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Патент USA US3030791

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April 24, 1962
c. H. HUBER
3,030,781
AIR CONDITIONERS
Filed Sept. 15, 1957
BY %. { ?djazQ
Jffamey
United Sttes atent
73,030,781
Patented Apr. 24:, 1962
1
2
3,030,781
bore of the right hand pedestal 41. The ?rst frustro
conical section 47 is dimensioned such that it converges
toward the left end wall 35 of the inner shell 19‘ in the
AIR CGNDlTIGNERS
Charles Henry Huber, 2128 Miriam Lane,
My invention relates to air conditioners, and more par
outward radial direction. The long frustro-conical sec
tion 49 of the intermediate shell 21 extends beyond the
inner shell 19 at both ends thereof, and the diameter
of its small end is greater than that of the inner shell.
Thus the long frustro-conical section 4% diverges out~
ticularly to air conditioners of the turbo-compressor type.
wardly from the inner shell’s cylindrical surface in the
.
Arlington, Tex.
Filed Sept. 13, 1957, Ser. No. 683,741
7 Claims. (Cl. 62-402)
It is an object of my invention to provide an eiiective 10 direction from left to right in the drawing, and the second
turbo-compressor type air conditioner of simpli?ed and
economic construction.
Another object of my invention is to provide an effec
tive air conditioner of the turbo-compressor type where
in the turbo-compressor section is an integral unit hav
short frustro-conical section 51 diverges outwardly from
the right end wall 37 of the inner shell 19' in the radial
direction toward the common axis.
The compressor
blades 25 extend radially and symmetrically outward with
respect to the common axis aforementioned.
Each com
pressor blade is ?xed at its side edges to adjacent Walls
of the ?rst short frustro-conical section 47 and the left
Another object of my invention is to provide a turbo
end wall 35 of the inner shell. The outer extent of each
compressor type air conditioner wherein the heat ex
compressor blade is the same as the inn-er shell radius,
changer process is isothermal.
while its inner extent is the same as the ?rst short cylin
These and other objects are effected by my invention
drical section radius. Each turbine blade 27 is ?xed at
as will be apparent from the following description taken
its side edges to adjacent walls of the second. short frustro
in accordance with the accompanying drawings, forming
conical section 51. and the right end wall 37 of the inner
a part of this application, in which:
shell. The outer extent of each turbine blade is the
FIG. 1 is a schematic side elevational view, partially in
section, showing an air conditioner in accordance with 25 same as the inner shell radius, while its inner extent is
a little greater than the radius of the second short cylin
a preferred embodiment of my invention;
drical section. The outer shell 23 is a long frustro-conical
FIG. 2. is a schematic section View taken at lines 2-2
ing no internal relatively moving parts.
section which is parallel to and spaced outwardly from,
of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a schematic section view taken at lines 3~—3
FIG. 4 is a schematic section view taken at lines 4——4
I of FIG. 1.
In FiG. 1 there is shown an air conditioner compris
ing a centrifugal blower H, a turbo-compressor unit 13,
and a turbo-compressor electric drive motor 15. The
centrifugal blower may be of a conventional type having
an intake (not shown), driven by an electric motor (not
shown), and having an output duct 17. The turbo-com
pressor unit comprises an inner shell 19‘, an intermediate
shell 21, an outer shell 26, compressor blades 25, turbine
blades 27, and heat exchanger blades 29.
and coextensive with the intermediate shell 21. The outer
30 shell is ?xed to and supported on the intermediate shell
of FIG. 1; and
The inner
shell ‘19 is in the form of a hollow closed cylinder,
mounted for rotation about its axis on a shaft 31 by
means of bearings 33 at the center portion of its end walls
35, 37. The shaft 31 does not rotate, but is supported
at each end on a respective left and right bearing pedestal
39, 41. Each bearing pedestal has a central bore of
size suitable to form a duct for a refrigerant medium. The
by means of fan blades 29 at its left end and ?ns 59‘ ad
jacent its right end. The fan blades 29 serve to move
the air or other gas from left to right through the space
between outer aend intermediate shells. The turbo-com
pressor drive motor 15 is contained within the inner shell
19 and has its stator 61 ?xed to the shaft, and its
rotor 63 ?xed to the inner wall of the cylindrical section
of the inner shell 19. The motor 15 is adapted to be
energized by conventional means not shown.
In- discussing operation of the apparatus of my inven<
40
tion, the refrigerant gas is assumed to be air, and the
heat absorbing medium is assumed to be air, though it is
to be understood that other suitable refrigerant gases and
heat absorbing mediums could be used, and would occur
to one skilled in the art. Refrigerant air from any suit
able source at atmospheric or ambient pressure and tem
perature (the pressure and temperature of the space being
cooled) is introduced at the intake of the centrifugal
shaft 3-1 is supported on the respective pedestal bore by
blower and is then passed through the various stages of
means of radially extending support members 43. Each 50 the apparatus and is discharged at the output duct either
pedestal bore is provided with a bearing race at its end
in a cooled or cooling potential state.
portion adjacent the turbo-compressor. The intermediate
shell 21 comprises a ?rst short open ended cylindrical
section 45 at its left end portion, a ?rst short open ended
frustro-conical section 4-7 joined at its small end to the
erly explain the sequence of events, the condition or
status of the refrigerant air will be examined at the be
ginning and end of each stage. For convenience, the
stages will be denominated as the centrifugal compressor
right end of said ?rst cylindrical section; a long open
stage, the turbo-compressor stage, the heat exchanger
In order to prop
ended frustioconical section 49 joined at its small end
stage, and the turbine stage. The air at the centrifugal
to the large end of said ?rst frustro-conical section, a
compressor input is at ambient temperature and pressure,
second short open ended frustro-conical section 51 joined
and substantially zero velocity. The air arrives at the
at its large end to the large end. of said long frustro
input to the compressor stage at increased pressure,
conical section, and a second short open ended cylindrical
slightly increased temperature, and greatly increased ve
section 53 joined at its left end to the small end of said
locity. The turbo-compressor stage performs the func
second frustro-conical section. The axes of the cylin
tion of increasing the potential energy, primarily in terms
drical and frustro-conical sections just mentioned are
of pressure and temperature. Thus the air arrives at the
common. The said ?rst and second short cylindrical sec 65 output of the turbo-compressor stage with its temperature
tions 45, 53 are journalled at their outer end portions
and pressure greatly increased, and with some increase in
on bearings 55 which are mounted in the respective
velocity. Thus, ‘at the entrance to the heat exchanger
pedestal bearing races. The output duct 17 of the
stage, the state of the air refrigerant medium is that of
centrifugal blower 11 has its outer end portion ?tting into
high temperature, high pressure, and high velocity.
the entrance portion of the bore of the left hand pedestal 70
The thermodynamic process in the heat exchanger stage
39. An output duct 57 for the turbo-compressor output
is made to be isothermal. This means that the tempera
has its left end portion ?tted into the exit portion of the
ture of the refrigerant air in the heat exchanger stage is
3,030,781
3
4
maintained constant. Ambient air is drawn through the
space between the intermediate and outer shells by action
of the fan blades. This air, being cooler than the re
frigerant air at this stage, provides a heat sink, and heat
flows from the refrigerant air to the heat absorbing air.
The Wall of the intermediate shell separating the flows, is
made of high conductivity material. As the refrigerant
air flow proceeds from left to right in the heat exchanger
end thereof, turbine blades ?xing said inner shell to said
outer shell at the other end thereof, a ?xed shaft having
a central axis common with the central axis of said turbo
compressor, support means for said shaft, said inner shell
being journalled on said shaft, said outer shell being
journalled on said support means, an electric motor con
tained within said inner shell and having a stator ?xed
'to said shaft and a rotor ?xed to said inner shell, means
stage, the pressure is caused to increase as a result of
for causing a cooling medium to ?ow over the outer
centrifugal action due to increase in mean duct radius, 10 surface of said outer shell, an input duct at one end of
while at the same time the axial ?ow velocity is decreased
said outer shell, an output duct at the other end of said
due to increased duct volume. The heat exchange process
outer shell, the relative con?gurations of said inner and
is controlled such that the relationship
outer shells being such as to promote iso-thermal ?ow
in the space between said compressor blades and said
turbine blades.
2. A turbine comprising; a turbo-compressor having an
inner shell and an outer shell de?ning space therebetween,
obtains, where P is pressure, p is density and K is a con
compressor blades ?xing said inner shell to said outer
stant including temperature. Thus, the state of the re
shell at one end thereof, turbine blades ?xing said inner
frigerant air at the entrance to the turbine stage is that 20 shell to said outer shell at the other end thereof, a ?xed
its temperature is unchanged, pressure is increased, and
shaft having a central axis, common with the central axis
velocity is decreased. The function of the turbine stage
of said turbo-compressor, support means for said shaft,
is to produce the pressure drop required to return the air
said inner shell being journalled on said shaft, said outer
to ambient pressure conditions, thus reducing the air
shell being journalled on said support means, and electric
temperature to accomplish refrigeration. If desired, the
motor contained within said inner shell and having a
air could instead be returned to ambient temperature,
stator ?xed to said shaft and a rotor fixed to said inner
with the pressure remaining high, thus providing poten
shell, an input duct at one end of said outer shell and an
tial refrigeration, with actual refrigeration to be accom
output duct at the other end of said outer shell, the
plished in a further stage. The centrifugal compressor
relative con?gurations of said inner and outer shells being
determines the refrigerating capacity of the unit, while 30 such as to promote iso-thermal flow in said space and
the turbo-compressor determines the temperature dif
between said compressor blades and said turbine blades,
ferential.
said outer shell being adapted for conduction of thermal
It is to be understood that duct con?gurations other
energy into said space. .
than that shown may be used without departing from the
3. A turbine comprising; a turbo-compressor having
spirit of the invention. For example, the turbo-compres 35 an inner shell and an outer shell de?ning a space there
sor section may have any suitable con?guration which
between, compressor blades ?xing said inner shell to said,
will achieve a satisfactory compression ratio. There are
outer shell at one end thereof, turbine blades ?xing said
other con?gurations that could be used for the heat ex
inner shell to said outer shell at the other end thereof,
changer section, and which would also achieve the iso
a ?xed shaft having a central axis common with the cen
thermal ?ow process. For example, it may be desirable
tral axis of said turbo-compressor, support means for said
to insert guide vanes extending longitudinally of the heat
shaft, said inner shell beingjournalled on said shaft, said
exchanger and shaped to impart a spiral motion to the
outer shell being journalled on said support means, means
refrigerant medium. Further, the turbine stage may take
for rotating said turbo-compressor about its central axis,
any suitable con?guration which will achieve the desired
an input duct at one end of said outer shell and an out
pressure drop. The speci?c shapes of all ducts will of 45 put duct at the other end of said outer shell, the relative
course be governed to some extent by the thermodynamic
con?gurations of said inner and outer shells being such
characteristics of the chosen refrigerant medium. The
as to promote iso-thermal How in said space and between
isothermal design makes the use of special refrigerants
said compressor blades and said turbine blades, said outer
unnecessary. If desired, axial compression and expansion
shell being adapted for conduction of thermal energy into
units could be employed instead of the radial type shown.
said space.
- It is further to be understood that the device of my
4. A turbine comprising: a turbo-compressor having
invention could be used as a turbine to produce usable
power. In such case, hot gas is caused to ?ow in the
an inner shell and an outer shell de?ning a space there'
In some cases, it may be desirable to eliminate the
such as to promote iso-thermal flow in said space and
between, compressor blades ?xing said inner shell to said
space between the intermediate and outer shells; cool gas
outer shell at one end thereof, turbine blades ?xing said
is introduced at output duct 57, and the turbo-compressor 55 inner shell to said outer shell at the other end thereof,
unit is designed so that the process proceeds from right
a ?xed shaft having a central axis common with the cen
to left through the device. At the turbine output end
tral axis of said turbo-compressor, support means for said
(centrifugal blower input) there will be available, gas at
shaft, said inner shell being journalled on said shaft, said
increased pressure, ready to do useful work. The cen
outer shell being journalled on said support means, means
trifugal blower would of course be replaced by a gas
for rotating said turbo-compressor about its central axis,
turbine capable of utilizing the turbine output gas. If
an input duct at One end of said outer shell and an out
desired, it would be possible to generate the required heat
put duct at the other end of said outer shell, the rela
energy directly within the iso-thermal duct.
tive con?gurations of said inner and outer shells being
centrifugal blower and accomplish all of the refrigerant 65 between said compressor blades and said turbine blades,
gas compression and acceleration in the turbo-compressor
and duct means adapted for directing heating medium
stage.
?ow over the outer surface of said shell.
While I have shown my invention in only one form, it
5. A turbine comprising: a turbo-compressor having
will be obvious to those skilled in the art that it is not
an inner shell and an outer shell de?ning a space there~
so limited, but is susceptible of various changes and modi 70 between, compressor blades ?xing said inner shell to said
?cations without departing from the spirit thereof.
outer shell at one end thereof, turbine blades ?xing said
I claim:
'
inner shell to said outer shell at the other end thereof,
1. An air conditioner comprising; a turbo-compressor
a ?xed shaft having a central axis common with the
having an inner shell and an outer shell, compressor
central axis of said turbo-compressor, support means for
blades ?xing said inner shell to said outer shell at one 75 said shaft, said inner shell being journalled on said shaft,
V.
t
3,030,781
5
said outer shell being journalled on said support means,
means for rotating said turbo-compressor about its central
axis an input duct at one end of said outer shell and an
6
7. An air conditioner comprising a ?rst compressor
unit having an input side adapted for receiving a thermo
dynamic medium having higher than ambient tempera
output duct at the other end of said outer shell, the rela
ture and an output side, a turbo-compressor including a
tive con?gurations of said inner and outer shells being
second compressor unit having an input side and an output
side, with the input side connected to said ?rst compres
sor unit output side, an iso-thermal heat exchanger hav
ing an input side and an output side, with the input side
connected to said second compressor unit output side
such as to promote iso-thermal ?ow in said space and
between said compressor blades and said turbine blades,
said space between said inner and outer shells being
adapted for the introduction of thermal energy therein.
6. An air conditioner comprising a ?rst compressor unit 10 and a turbine unit having an input side and an output
side with the input side connected to said heat exchanger
having an input side adapted for receiving a thermo dy
namic medium having higher than ambient temperature
output side, said turbine unit output side being adapted
for discharging said thermo dynamic medium at lower
than ambient temperature, said second compressor unit,
side, with the input side connected to said ?rst compressor 15 said heat exchanger, and said turbine unit being formed
as an integral assembly with no relatively moving parts;
unit output side, an iso-therrnal heat exchanger having
and means contained within said integral assembly for ro
an input side and an output side, with the input side con
tating said assembly about its central axis.
nected to said second compressor unit output side and
and an output side, a turbo-compressor including a sec
ond compressor unit having an input side and an output
a turbine unit having an input side and an output side
with the input side connected to said heat exchanger out 20
put side, said turbine unit output side being adapted for
discharging said thermo dynamic medium at lower than
ambient temperature, said second compressor unit, said
heat exchanger, and said turbine unit being formed as
an integral assembly with no relatively moving parts; 25
and means for rotating said integral assembly about its
central axis.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,879,685
Iaczko ______________ __ Sept. 27, 1932
2,073,833
2,393,338
2,572,253
2,686,215
De Bothezat _________ __ Mar.
Roebuck _____________ __ Jan.
Fellows ______________ __ Oct.
Fondiller ____________ __ Aug.
2,698,568
16,
22,
23,
10,
Jensen ________________ __ Jan. 4,
1937
1946
1951
1954
1955
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