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Патент USA US3031141

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April 24, 1962
E. J. HILDEBRANDT
COMPRESSOR
Filed March 6, 1957
3,031,131
'
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
INVENTORZ
EDWARD J» HILDEBRANDT
ATTORNEY
v April 24, 1962
E. J. HILDEBRANDT
3 ,03l,131
COMPRESSOR
Filed March 6, 1957
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
/
IN VEN TOR 1
EDWARD J. HILDEBRANDT
ATTORNEY
United States Patent Office
1
3,031,131
COMPRESSOR
Edward J. Hildebrandt, Michigan City, Ind., assignor to
Joy Manufacturing Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., a corpo
ration of Pennsylvania
Filed Mar. 6, 1957, Ser. No. 644,230
3 Claims. (Cl. 230-182)
3,031,131
Patented Apr. 24, 1962
2
constructed in accordance with the principles of my in
vention, having a portion thereof broken away to show
the intercooler connections thereto.
FIGURE 2 is a side elevational view of a compressor
as shown in FIGURE 1.
FIGURE 3 is an enlarged cross sectional view of the
intercooler shown in FIGURE 2, taken substantially along
the lines III—llI thereof.
My invention relates to compressors and more par;
FIGURE 4 is an enlarged cross sectional view of the
ticularly ‘to a compound compressor for a gaseous ?uid 10 lower portion of the intercooler as shown in FIGURE 2,
having a new and improved intercooler connected be—
taken substantially along the lines IV—IV thereof.
tween compressor stages.
FIGURE 5 is a cross sectional view of the intercooler
,. In compound compressors for compressing a gaseous
as shown in FIGURE 1 taken substantially along the
?uid, such as air compressors, it is common practice to
lines V—V thereof; and
provide an intercooler between sequential stages of the 15
FIGURE 6 is a cross sectional view of a portion of
compressor in order to reduce the temperature of the
the compressor as shown in FIGURE 2 taken substan
gaseous ?uid before it is admitted into the next pressure
tially long the lines VI—-VI thereof.
cylinder for further compression. In general such inter
As will become apparent herein the principles of my
coolers have been located to extend outwardly beyond
invention are ideally suited for various types of com
the compression cylinders so that the assembled com
pound compressors for compressing a gaseous ?uid such
pressor is di?icult to handle ‘and requires a fairly large
as air. Accordingly, for the purpose of illustrating my
space for its installation.
lso in such compressors it
invention, a two stage air compressor has been shown in
is desirable to remove as much moisture and other mat
FIGURES l, 2 and 6 which comprises a hollow housing
ter which may be suspended in the gaseous ?uid during
1, formed from any suitable material having sufficient
the period the gaseous ?uid is traversing the intercooler 25 mechanical strength such as cast iron. The housing 1
in order to minimize damage to the compressor during
has mounted thereon, in any suitable manner, at opposite
the next compression stage and in order to obtain a sub
sides of the vertical plane at approximately 60° from a
stantially moisture free compressed ?uid.
horizontal plane two outwardly extending low pressure
Accordingly, one object of my invention is to provide
cylinders 2 and 3. Two high pressure cylinders 4 and 5
a compound compressor having intercoolers connected 30 are also mounted in any suitable manner on the housing
between sequential stages of the compressor so as to
result in a compact structure.
1 to extend outwardly therefrom on a horizontal plane
new and improved intercooler for a ?uid compressor
180 to a receiver, not shown. It is to be realized that the
'in opposed relationship to each other below the low
Another object of my invention is to provide a com
pressure cylinders 2 and 3, respectively. Air is supplied
‘pound compressor having an extending low pressure
to each of the low pressure cylinders 2 and 3 through
cylinder elevated above an extending high pressure cylin 35 spaced inlet lines 6, compressed and discharged through
der with an intercooler extending angularl'y therebetween.
suitable outlets 12 to suitable inlets 13 of elongated in
Still another object of my invention is to provide a
tercoolers 14. The initially compressed air ?ows through
new and improved two stage compressor having a pair
the intercoolers 14, as more fully described hereinafter,
of vertically displaced low pressure cylinders located
through suitable intercooler outlets 15 and high pres
above a pair of horizontally opposed high pressure cylin
sure cylinder inlets 18 to the high pressure cylinders 4
ders with intercoolers extending angularly between ad
and 5.
jacent high and low pressure cylinders.
The air is again compressed in the high pressure cylin
Still another object of my invention is to provide a
ders 4 and 5 and discharged through suitable exit lines
having a curved exit path to obtain separation of sus 45 air ?ow to and from the low and high pressure cylinders is
pended. matter in a gaseous ?uid passing through the
controlled in any suitable manner such as by means of
exit path.
suitably spaced valves 17 located in the head of the low
A more speci?c object of my invention is to provide a
and high pressure cylinders as is well known in the art.
new and improved air intercooler for a compressor hav
As is also well known in the art, suitable pistons 45
ing lateral ribs located along the outer side of an elon 50 are reciprocably mounted in the low pressure cylinders 2
gated curved exit path through which a gaseous fluid
and 3 and suitable pistons 46 are reciprocably mountedin
passes to obtain separation of suspended matter in the
the high pressure cylinders 4 and 5 to compress the air
gaseous ?uid.
in the respective cylinders. The pistons 45 and 46 are
Still another speci?c object of my invention is to pro
connected by suitable piston rods 47 to suitable cross
vide a new and improved intercooler for a compressor 55 heads 48 reciprocably guided in cross head guides 49 suit
‘which extends angularly upward and has water separat
ably supported in seats formed in the housing 1. Suit
ing means at its lower end extending angularly upward
whereby the water is collected in the lowermost part of
the intercooler by means of the gravitational force upon
able connecting rods 50 are connected to cross heads 48
which in turn are connected to a crank pin 51 carried by
a crank shaft 11 suitably journaled at opposite ends in
60 bearings, not shown, carried by the housing 1. The com
These and other objects of my invention will become
pressor may be driven in any suitable manner, such as by
more apparent when taken in consideration with the fol
keying the shaft (not shown) of an electric motor 100
the water.
lowing detailed description of a preferred embodiment
thereof and the following drawings in which:
thereto which is located in alignment with the crank shaft
11 to one side of the high and low pressure cylinders.
FIGURE 1 is a front elevational view of a compressor 65 Inasmuch as the speci?c construction of the operating
3,031,131
3
4
mechanism of the compressor does not constitute a part of
my invention further description thereof is not believed
In order to provide a closed path for permitting air to
?ow through each of the intercoolers 14, a circular outer
to be necessary.
shell 101 is secured to the upper end of each intercooler
14. One edge of the shell 101 is secured to the outer
For a more complete description of an
operating mechanism similar to that heretofore described,
reference is made herein to Patent No. 2,312,335, en
titled, Compressor, patented March 2, 1943, by F. A.
Halleck.
In FIGURE 3, the improved intercooler is shown hori
zontally disposed to facilitate illustration although when
portion of the ?ange 41 and its other edge is secured to
the shell 23 at a point spaced longitudinally from the
?ange 41. The shell 101 may be secured as indicated in
any suitable manner such as by welding. Although not
shown the shell 101 is provided with a suitable opening
in use it is inclined at a substantial angle with respect to 10 which is surrounded by the neck portion 16 (FIG. 2) of
the horizontal, as shown in FIGURE 4, to attain novel ad
the inlet 13. Referring to FIGURE 5 it will be noted
vantages. As shown, each intercooler 14 comprises a
plurality of spaced elongated tubes 20 which extend angu
larly between the low and high pressure cylinders with
their respective ends being suitably secured to a circular 15
in various manners; however, with a cast jacket 25 as
length within an extending cylindrical shell 23, the lower
shown the circular neck portion 52 is preferably cast in
tegrally with the outer wall of the jacket 25. Also as
shown the neck portion 52 of the outlet 15 is provided
upper tube sheet 21 and a circular lower tube sheet 22.
The tubes 20 are enclosed for the greater part of their
end of which terminates short of the lower tube sheet 22.
In order to accomplish the purposes of my invention the
lower portion of the tubes 20 are enclosed by a unique
that the outer wall of the jacket 25 is similarly provided
with an opening 51 which is surrounded by the neck por
tion 52 of the outlet 15. The opening 51 may be formed
with an integrally outwardly extending ?ange portion 53
for permitting the outlet 15 to be secured to a similar
?ange portion 54 on the high pressure cylinder inlet 18
form of annular hollow jacket 25, the inner wall 24 of
in any suitable manner such as by being bolted thereof
which is in longitudinal alignment with the cylindrical
by arcuately spaced bolts 55.
shell 23 and the lower side of which is substantially in
It is to be realized that the use of the integral neck por
lateral alignment with the outer surface of the lower tube 25 tion 52 and ?ange portion 53 is only one desirable method
sheet 22. The jacket 25 is supported with respect to the
of providing an outlet 15 from the jacket 25 and that any
lower end of the shell 23 in any suitable manner such as
suitable construction for obtaining air ?ow passages there
by being bolted by a plurality of arcuately spaced bolts
through as is well known in the art may be employed.
26 to an annular ?ange 27 which is secured to the lower
Similarly the outlet 12 and the inlet 13 are shown as
end of the shell 23 in any suitable manner such as by 30 being bolted together and substantially of the same struc
being welded thereto so as to extend radially outwardly
ture as the outlet 15 and inlet 18 previously described;
therefrom.
however as before such structure may be modi?ed in a
The lower tube sheet 22 has its outer surface enclosed
manner as is well known in the art. Throughout this
by means of a suitable dish shaped head 29 which is se
speci?cation various components have been described as
cured adjacent its outer edge to the tube sheet 22 ad 35 being bolted together and it is to be clearly realized that
jacent the outer edge of the tube sheet 22 in any suitable
such bolting is accomplished in a manner as is well known
manner such as by a plurality of arcuately spaced bolts
in the art which necessarily entails that the threaded
30. The central portion of the head 29 is provided with
shanks of the bolts pass through proper clearance open~
an integral outwardly extending water inlet 31 which is
ings. It is further to be realized that the structure of the
secured, in any suitable manner as by welding, to the 40 various components as heretofore described may be
central portion of an outwardly spaced lower head 32 for
formed from various suitable materials; however, as it is
the intercooler 14. The lower head 32 is also dish shaped
customary in the art for such structures the components
and is secured adjacent its outer edge to the lower side
may be formed from various ferrous and non-ferrous ma
of the jacket 25 adjacent its outer edge in any suitable
terials by various well known manners.
manner such as by a plurality of arcuately spaced bolts 33.
As shown in FIG. 5 a barrier 58 is formed integral
In order to provide sufficient material for properly engag 45 with the jacket 25 which extends generally laterally be
ing the threaded shanks of the bolts 26 and 33 the jacket
tween the outer wall of the jacket 25 and the inner wall
25 is provided with a plurality of integral longitudinally
24 to form an arcuate path therebetween. The barrier 58
inwardly extending bosses 34 and 35, respectively, in a
directs the ?owing air through the outlet 15 of the inter
cooler 14 and; accordingly, the barrier 58 has one end
It will be noted that the upper tube sheet 21 extends 50 aligned with the neck portion 52 of the outlet 15 and
manner as well known in the art.
radially outwardly beyond the tubes 20 adjacent the upper
end of shell 23 with the lower surface thereof engaging
the side of a radially outwardly extending annular ?ange
thereafter extends arcuately inwardly across the‘ opening
51 to form a smooth transition wall. In order to obtain
as long an air ?ow path as possible within the jacket 25
an opening 102 is provided in the inner wall 24 of the
ner as the ?ange 27 previously described. An upper dish 55 jacket 25 which has one of its sides formed by the junc
shaped head 42 is secured adjacent its outer edges to the
tion of the barrier 58 and the inner wall 24 and its other
41 which may be secured to the shell 23 in the same man
?ange 41 in any suitable manner such as by a plurality of
arcuately spaced bolts 43 which also extend through the
side spaced circumferentially therefrom away from the
outlet 15. The opening 102 extends substantially longi
outer portion of the upper tube sheet 21 and threadedly
tudinally of the jacket 25 between the two sides thereof.
engage the ?ange 41 adjacent its outer edge. The upper 60 If desired each intercooler 14 may be provided with suit
head 42 encloses the upper tube sheet 21 and is pro
able supported inwardly extending vba?les 103 to cause
vided with a suitable water outlet 44 in any suitable
the air to follow a circuitous path therethrough. It will
manner as is well known in the art. Thus it will be noted
be noted that the opening 102 and the opening between
that the cooling water of the intercooler 14 will enter
the walls of the jacket 25 are of a substantially smaller
the intercooler through the inlet 31, pass through the
cross section than the cross section of the air ?ow path
inner portion of the head 29, ?ow through the tubes 20
in the intercooler 14 so that the velocity of the air pass
to the upper head 42 and outwardly through the water
ing therethrough is higher than the velocity of the air
outlet 44. Such a water path through the intercooler 14
?owing through the intercooler 14. With the structure
is one of various well known manners for circulating such
as heretofore described it will be noted the air leaving a
water and does not constitute a part of my invention. It 70 low pressure cylinder will flow through an outlet 12,
will be obvious that the various identi?ed components
through the inlet 13 of the intercooler 14, into the shell
forming the water path must be watertight with relation
101, then through the path de?ned by the ba?les 103
to each other to prevent water leakage therebetween; ac
within the shell 23, through the opening 102 into the cir
cordingly such parts are formed in a manner as is well
cular exit path formed by the jacket 25 to an outlet 15,
known in the art to be watertight.
75 and through the inlet 18 of a high pressure cylinder.‘
3,031,131
As can readily be appreciated air normally has a cer
the initial compression of the air and during the period
the initially compressed air ?ows through the intercooler.
By providing the jacket 25 with a restricted elongated cir
cular exit path a large amount of the moisture in the air
?owing therethrough can be removed. One particular.
prevent any accumulation of water in a pocket formed
by the lower side and outer side wall of the jacket 25.
Inasmuch as the lower head 32 is also annularly inclined
upwardly with reference to the horizontal plane, water
accumulating therein will by gravitational force drain to
the lowermost portion thereof. In order to permit re
moval of such water the lowermost portion of the lower
desirable manner of removing moisture and other sus
head 32 is provided with a suitable valve means such as
tain amount'of moisture which is retained therein during
pended matter from the air has been to provide the inner
a ?oat operated or a hand operated drain valve 78 as is
surfaces of the outer wall of the jacket 25 with a plural 10 well known in the art. Thus by opening valve 78 the
ity of arcuately spaced inwardly extending projections 62
which extend longitudinally thereof between the ends
water may be drained from the lower head 32 at any
desired time.
thereof so as to be generally parallel to each other. With
Thus, it will be noted that I have provided a unique
such a structure the air passing through the jacket 25
intercooler structure in which the exit path for the air is
will impinge upon the upstream edges of the projections 15 formed to obtain the maximum separation of moisture
62 so that moisture Will be separated from the air and
or other suspended matter in the air from the air. In
?ow downwardly along the upstream sides of the projec
addition by inclining the intercooler a particularly com
tions 62 toward the bottom side of the jacket 25. Inas
pact arrangement of air compressor is obtained which is
much as such impingement of the air upon the projec
also ideally suited for collecting the separated water.
tions 62 will cause a certain turbulence of air ?ow not all 20 Further although an intercooler has been shown and
moisture or other suspended matter in the air will be re
described, it is to be realized that my structure is suited
moved .by means of a single projection 62. Accordingly,
for various devices for obtaining separation of Water or
a plurality of such projections 62 have been provided
other suspended matter from a gaseous ?uid such as an
which may, if desired, extend along the entire exit path of
aftercooler.
the air ?ow through the jacket 25. It has been found 25
Having described a preferred embodiment of my inven
desirable, however, to omit projections 62 for an inter
tion in accordance with the patent statutes, it is to be
mediate portion of the exit path so as to substantially
realized that modi?cations thereof may be made without
reduce the turbulence of the air ?owing therethrough and
departing from the broad spirit of my invention. Accord
thereafter to provide another plurality of projections 62
ingly, it is respectfully requested that my invention be
for obtaining further removal of the moisture or other 30 interpreted as broadly as possible and as limited only by
suspended matter entrained in the air ?owing through the
the prior art.
jacket 25. It will further be noted that the bosses 34 and
I claim as my invention:
35 as heretofore described are located in a manner so as
1. A ?uid compressor comprising, a housing having
to additionally obtain separation of moisture or other sus
a pair of approximately horizontally opposed high pres
pended matter in the air ?owing through the jacket 25 in 35 sure cylinders extending therefrom, spaced low pressure
substantially the same manner as the projections 62.
It has further been found advantageous when employ
ing the jacket 25 structure as heretofore described to con
nect the intercoolers 14 to their respective high and low
pressure cylinders so that they extend angularly down
wardly therebetween in order to obtain good drainage of
the water and other foreign matter which accumulates in
the jacket 25. Thus, although the outlet 12 on a low
pressure cylinder and the inlet 18 of the high pressure
cylinder cooperable therewith may be located at various
positions around the outer periphery thereof they are pref
erably constructed so that the outlet 12 and the inlet 18
extend outwardly in the same direction from the low and
high pressure cylinders, respectively, with the mounting
cylinders extending outwardly from said housing adjacent
said high pressure cylinders, respectively, said low pres
sure cylinders having at least portions thereof located
above portions of said high pressure cylinders, respec
tively, elongated intercoolers secured to said portions of
said low pressure cylinders and said high pressure cylin
ders respectively, so as to extend therebetween, for com
munication directly with said respective high and low
pressure cylinders, and said intercoolers being disposed
at acute angles thereby presenting axes that make acute
angles with relation to a line joining axes of said high
pressure cylinders where each of said acute angles are
disposed facing said low pressure cylinders.
2. A ?uid compressor comprising, a housing having a
?anges thereon being located in substantially the same
vertical plane. Similarly the inlet 13 and the outlet 15
high pressure cylinder extending horizontally therefrom,
on an intercooler 14 extend outwardly from the inter
housing adjacent said high pressure cylinder, said low
a low pressure cylinder extending outwardly from said
cooler in the same direction with the mounting ?anges
pressure cylinder having at least a portion thereof located
therefor being located in the same plane. By such con
above a portion of said high pressure cylinder, an elon
struction the intercoolers 14 may be located closely adja 55 gated intercooler secured to said portions of said low pres
cent the high and low pressure cylinders so as to form a
sure cylinder and said high pressure cylinder to extend
compact compressor construction. In addition as the
therebetween for communicating directly with said respec
motor 100 is located to one side of the housing 1 it is
tive high and low pressure cylinders, and the axis of said
desirable that the intercoolers 14 be located on the same
side of the housing 1 so as not to increase the total space
requirements in depth for the compressor.
intercooler extending in acute angular relationship to the
horizontal axis of said high pressure cylinder with said
acute angle facing said low pressure cylinder.
3. A multi-stage compressor comprising a base having
a main crank shaft rotatably mounted thereon, a pair of
?rst stage cylinders mounted on said base, the axes of said
In FIGURE 4 the angle X illustrates the angle that an
intercooler 14 makes with the horizontal plane of the air
compressor when secured to the high and low pressure
cylinders as described. It will be noted that the lower 65 cylinders diverging upwardly and outwardly from said
side of the jacket 25 extends angularly upwardly from the
base, a pair of second stage cylinders mounted on said
horizontal plane at an angle Y so that all water accumulat
base having coincident axes, said second stage cylinder
ing therein will ?ow by means of gravitational force to
axes and said axis of said main crank shaft de?ning a
and collect in a lower area thereof. In order to obtain
?rst plane, said ?rst stage cylinders and said second stage
removal of the water from the jacket 25 an opening 77, 70 cylinders having intake and discharge openings respec
as more clearly shown in FIGURE 5, is provided in the
tively, a line bisecting the angle made by said axes of said
lowermost portion of the lower side of jacket 25 to con
?rst stage cylinders lying normal to said ?rst plane, a pair
nect the jacket 25 to the space between the lower head 32
of spaced intercoolers having intake and discharge open
and the inwardly located end head 29. If desired, open
ings at opposite ends respectively, said intercooler intake
ing 77 may extend to the outer wall of the jacket 25 to 75 openings communicating directly with said discharge open~
3,031,131
i
7
'
ings of said ?rst stage compressorsrespectively, the axes
of said intercoolers diverging downwardly and outwardly,
said intercooler discharge openings communicating di
rectly With said intake openings of said second stage com
pressors respectively.
5
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,180,786
2,015,490
Munzinger ___________ __ Apr. 25, 1916
McAllister ___________ __ Sept. 24, 1935 10
2,281,168
2,312,335
2,574,814
2,576,876
2,753,954
2,765,976
8
Paget ________________ __ Apr. 28, 1942
Halleck _______________ __ Mar. 2,
Carpenter ____________ __ Nov. 13,
Gamble _____________ __ Nov. 27,
Tinker _______________ __ July 10,
Stewart _______________ __ Oct. 9,
1943
1951
1951
1956
1956
FOREIGN PATENTS
368,600
591,854
Great Britain _________ __ Mar. 10, 1932
France ______________ __ July 20, 1925
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