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Патент USA US3030932

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April 24, 1962
H. c. sToLTz
3,030,927
FLUID MOTOR
Filed Oct. 14, 1959
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INVENTOR.
H eYbeY’c C. ÖìLoPCL
April 24, 1962
-
H. c. sToLTzv
l
Filed Oct. 14, 1959
3,030,927
FLUID MOTOR
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
April, 24, 1962
H. c. sToLTz
3,030,927
FLUID MOTOR
Filed oct. 14, 1959
4 sheets-sheet s
Aprll 24, 1962
H. c. sToLTz
3,030,927
FLUID MOTOR
Filed oct. 14. 1959
4 sheets-sheet 4
, /,
//,
United States Patent C
P
CC
l
3,630,927
Patented Apr. 24s, 1962
2
pressing tools of this type are, of course, »adaptable to
3,ll30,927
Herbert S. Stoltz, Palmyra, I’a., assigner to
a variety of uses, such as rivet setting or pipe bending,
FLUID MOTÜR
and the invention is not necessarily limited to the crimp
ing of electrical terminals.
Referring now to FIGURE 2, body portion 4 has a
first internal bore 1i) which constitutes the cylinder for
AMP Incorporated, Harrisburg, Pa.
Filed Oct. 14, 1959, Ser. No. 846,3411
5 Claims. (Cl. 121-13)
a hydraulic piston 8 from which the ram 6 extends. A
This invention relates to reciprocable fluid motors of Y
the type adapted to be operated by compressed air or
other compressed gas.
An object of the invention is to provide an improved
air motor which is adapted -to operate at relatively high
somewhat smaller diameter bore l2 is provided in the
upper portion of the tool body, as viewed in FIGURE 2,
and a coil spring 9 surrounds the ram and acts between
the end wall of bore l2 and the face of piston 8 normally
to bias the piston and ram downwardly.
As is explained below, the interior of tool body 4 is
speeds. A further object is to provide an air motor hav
ing improved inlet and exhaust valve means which are
employed as a reservoir for hydraulic iluid yand the
opened and closed by the piston of the motor. A still
further object is to provide an air motor having piston
operated exhaust and inletvalve means in which rapid
hydraulic system of the tool is of the closed circuit type.
It is therefore necessary to provide means to prevent
cavitation in the reservoir as the ram and piston move
upwardly. To this end, ram 6 provides a 'transverse
closing and opening of the valves is achieved to permit
high speed operation of the motor.
bore lai which is sealed by spring biased plugs lo, thœe
These and other objects are achieved in a preferred 20 plugs being retained in the bore by a collar I9. Bore
14 is open to the `atmosphere through a passageway i7
embodiment, herein disclosed in conjunction with a ter
minal crimping tool, in which the piston of the »air motor
and an axial bore iS which, in use, also receives the
has an axially bored cylindrical extension projecting from
stem of a crimping die.
p
v
The lower end of cylinder lil is closed by means of a
one side thereof. The inlet and exhaust valves are
mounted in the end wall of the cylinder of the motor 25 cylinder head 18 threaded into the cylinder and having an
and on the opposite side of the piston from the cylin
drical extension. The inlet valve is provided with a
spring which urges it toward its closed position, how
ever, it is maintained in its open position at the start of
yaxially extending boss 20 which projects into a depression
in piston 3. An axial bore 22 extends through cylinder
cause the latter member to move out of engagement with
The oblique passageway 3l), 32 communicates with an an
nular chamber 36 defined by a reduced diameter lower
head lil and is counterbored at each end 24, 26.
A
spring-biased ball check valve 28 is provided in counter
a cycle of the air motor by means of a control rod which 30 bore 24 to prevent flow of hydraulic iluid from the cylin
der lil on the lower side of piston S into axial bore 22.
is coaxially mounted with respect to the piston and ex
A passageway Sil extends obliquely from counterbore 26
tends into the hollow interior of the projection. The
and is enlarged at 32 for the accommodation ot' a spring
exhaust valve is also mounted in the end wall of the
biased ball check valve 3d which is held within this en
cylinder and the control rod maintains the exhaust valve
in its closed position at the beginning of the cycle. 35 larged portion of the passageway by means of a threaded
plug 35 having an axial opening extending therethrough.
Means -acting between the piston and the control rod
the inlet and exhaust valves as the piston approaches the
end portion of cylinder head I8 and by the walls of the
end of its power stroke so that the inlet valve closes
and the exhaust valve opens to permit the return stroke 40 cylinder itself. This annular chamber communicates by
means of passageways 3S, 4d, 4l with the reservoir on
of the air piston. As the end of this return stroke is
the upper side of piston 8.
On the underside of cylinder head 1S, there is provided
approached, the means acting between the piston and
the control rod causes the control rod to move axially
a Ihollow cylindrical extension ¿i2 kcoaxially disposed with
into engagement with the valves thereby to close the ex
haust valve and open the inlet valve for the start of the
respect to the cylinders 19,12. ‘An air piston 44 slid
ably surrounds this extension and is -reciprocable within
an air cylinder 46 which is in axial alignment with cylin
der 1t). Piston 44 is normally biased downwardly by
next cycle.
In the drawings:
FIGURE l is a perspective View of a crimping tool in
corporating an air motor in accordance with the inven
means of a coil spring 48 interposed between a ledge
on the piston `and an inwardly extending lip 47 of the
tion;
FIGURE 2 is a sectional View showing the air motor 50 cylinder 46. Air is supplied to the interior of cylinder 46
by means of a line 51 coupled to the cylinder by means
and the hydraulic system of the tool of FIGURE 1, the
of a fitting 50.
parts being shown in the positions they occupy at the
A passageway 54 extends ¿through cylinder head 18
beginning of a power stroke of the air motor; '
2 but showing only the air motor in detail and illustrating
the positions of the parts a-t different portions of the oper
near its rim and is counterbored at its upper end 56 for
the accommodation of a spring-biased ball check valve
5S. A rod 52 in this passageway rests upon piston 44
FIGURE 7 is an enlarged view showing the inlet and
and is moved upwardly upon admission of compressed
air into cylinder 46 beneath piston 44. Such upward
FIGURES 3-6 are sectional views similar to FIGURE
ating cycle;
exhaust valve means of the air -rnotor in accordance
with the invention; and
movement of the rod opens valve S8 and permits hy
60 draulic fluid to ilow into passageway 54 from- whence it
FIGURE 8 is an exploded View of the control rod _
which forms part of the invention. K .
In FIGURE l, there is shown a crimping tool for elec
will flow through a passageway 6@ and into annular
chamber 36 to permit return of the hydraulic iiuid to
the reservoir as is explained below.
The reciprccable air motor, generally indicated at 62,
trical terminals comprising a generally C-shaped head
portion 2 having a cylindrical body portion 4 integral 35 is mounted on the lower end of cylinder 46 and coaxially
aligned with respect to the upper portions of the tool.
therewith. A ram 6 is contained within body portion 4
This air motor comprises a cylinder 64 closed at its up
and is adapted to move towards and away from the in
wardly directed end portion of the head 2. It will be
' per end by an air cylinder head 66 which is secured in
understood that in use, suitable crimping dies for electri
place by means of a snap ring 67. This cylinder head
cal terminals are mounted on the end of the ram and on 70 has an enlarged central opening which is threaded at 68
the inwardly directed end portion of the head 2. Corn
into engagement with the lower end of cylindrical ex
3,030,927
3
tension 42.
Since the upper portion of cylinder 64 is
not pressurized in use, it is desirable to provide a vent
as shown at 70 to the atmosphere. The piston 72 of
the air motor has an extension 74 on its upper side from
the end of which extends a pump plunger 76. Upon
4
from the stem 126. Chamber 133 communicates with
the atmosphere through an exhaust port 142. It will be
appreciated that valve spool 136 is freely slidably right
wardly or leftwardly from the position shown in FIG
URE 2 although it is prevented from moving rightwardly
reciprocation of the piston and the pump plunger, hy
by virtue of the presence of the cam 36. An additional
draulic ñuid is pumped from the reservoir in the upper
portions of the cylinders 10, 12 to the lower portion of
cylinder 10 beneath the piston 8.
Extension 74 is axially hollow for a substantial por
tion of its length and is internally threaded to receive
an axially bored and counterbored nut 78. A tubular
control rod 80, extends through the central opening in
stem 141 extends radially outwardly from valve spool
136 and has an end portion which is slidable in the bore
of a closure plug. This stem maintains the stem 138 in
alignment with opening 137.
Air lines 51, 144 are connected to a source of com
pressedair through a manually operated control valve
146 having a control plunger 148. Advantageously, this
valve is constructed such that when the plunger is in
It will be apparent from the drawing that the diameter 15 its raised (i.e., normal) position, air is supplied to line
51 so that relief valve 58 in the hydraulic system is
of the opening in extension 74 is such as to permit rela
open. When the plunger is moved downwardly towards
tive movement of head vS2 up to the end wall 33 of this
the valve body, compressed air is supplied through line
opening. A stern 84 (see FIGURE 8) slidably received
144 to the air motor only and not through line 51. Valve
in rod 80 has an enlarged diameter end portion 86 and
a conical tip portion 88, which portions function as a 20 146 is constructed such that line 51 is open to the at
nut 73 and provides an enlarged head 82 on its end.
cam as explained below.
Advantageously, a screw S9
is provided in the upper end of rod 30 to provide an
mosphere when the plunger is moved downwardly thereby
to vent air from the under side of piston 44.
In use and assuming the parts are in the positions of
adiustable stop. A pin 90 secured to and extending
FIGURE 2, the plunger of control valve 146 is depressed
transversely of stern S4 projects through an elongated slot
92 in rod S0 to permit limited relative motion between 25 thereby to admit air through line 144 past the inlet valve
and through passageway .116 to the under side of piston
the rod and the shank. The lower end of both the rod
72. When the under side of this piston is pressurized,
and the cylindrical and conical portions of 'the shank pro
compressed air will also pass through port 128 into cham
ject into a bore 94 in the end wall 96 of cylinder 64.
ber 131 and will bias valve spool 136 to the position
Bore 94 is counterbored and receives a bushing 98 having
a uniform internal diameter in its lower portions which 30 shown in FIGURE 2 and thereby securely hold this ex
haust valve closed. As the compresed air from the line
is substantially larger than the diameter of control rod
drives piston 72 upwardly, control rod 80 at ñrst re
mains stationary as spring 112 is compressd and the
upper end of nut 78 is brought into engagement with
Rod S0 has a circumferential groove 104 on its lower
end and slidably accommodates a collar 106. This collar 35 the under side of head 82 (FIGURE 3). Thereafter
S0 and flares as shown at 102 to provide a conical cam
ming surface for purposes described below.
has cylindrical lower end portion 107 which extends down
and upon further upward movement of the piston, rod
80 is carried upwardly along with the piston. However,
wardly, when the parts are in positions of FIGURE 2,
for a brief interval, stem 84 remains stationary by virtue
between the surface of the rod and the internal surface
of the lost motion pin slot connection 90, 92. During
of the bushing, and an external conical surface 109. A
plurality of ball bearings 108 are normally seated in 40 this same brief interval, ball bearings 108 are cammed
outwardly and into the conical portion 102 of bushing
groove 104 and are received in holes in the lower portion
98. The mechanism of this outward camming of the
of the collar so that they bear against the surface of bush
ball bearings can be understood from a close inspection
ing 98. A spring 110, interposed between the surface of
of FIGURE 3. As the rod 80 moves upwardly it tends
this collar and the under side of nut 73, urges collar 106
to carry the ball bearings and collar 106 upwardly.
downwardly to the position of FIGURE 2. An addi
However, spring 110 discourages, but does not prohibit,
tional coil spring 112 is positioned between the head
32 of the rod and nut 78 so as to normally bias the
control rod 80 upwardly. Springs 110 and 112 should
be of such relative strength that the parts will be in
equilibrium in the position shown in FIGURE 2, Le., the
spring 112 will not have sullîcient strength to push the
rod 80 upwardly beyond the position of FIGURE 2.
Air is admitted into the interior to the cylinder 64
on the lower side of piston 72 by means of an inlet
passage 116 which communicates with a radially extend
ing passageway 118 (FIGURE 7) having a counterbore
120. An inlet check valve 124 is provided in counterbore
120 and is normally biased to the closed position by
means of a coil spring, although this valve is maintained
upward movement of the collar so that as the ball bear
ings enter the conical portion 102 of bushing 98, the
upward force exerted on the rod causes the balls to be
pushed radially into this conicalportion as shown in FIG
URE 3. When the ball bearings are displaced entirely
out of groove 104 and are tangent to the surface of the
control rod 80, this rod is free to move axially. At
this time, the stored energy of spring 112 moves the
rod rapidly upwardly relative to both the piston and to
the cylinder itself (FIGURE 4). As rod 80 moves up
wardly, it engages pin 90 on stem 84 and thereby pulls
this stem and the enlarged end portions 86, 88 upwardly.
As the enlarged portion 86 moves upwardly relatively
in its open condition in FIGURE 2 by cylindrical portion 60 past stems 126, 138, these stems are free to move radially
inwardly, the stem 126 being biased inwardly under
86 of the stem which function as a cam and bears against
the iniluence of spring 12S and the stem 133 being biased
an extension or stem 126 on the inlet valve; This stem
inwardly under the influence of the compressed air on
projects through an opening in axial alignment with bore
the left-hand side of valve spool 136. The tendencey of
118. Air is supplied by means of an air line 125 through
a fitting 122 to chamber 120.
65 these stems to move inwardly assists the upward move
ment of the conical cam portion 88 after the cylindrical
An exhaust port 128 in end wall 96 communicates
portion 86 has moved relatively past the stems. In this
with a radially extending bore 130 in which are provided
manner a rapid and positive reversal or shifting of the
a pair of valve bushings 132, 134. These valve bush
ings define chambers 131, 133 which are separated by
valves 124, 136 is achieved; i.e., inlet valve 124 is closed
a constricted passageway 129 in which is disposed the 70 and exhaust valve 136 is opened as their stems 126, 138
move radially inwardly.
At the time rod 80 is projected upwardly and the in
let and exhaust valves are closed and opened respectively,
the piston reaches the end of its power stroke and begins
motor from spool 136 through an opening 137 and bears
against the surface 86 of the cam on the opposite side 75 to move downwardly under the inñuence of spring 114.
enlarged center part of a valve spool 136 having sub
stantially the same diameter as the constricted passage
way. A stern 138 extends radially toward the axis of the
5
3,030,927
6
As shown in FIGURE 4, at the instant of reversal of the
direction of motion of piston 72, the adjusting screw 89
in the'end of the rod Sil bears against the end wall 83 of
the'recess in projection 74 so that as the piston moves
ing means into engagement with said exhaust valves at
the end of the exhaust stroke of said piston thereby to
open said inlet valve and close said exhaust valve, and
to move said valve shifting means out of engagement with
said valves at the end of the power stroke of said piston
thereby to close said inlet valve and open said exhaust
valve.
2. An air motor comprising, a pneumatic cylinder, a
reciprocable piston in said cylinder, an inlet valve and an
downwardly, it carries rod 80 downwardly. During this
portion of the cycle, spring 114 overcomes spring 110
and compresses this spring as shown in FIGURE 5.
Energy is stored in the spring 110 during this interval by
reason of the fact that collar 106 cannot move down
wardly because ofthe wedging effect of ball bearings 198.
exhaust valve disposed adjacent to said piston and on
one side thereof, said valves being radially movable
towards and away from the axis of said cylinder, said
groove by the spring `and the stored energy of the spring
inlet valve being closed and said exhaust Valve being open
abruptly moves the control rod downwardly relative to
when said valves are moved radially inwardly towards
the piston. FÍGURE 6 shows the positions of the parts 15 the axis of said cylinder, said inlet valve being open and
immediately prior to the movement of the balls into
said exhaust valve being closed when said valves are moved
groove 104. As the rod moves down, its head portions
radially outwardly and away from said axis, a rod co
86, 88 engage stems 126, 138, thereby to open the inlet
axially disposed with respect to said cylinder having
valve and close the exhaust valve.
camming means thereon engageable with said valves to
With each cycle of reciprocation of the air motor and 20 maintain said valves outwardly from said axis, and spring
thc pump plunger 76, oil is pumped from the upper side
means effective between said piston and said rod axially
10
When the circumferential groove in the rod ‘S9 reaches
the ball bearings, these bearings are cammed into the
of piston 8 to the under side thereof and the ram 6 is
to shift said rod at the end of the power stroke of said
driven upwardly. Since the hydraulic system in the tool
piston and disengage said camming means from said valves
body 4 is of the closed circuit type, it is necessary to
and to shift said rod at the end of the exhaust stroke of
prevent cavitation. When the ram 6 is in its lower posi 25 said piston to engage said camming means with said
valves.
tion as shown in FIGURE 2, the plugs 16 are displaced
radially inwardly as shown; however, as oil is progressively
3. An air motor comprising a pneumatic cylinder, a
displaced from the upper side of piston 8 to the lower
reciprocable piston in said cylinder, an inlet valve and an
side thereof, these plugs move radially outwardly and
exhaust valve disposed adjacent to said piston and on
occupy the volume in this reservoir which would other 30 one side thereof, said Valves being radially movable
wise be vacant.
towards and away from the axis of said cylinder, said
A salient advantage of the invention is that very rapid
inlet valve being closed and said exhaust valve being
shifting of the valves is achieved and this, in turn, per
open when said valves are moved radially inwardly
mits a relatively high speed on the part of the air motor.
towards the axis of said cylinder, said inlet valve being
The inlet valve is opened and the exhaust valve is closed
open and said exhaust valve being closed when said
at the end of the exhaust stroke during a single interval
valves are moved radially outwardly and away from
said axis, a slidable rod coaxially disposed with respect
of time, and this interval itself is extremely short because
to said cylinder, valve camming means coaxially mounted
of the fact that the control rod 84 is shifted very rapidly
with respect to said rod and having a lost motion con
infboth directions. When the inlet valve is closed and
the exhaust valve is opened at the end of the power stroke, 40 nection therewith, a first spring acting between said rod
and said piston and normally urging said rod away from
the rod 84 is shifted rapidly because of the fact that the
valves 124, 136 are being urged into the new positions
said valves, a second spring acting between said rod and
said piston and normally urging said rod towards said
that they will occupy. At the end of the exhaust stroke,
shifting takes place very rapidly by virtue of the stored
valves, means for neutralizing said second spring at the
energy in spring 1li() which is stored until it is sufficient 45 end of the power stroke and during the exhaust stroke
of said piston whereby said iirst spring disengages said
to very rapidly displace the entire control spindle and
valve rod assembly downwardly. The control rod 84
and the springs thus constitute a spring loadable and
triggerable means which acts between the piston and the
camming means from said valves, said second spring
normally maintaining said rod and camming means in
engagement with said valves during a substantial portion
valves to shift them at the end of each power stroke and 50 of the power stroke of said piston whereby, at the end of
the power stroke of said piston, said iirst spring dis
again at the end of each exhaust stroke.
engages said cam from said valves through said lost
Changes in construction will occur to those skilled in
motion connection, and at the end of the exhaust stroke
the art and various apparently different modifications and
of said piston said second spring is effective to reengage
embodiments may be made without departing from the
scope of the invention. The matter set forth in the fore 55 said cam with said valves.
4. An air motor comprising a cylinder having a re
going description and accompanying drawings is offered
by Way of illustration only.
The actual scope of the Y
invention is intended to be defined in the following claims
when viewed in their proper‘perspective against the prior
art.
ciprocable piston therein, a control rod extending through
said piston and coaxially disposed with respect thereto,
said rod being movable relative to said piston, an end
60 Wall on said cylinder having radially movable inlet and
exhaust valves therein, said inlet valve lbeing closed and
said exhaust valve being open whensaid valves are posi
tioned radially inwardly of the axis of said cylinder, said
reciprocable piston in said cylinder, an inlet valve and
inlet valve being open and said exhaust valve being closed
an exhaust valve disposed on one side of said piston, said
valves being movable radially towards and away from 65 when said valves are positioned radially outwardly of the
axis of said cylinder, said valves being normally biased
the axis of said cylinder, said inlet valve beingclosed
to their inward positions, valve camming means engage
and said exhaust valve being open when'said valves are
able With said Valves to maintain said valves in their out
moved radially inwardly towards the axis of said cylinder,
‘ Ward positions, said camming means having a lost motion
said inlet valve being open and said exhaust valve being
closed when said valves are moved radially outwardly 70 connection with said rod, a first spring effective between
said rod and said piston normally urging said rod and said
away from said axis, slidable valve shifting means co
camming means away from said valves, a second spring
axially disposed with respect to said cylinder and engage
effective between said rod and said piston normally urg
able with said inlet and exhaust valves, and spring load
able and triggerable means acting between said piston
ing said rod and said camming means into engagement
and said valve shifting means to move said valve shift 75 with said valves, said second spring being stronger than
I claim:
l. An air motor comprising, a pneumatic cylinder, a
absage?
.
7
8
Y
said 'ñrst spring whereby said 'camming means is nor
mally engaged with said valves, and means for neutraliz
ing said second spring for a period extending from the
towards said taxis, slidable valve control means coaxially
disposed in said cylinder, said valve control means being
movable relatively past said stem portions to control said
end of the power stroke to the end of the exhaust stroke
exhaust and inlet valves, and means acting between said
piston and said valve control means for moving said valve
control means out of engagement with said stems at the
of said piston whereby said camming means is disen
gaged from said valves under the influence of said first
spring and said valves are shifted at the end of the power
stroke, and said cammiug means is engaged with said
valves at the end of the exhaust stroke under the in
ñuence of said second spring and said valves are again
shifted.
5. A reciprocable air motor comprising, a pneumaatic
cylinder having a tìrst end wall, a piston within said
cylinder, a centrally hollow axial extension on said piston
on the opposite direction from said end Wall, an inlet 15
passageway for compressed air in said end wall and open
ing into said cylinder, a normally closed inlet valve in
said passageway, an exhaust passageway in said end wall
and an exhaust valve in said passageway, said exhust valve
and said inlet valve having stem portions extending to 20
wards the axis of said cylinder, said inlet valve being clos
able upon movement towards the axis of said cylinder
and said exhaust valve being openable upongmovement
end of the power stroke of said piston andr for moving
said valve control means into engagement with said stem
portions at the end of the exhaust stroke of said piston.
References Cited in the iìle of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
684,307
917,917
1,020,003
1,044,725
2,631,573
2,758,569
2,804,055
2,894,488
`
1,074,644
Reardon ______________ _.. Oct. 8,
White _______________ __ Apr. 13,
Williams ____________ __ Mar. 12,
Bain ________________ __. Nov. 19,
Levitt et al ___________ __ Mar. 17,
Peterson _____________ __ Aug. 14,
Hill et al _____________ __ Aug. 27,
Berner _______________ _.. July 14,
1901
1909
1912
1912
1953
1956
1957
1959
FOREIGN PATENTS
France _______________ __ Oct. 7, 1954
. we
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