
permeability of the support'
after the mould is ?lled.
Thus the thickness at each point of the peripheral layer
This process is, as can be seen, uncertain and relatively 30
dangerous. ‘On the other hand, by means of the method
of the super?cially solidi?ed metal could be controlled as
desired at each instant so that this thickness decreases
and device A2 of the invention, it is possible to form and
?ll the axial hollow of the ingot in a perfect manner and
according to any desired law in the direction from the pe—
riphery toward the non-solidi?ed central zone.
avoid formation of hollows distributed within the ingot.
In plan the shape of the device of the invention is prefer
Further, the support-~which could be as desired an
ably substantially homothetic to the cross-sectional shape
nular, similar to the supports described hereinbefore or
of the ingot mould L2. It is in every respect similar to that
otherwise-could be formed by a series or nest of par
allel passageways formed by an assembly of walls which
of the foregoing embodiments but it could be more con
venient to replace the water 16 by cotton waste or tow
are at least partially incombustible, these passageways
being perpendicular to the two large parallel faces of a
soaked in water, or wet Wood saw-dust or charcoal Whose
?at-shaped volume in which the nest is inscribed.
water absorbent powers are considerable, this material be
ing placed in the device before the latter is placed on the
Thus, in the embodiment shown in FIGS. 8-16, the
device of the invention adapted to control the cooling of
surface of the molten metal bath, which is done at the
the head of an ingot x4 of effervescent steel poured in an
latest when the level is at tu. At this moment the central
aperture 4a is provided with an athermanous and exother 45 ingot mould L4, comprises the combination of a support
A4 for water or other liquid and a set of pipes B4 which
mic powder 17 conforming to one of the numerous known
effect a controlled supply of this liquid to the support A4.
compositions, which may be enclosed in a paper or plas
The support constitutes a nest of parallel passage
tic envelope. Thus the jet of metal 18 can pass through the
ways 31a de?ned by the walls 32 of strong papencard
level tu (instead of being stopped by the already solidi?ed
upper layer obtained in the conventional method using an 50 board or other material, which is either incombustible by
nature or substantially ?re-proofed.
uncontrolled spraying) and rise to the desired height,
whereas the water-soaked ?brous mass 16 accelerates the
The support or nest of passageways is inscribed in a
solidi?cation of the zone ptus surrounding the jet 18, which
?at-shaped volume having two large parallel faces having
zone would have remained liquid or pasty for a longer
sections CC1 and DD1 (FIG. 8). Its shape in plan is
period of time if a sudden spraying had been employed, 55 such that it corresponds-apart from a very small clear
this spraying necessitating a certain delay to insure that di
ance of between about several millimetres and a centi
rect contact of the spray water does not result in accidents,
metre——to that of the inner contour of the entrance 33
which delay is very limited by the solidi?cation of the basin
and the bottom casting molten metal channels, this being
of the ingot mould L4. Its outer surface 34- is therefore
cylindro-prismatic. The passageways 31a are perpendic
ular to the large faces of the support. The length of
these passageways is from about 5 to 1-0 centimetres.
Their cross-sectional area is preferably less than 1
facilitated by the fact that it is possible to place the device >
A2 in position by means of the handling rings 5 well be
fore stopping the pouring jet or gate.
Another considerable advantage is that the excess metal
sq. ‘cm.
remaining liquid at 19 could be made to completely ?ll
The large upper and lower faces of the nest have
the axial shrinkage hollow by calculating its volume.
65 concentric variations in level or steps whose longitu
FIGS. 6 and 7 show utilization of another device A3
dinal section (FIG. 8) and transverse section (FIG. 10)
of the invention in the case of an unkilled ingot x3 Whose
are respectively symmetrical relative to two perpendicu
head has started to solidify at the periphery in the ingot
lar planes of symmetry X-X and Y—Y, which corre
mould L3 and forms a curved portion 28 on the surface.
spond, when the support A4 is disposed in the mould,
In this case, the solidi?ed peripheral part is allowed 70 to those of the mould itself. These sections are such
to become much thicker and reach the line a1 . . . d1 (REG.
7). Thereafter there is placed on the solidi?ed part a
frame 29 which is apertured or not and around which is
that this nest forms on its upper face an annular open
cavity 35 constituting a trough for receiving the liquid.
This trough has a vertical trapezoidal cross-sectional
?xed at its base a layer or a fabric 39 soaked with an
shape the corners .of whichare substantially rounded;
aqueous solution, according to the invention as described 75 this cross-section is. preferablyconstant throughout its
The nest forms on its lower face an outer up
of supply pipes supplying water or an aqueous solution
wardly divergent chamfer 36 and a central upwardly
of treating product. The support comprises (FIGS.
convergent cavity 37.
8-10) two tubes or rods 52 which are parallel and ?xed
in adjustable position by means of collars 53 and locking
screws 54 on two pairs of legs 55 adapted to bear against
section, are substantially closed in the portion of the nest
the upper transverse edge 56 of the mould L4.
situated in the region of the annular cavity 35, the pas
Fixed under the tubes 52 is a ?rst pipe 57 which is
sageways being preferably closed at their base. The
in the form of a ring and has such dimensions that it
closure of the psasageways increases progressively in the
can be located above the annular trough 35. Fixed
direction from the lower edge 33 of the chamfer 36 to a
line 39 which is situated in the central cavity 37 and 10 to these tubes is a longitudinal pipe 58 adapted to be
positioned in alignment with the unclosed middle por
V which, when projected on a horizontal plane, lies out
tion 59 of the support A4.
side-or at least on—the projection of the upper inner
Each pipe 57 and 58 is provided with two pipe connec
edge 40 of the upper cavity 35.
tions '60, 61 or '62, 63 which permits rapid and easy con
The support A4 may be advantageously constructed
from a band of a single wall corrugated board coiled on 15 nection to two ?exible supply pipes 64 and 65 (FIG. 9)
connected by way of valves 66, 67 and a common valve
itself. This band consists of a plane sheet 4-1 (FIG.
68 to a_ supply pipe 69 supplying water or an aqueous
12) to which are attached by an adhesive the crests of
the corrugations of a corrugated sheet 42.
Thus the pipes 57 and 58 can be connected either in the
The band may be coiled on itself round a mandrel 43
whose very thin cross-sectional shape is homothetic to 20 direction of the major axis of the cross-section of the
mould by the pipe connections 61, 63 as shown in FIG.
that of the ingot mould so that the block obtained by
9, or in the direction of the minor axis of this cross
Winding the band (FIG. 11) has a shape, in plan, per
section by the pipe connections 60, 62 depending on the
pendicular to the passageways 41, corresponding to the
space in the foundry pit.
cross sectional shape of the mould and such dimensions
The pipes 57 and 58 are provided along their lower
that it is capable of entering the mould with the afore 25
generatrices with outlet apertures 70 through which the
mentioned small clearance. The two large faces 44
water or other liquid issues (see FIGS. 15 and 16).
and 45 are therefore ?at and the block obtained exactly
The device operates in the following manner:
corresponds to the volume in which the ?nished nest is
The support A4 is placed on the molten metal bath
The single wall corrugated board could also be wound 30 x4 of steel or other metal as soon as possible after pour
ing the metal, for example within a period of one to six
in the form of a ring and then deformed in the direction
minutes if the ingot is being top cast. 1In the case of
perpendicular to the passageways so as to provide a
The passageways 31*‘, which have a constant cross
block having the desired shape in plan.
bottom casting, the support could be placed in position
To obtain from the block formed by one of the meth
ods described hereinbefore the support A4 shown in
In FIGS. 8, 10 and 14 it has been supposed that the
bath x4 has started to solidify at 71 in forming a small
FIGS. 8-10 and FIG. 14, the following successive opera
tions are carried out on the block, which is shown par
upper peripheral ‘rim 72; however, the solidi?cation could
tially broken away in FIG. 11.
occur with a substantially rounded ?llet.
(a) The coils are slipped or offset relative to one an
other so as to impart to the block the intermediate
shape shown in FIG. 13; this shape is such that the upper
flat face 44 shown in FIG. 11 is hollowed so as to pro
As the support A4 is ?reproofed notably owing to its
impregnation with sodium silicate, it resists perfectly well
the heat given off by the metal. Since the silicate softens
upon application of heat, the support A4 becomes slightly
the trough 35 and the cavity 37 which extends to the
joint line 48 of the face 46.
(b) Pins 49 of steel or other strong material are then
?exible, which enables it to apply itself well on the
of metal x‘*. If this metal is effervescent steel, the
port A4 clamps the effervescence which causes the
to solidify sooner, since it is in a state of surfusion.
But above all, the support A4 which is sprayed
inserted in the block thus‘ deformed so as to maintain
water or an aqueous solution, has for its purpose to acti
vide the trough 35, the lower face being formed into
the chamfer 36, a portion 46 parallel with the bottom of
vate the peripheral solidi?cation, in other words to cause
the coils in the relative positions they now occupy.
the solidi?cation to progress from the periphery toward
(c) The block is dipped in a ?re-proo?ng bath prefer
the center owing to the cooling effect produced by the
ably composed of a solution of sodium silicate; the solu
evaporation of this water.
tions giving the best results are those in which the ratio
Water is ?rst supplied through the valve 67 and through
SiO2/Na2O is between 3 and 4 and the Baurné degree is
one of the pipe connections 61 or 60 to the lower pipe 57
between 38 and 40; the extent of ?re-proo?ng obtained
which sprays this water into the trough 35 through its
is obviously a function of the duration of dipping.
55 apertures 70. From this trough the water impregnates
v(d) The passageways are partially closed by subject
the cardboard and above all ?ows downwardly through
ing the ?re-proofed block, whose silicate has set, to a
the vertical passageways 31. It is evaporated by the heat
compression in the direction of the length of the passage
given off by the molten metal bath x4 and thus produces
ways so that the lower face 46 is pushed up to 50 so
as to extend between the closed lines 38 and 39 (FIGS. 60 a cooling effect which accelerates the super?cial peripheral
solidi?cation of the ingot, whereas the center of this upper
8, l0 and 14); to etfect this compression, which slightly
surface of the ingot is shielded from the cooling eifect by
extends into the surface of the cavity 37, the nest of
the cushion or layer of hot gases which fill the central
passageways is compressed between a former, whose
cavity 37 and escape by way of the passageways of the
surface exactly corresponds to the shape of the upper
corresponding middle portion 59 of the support A4.
face of the block as shown in FIG. 13, and a punch
Owing to the progressively increased closing of the
whose effective surface corresponds to the ?nal surface
passageways 31“ between the lines 38 and 48, it will-be
50. This compression results in deformation 51 of the
understood that the cooling e?ect decreases from the
walls of the nest of passageways; these walls are_crum—
periphery toward the center of the support A“. Thus by
pled substantially in the form of an accordion and in
crease in thickness as their height decreases so that there 70 suitably selecting the closure of the passageways between
these lines it is fully possible to control the solidi?cation
is obtained a closure of the passageways which increases
law. The ingot solidi?es at the head end in accordance
in the direction from the line 38 to the line 48 of inter
with successive contours, such as those indicated by the
section of the surfaces 54) and 37 on which the closure
lines '73 and ‘74 (FIG. 14) which progress toward the
could be complete or partial as desired.
The spraying device B4 comprises a support and a set 75 center, the thickness of the solidi?ed part decreasing in
the same direction in accordance with the law which is
95 have a constant cross-section and in consequence the
substantially inversely proportional to that of the closure
support has in the peripheral portion between the lines
of the passageways.
96, 97 and 96a, 971%, a constant permeability, or rather,
As soon as solidi?cation is obtained along the line 74,
the opening 75 of the ingot is limited to the part located
a constant capacity for storing the treating liquid, where
under the uncompressed portion 59 of the support A4.
Thus it is easy by spraying this part by means of the
situated on the lines 96, 96a to the axis Y-—Y, the corre
pipe 58 at the opportune moment to solidify the steel
which attempts to rise in the passageways of the portion
59, but it is certain that as the solidi?cation occurred
along the lines 73, 74, this solidi?cation has sufficiently
reinforced the already solidi?ed periphery of the upper
part of the ingot to avoid projections from said periphery.
By orientating the solidi?cation toward the ‘center of
the surface of the ingot, risks of explosion are avoided,
since the portion 59 of the support A4—which remains
fully permeable to the gases-in a way performs the func
tion of a safety valve until the stopping of the ingot, that
is, cessation of formation of gases in the ingot.
It will be observed, furthermore, that the gases emanat 20
ing from the already solidi?ed peripheral part through the
dendrites of the peripheral transcrystallization are con
strained to follow this solidi?ed part, which retards their
ascent at the periphery and concentrates them near the
as its permeability decreases progressively from the coil '
sponding passageways 95a being progressively crushed.
The support thus obtained is thereafter deformed in a
mould which imparts thereto substantially the contour
in plan of the ingot mould, for example that shown in
FIG. 18 having rounded corners.
The support is then
given a cup-like shape by progressively slipping at the
periphery the adjoining coils so that the support assumes
the shape shown in FIG. 19.
It will be observed that a permeability increasing in the
direction from the center to the periphery of the central
portion 96, 96a of the support could also be obtained by
tightly coiling the band on itself, the tightness decreasing
in the direction from the axis Y—Y to the lines 96, 96a
whereafter the tightness is maintained constant.
Thus, it results from either of these embodiments—
which could be combined moreover~that when a liquid
is poured into the cup-like support this liquid descends
through the nest of passageways much quicker near the
axis of the ingot. In this way there is prevented forma 25 periphery of the support due to the uncrushed passage
tion of a bridge of solidi?ed metal, that is, obstruction of
ways 95 than in the central part where its descent could
the central opening, which is extremely important since
be practically nil or in any case very slight owing to the
this makes it possible to rapidly stop up the ingot so as
crushed condition of the passageways 955*.
to avoid segregations of the elements which experience
Advantageously, the passageways 95, 95”- could be
has shown to be intensi?ed by the prolonged ascent of
closed on the bottom face of the support by a sheet of
the gases.
thick substantially ?re-proofed paper 98, which is secured,
Brie?y, whatever the errors or production differences,
by means of a sodium silicate adhesive or any other coat
the device automatically insures certain success by the
ing or suitable glue, to the lower edges of the coils. This
evaporation of water in the vertical passageways which
sheet would only carbonize very slowly, if it carbonized
perfectly perform the functions of an evaporation regu 35 at all, upon contact with the molten metal, the cooling
lator of the supply of spraying water.
e?ect of the evaporation of the liquid in the nest of pas
The upwardly convergent lower face 50 is advantageous
sageways preventing, or in the extreme case slowing down,
from the siderurgical point of view, notably when the
this carbonization.
steel has a strong tendency to rise.
The supply of water or other liquid to the devices A5
In the embodiment shown in FIGS. l7—22 the device 40 pertaining to the ingot moulds L5 is obtained by means of
is adapted to permit application of the invention simul
an auxiliary supply. device B5 which comprises a carriage
taneously to the metal poured in two ingot moulds L5 dis
(FIGS. 17 and 18) carried by four ca-stors 100‘ swing
posed in a pit 91 de?ned by a bank 92 from which the
able about a spindle 1111 engaged in a sleeve 102 carried
workmen operate.
by the carriage. The latter is adapted to roll along the
The molten metal x5 has already been poured into the
bank 92 for the purpose of supplying liquid to the sup
two moulds L5 and has started to solidify partially at its
ports A5 of the two moulds L5, irrespective of the posi
periphery 72 when the support A5 is placed on the surface
tions of the latter in the pit 91, and thereafter to similar
of the liquid metal. Each of the supports A5 comprises,
supports of other moulds adjacent these two moulds in
as shown in FIG. 19, a single wall corrugated paper band
the pit 91.
which is coiled in the form of a spiral (FIG. 20), this
The carriage 99 carries a vertical tubular column "103,
band comprising a plane band to which are attached by 50
rotatably mounted at its base on a journal 1G4 carried
an adhesive the alternate crests of the corrugations of a
corrugated band 94 so as to form passageways 95 which
are disposed transversely of the band.
Before coiling the band in the form of a spiral the
at the center of the carriage 99. A screw 105 permits
securing the column in position when desired. A collar
106 is slidable along the column (FIGS. 17 and 22) and
corrugations of the corrugated band 94 are crushed in a 55 is secured at the desired height by a screw 107. This
collar is provided laterally with a sleeve 10% in which is
decreasing manner in the direction away from one end
mounted a boss 109 carrying a handle 110, a screw 111
B of the band so that the free crests of the corrugations
securing the boss 199 in the sleeve 98.
are located in a plane EF which is inclined relative to the
By means of this handle 110-—which is therefore ad
band 93, the included angle y being about a few degrees
and the corresponding passageways '95a being crushed 60 justable in height and in orientation relative to the column
1tl3—it is easy for the workman on the bank 92 to move
transversely to a decreasing extent from E to F, the pas
the carriage 99 and orientate it and the column 103 in
sageways 95 having their normal constant cross-section
accordance with the work to be carried out, that is, in
in the rest of the band after F.
practically any direction.
The corrugated band thus deformed is coiled, in start
Adjustably ?xed in position by screws 112 on the col
ing from the end B, into a roll E1 (FIG. 20-) up to the
umn 103 are two brackets each comprising two collars
other end of the band. In the circular disc thus formed
113, which are Slidable along the column and are rigidly
the passageways 95a of the central portion have a cross
interconnected by a tube 114 and a strut 115.
section which progressively increases from the axis Y-—Y
in the tube 114, which is horizontal when the column is
of the disc to the cylinder de?ned by the lines 96 and 961% 70 vertical, is a rod 116 which forms with the tube 114 a-tele
which are at the same distance from this axis. The por
scopic arm. The rod 116 extends right through the tube
tion of the disc located within this cylinder corresponds
114 and terminates at one end in a control knob 117 or
the like and at the other end in a sleeve 118. Slidable in
to the portion EF of the band (FIG. 20).
the latter is a vertical tube 12-11 which is held inposition
Between this cylinder shown by the lines 96 and 95a
in FIG. 19 and the periphery at 97, 97%, the passageways 75 by a screw 119. This tube carries on its lower end a spray
head 121 which will be described hereinafter. The water,
or other liquid, is supplied to the two spray heads 121—
or to all the spray heads carried by the device, for the
latter could comprise if desired more than two brackets
in the following manner. A ?exible pipe 122 (FIG. 18)
supplying the Water or other liquid is connected ‘by a pipe
connection 123 to a pipe 124 ?xed to the lower end of the
tubular column 1&3. The water rises up the column—
the central portion of the bottom .139. Thus by means
of suitable cocks, it is possible to supply water to the
periphery of the bottom 139 or to its central portion, as
Although speci?c embodiments of the invention have
been described, many modi?cations and changes may be
made therein without departing from the scope of the
invention as de?ned in the appended claims.
The spraying device shown in FIGS. 17, 18, 21 or 23,
which is connected to a head 125 at its upper end—-and
passes through cocks 126 (FIG. 17) to ?exible pipes 127 10 24 could be used with the ‘water-receiving supports of the
preceding examples and conversely, the support having a
the ends of which are connected by pipe connections 128
variable permeability due to transverse crushing of the
to the tubes 120 carrying the spray heads 121.
passageways shown in FIG. 19 and obtained from the
‘One of these spray heads is shown on an enlarged scale
band shown in FIG. 20, could be used with the spraying
in FIG. 21. Fixed on the tube 129 by a weld or other
means is a conical member 129 having a ?ange 139‘ on 15 device shown in FIGS. 8 to 10, and even without the aux
its lower periphery. A perforated ?at bottom 133 is ?xed
to the ?ange 139 by bolts 131 and nuts 132. The cen
tral part of the bottom 133 can be closed by a flap 134
iliary spraying device, the water being poured directly
into this cupsshaped support.
operative position by a spring 138.
sh-aped support A5, instead of being obtained by coiling
The spray heads 121 shown in FIGS. 17 and ‘18 could
be replaced on the column 103 by the perforated pipes
hingedly mounted at 135 on this bottom and maintained
in its raised or closing position by a locking device 136 20 57-58 shown in FIGS. 8 to 10.
In the embodiment shown in FIGS. 17 to 21, the cup
which has a control knob 137 and is biased toward its
into a spiral the previously deformed band shown in
FIG. 20, could be obtained either by successively winding
issue from the spray head only through the periphery of 25 a plurality of shorter bands one round the other, these
bands having passageways whose cross-sectional sizes in
the bottom 133 as shown by the arrows and falls on the
corresponding support A5 in the peripheral region of the
crease trom one band to the other, or by disposing in ad
joining relation sections of corrugated bands which com
latter, that is, in the region which constitutes the annular
prise in the central portion of the support either smaller
vessel for this water and has uncrushed passageways 95
30 passageways due to a smaller corrugation pitch of the
(FIG. 17).
corresponding corrugated band or to passageways
The cooling effect of the evaporation of the water,
crushed to a varying extent, the crushing decreasing in
which effect diminishes from the periphery toward the
the direction from the centre toward the periphery of the
center of the support A5, results in the desired centripetal
progression of the solidi?cation of the head of the ingot.
It is also possible to combine the transverse crushing
If necessary, at the end of the solidi?cation, the central 35
of the passageways with a longitudinal crushing of their
part of the head of the ingot may be sprayed by with
drawing the locking device 136 and allowing the ?ap 134
walls, as described with respect to the embodiment shown
in FIGS. 8 to 14.
to drop to its vertical position 134* under its own Weight
When the ?ap 134 is in its raised position, the water or
other liquid which enters by way of the tube 12a can
and to the pressure of the water on the bottom 133. .
In a general way means other than a nest of passage
The spraying device just described has many advan 40 ways crushed to a varying extent, could be used for ob
taining a permeability or porosity which decreases from
the periphery toward the center of the support.
The spray heads 121 do not rest on the ingot moulds,
Having now described my invention what I claim as
which permits a much stronger support for these heads,
new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
since their support on the ingot mould could be unstable,
1. Method of treating an ingot in the course of solidi
above all in the case of small moulds.
?cation of the poured metal in an ingot mould comprising
The spray head affords an excellent distribution of the
cooling in a controlled manner the peripheral portion of
water, particularly in the corners of the supports A5.
the top surface of the ingot by supporting on said pe
The bottom 133 of the heads is detachable and can
be easily replaced by any other bottom having it neces
ripheral portion a vessel and supplying to said vessel 3.
sary a different arrangement of the perforations.
50 material comprising at least in part a liquid capable of
A slight swinging of these spray heads, controlled from
the bank 92 by the rod 116 and the knob 117 acting on
the tubes 120, permits shifting the jets of water issuing
from the perforated bottom'133 and thus supplying all
the passageways 95 of the support A5, even if the num
evaporating in said vessel whereby the evaporation of
said liquid under the e?ect of the heat of the ingot pro
duces a cooling effect for cooling said peripheral portion.
2. Method as claimed in claim 1, wherein water in
55 the free state is used as said material.
ber of perforations in the bottom 133 is much less than
the number of passageways 95.
FIGS. 23 and 24 show a modi?cation of the spray head
in which the conical wall 121 is secured to a curved bot
3. Method as claimed in claim 1, wherein said ma
terial is a material containing water of constitution.
4. Method as claimed in claim 1, wherein said mate
rial is a material containing water of crystallization.
tom 139 thereby imparting to the jets of water issuing 60
5. Method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the support
is permeable to said liquid so that said liquid penetrates
from the perforations divergent directions. Thus, by ad
the support.
justing the height of the head relative to the support being
6. Method as claimed in claim 1 comprising thereafter
supplied with water, it is possible to spray supports of
di?erent sizes with these jets.
supplying water at the center of the surface of the ingot
In this modi?cation, the selective spraying of the 65 at the end of solidi?cation. ‘
7. Apparatus for use in an ingot mold comprising a
periphery and of the center of the support constituting
plurality of cardboard walls constituting a vessel having
a vessel, instead of being insured by means of the ?ap
relatively large upper and lower surfaces and de?ning be
134 of the preceding embodiment, is insured by a sepa
tween said surfaces a multitude of vertical and parallel
70 capillary passages, said walls de?ning in said upper sur
faces an open annular channel of substantially U-shaped
To this end, there is provided adjacent the tube12t)
cross-section adapted for accommodating a vaporizable
supplying the water for the peripheral spraying, an aux
rate water supply to the central portion of the bot
\ tom 139.
medium whereby said medium is adapted to descend
iliary supply tube 140 which communicates through a
through said passages due to capillary action.
?exible pipe 141 with a small auxiliary conical member
142 located inside the member 121 and connected to 75
(References on following page)
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
Rohn _______________ __ Ian. 24, 1933
Hewgill _____________ __ Dec.
Dostal _______________ __ Oct.
Mumma et a]. ________ __ June
Nieholls ______________ __ Jan.
1935 5
Olsen _______________ .._ May 25, 1954
Sylvester _____________ __ June 4, 1957
Paddock _____________ __ Sept. 30, 1958
Great Britain _________ __ Sept. 7, 1855
Germany _____________ __ July 9, 1914
Belgium ______________ __ July 1, 1950
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