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Патент USA US3031138

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April 24, 1962
A. A. RUBBRA
I
3,031,128
GAS-TURBINE ENGINE WITH CONTROLLABLE AIR TAPPING MEANS
Filed NOV. 18, 1957
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April 24, 1962
A. A. RUBBRA
3,031,128
GAS-TURBINE ENGINE WITH CONTROLLABLE AIR TAPPING MEANS
Filed Nov. 18, 1957
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nited States
Patented Apr. 24, 1962
1
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3,031,128
engine. For instance, in the engine illustrated, the air
is delivered through ports 21 to cool bearing 15b, through
ports 22 to cool bearing 17 and through ports 23 into
GAS-TURBINE ENGINE WITH CONTROLLABLE
AIR TAPPING MEANS
Arthur Alexander Rubbra, Derby, England, assignor to
Rolls-Royce Limited, Derby, England, a British com
ducts 24 in the turbine rotor 12a to cool its disc and
blades.
, This invention provides valve means 25 by which the
Pally
flow of tapped air can be controlled, for instance to pre
vent or to reduce substantially tapping of air at low
Filed Nov. 18, 1957, Ser. No. 697,069
Claims priority, application Great Britain Nov. 23, 1956
10 Claims. (Cl. 230-116)
engine rotational speeds.
10
This invention comprises improvements in or relating
to gas-turbine engines.
It is known, for instance from British patent speci?ca
tion No. 622,181 (Rolls-Royce Limited), to tap 01f air
Referring now to FIGURES 2 to 4, there is shown
three forms of such valve means 25 and in each case the
valve means 25 comprises a piston valve 26 slidable with
in the shaft 14 to cover and uncover the ports 20, and
operating means for the piston valve 26.
from the compressor of a gas-turbine engine and to de 15
In FIGURE 2, the piston valve 26 is operated by being
liver the air into a hollow shaft of the engine to be con
connected to the armature 27 of a solenoid 28, which is
veyed through the shaft to the point or points of utilisa
energised through slip rings 29 and brushes 30 from ‘a
tion of the air for cooling or sealing purposes. In the
suitable source of current. When the solenoid is deener
speci?cation above referred to, the air is tapped off
gised, the piston valve 26 is held by a spring 31 against
through the compressor rotor structure into the main
an internal shoulder 30 on the shaft to be clear of the
compressor shaft. A gas-turbine engine having air tap
ports 20, but, when the solenoid is energised, the piston
ping means as above set forth will be referred to as “a
valve 26 is moved to the right as seen in the drawing into
a position in which the valve 26 covers the ports 20.
The supply of electricity to the solenoid may be controlled
gas-turbine engine as speci?ed.”
According to the present invention, a gas-turbine en
gine as speci?ed comprises valve means rotating with the 25 manually (FIGURE 2a) as by manual switch 50, or auto
matically as by a speed-responsive means 51 operating
hollow shaft for controlling the ?ow of cooling air from
the compressor. The valve means in one form of the
switch 52 (FIGURE 2b) or by means (FIGURE 20) to
decrease the energisingcurrent gradually as the rotational
invention is accommodated within the hollow shaft.
The valve means may be automatically controlled in
speed increases so that the ports are fully uncovered at
accordance with engine rotational speed to prevent or
rotational speeds above a selected value. ‘In FIGURE 2c
reduce to a substantial extent the ?ow of air in a range of
lower rotational speeds, the valve means being fully
opened when the rotational speed rises out of this range.
The valve means may be controlled either mechanically,
as by a ?y-bob mechanism within the shaft, or electri
cally, as by a solenoid supplied with energising current
from externally of the shaft, or hydraulically, as by a
speed~responsive means 53 operates the wiper arm 54 of
a rheostat 55 to increase the e?ective resistance of the
rheostat as the rotational speed increases.
In FIGURE 3, the piston valve 26 is controlled by a
mechanical speed-responsive device housed in the shaft
14. The piston valve 26 is connected through links to
?y-bobs 32 which, as the rotational speed of the shaft '14
increases, move outwards to draw the piston valve 26 to
ram supplied with operating pressure ?uid from external
the left against the action of spring 313 and thereby to
ly of the shaft. The valve means may be controlled
either to be closed gradually as the speed falls into said 40 uncover the ports.
In FIGURE 4, the piston valve 26 is moved hydrauli
range of rotational speeds, or to be closed at a particular
cally by being connected to a ram piston 34 working in
value of the rotational speed. Alternatively closure of
, a ram cylinder 35 mounted coaxially within the shaft 14.
the valve means may be controlled manually.
Some embodiments of this invention will now be de 45 The ram cylinder 35 is supplied at one end with pressure
?uid to tend to urge the piston 34, and then the piston
scribed with reference to the accompanying drawings, in
valve 26, to the right into a position in which the ‘piston
which
valve 26 covers the ports 20 and the ram piston 34 is
FIGURE 1 is a diagrammatic axial section through a
loaded by a spring 36 in the opposite sense. The pressure
gas-turbine engine,
FIGURES 2, 3 and 4 illustrate different forms of con 50 ?uid supply is taken from a pump 37 to a manifold 39
encircling the shaft and a conduit 40 leads within the
trol for air tapping means, and
shaft from the manifold 39 to the ram cylinder 35. A
FIGURES 2a, 2b, 2c illustrate forms of control for the
control valve 38 is provided in a by-pass around the pump.
form of the invention illustrated in FIGURE 2.
The pressure ?uid supply valve 38 may be controlled
Referring to FIGURE 1, the engine comprises an
axial-?ow compressor 10', combustion equipment 11 which 55 manually or automatically.
In the construction of FIGUGRE 4, the skirt of the
receives compressed air from the compressor 10 and has
piston valve 26 has cut-aways 41 at angularly spaced
fuel delivered into it to be burnt with the air, a turbine
points so that some of the ports 20, for instance alternate
12 receiving the gaseous products of combustion from
ports, are covered before the remainder. A similar ar
the combustion equipment, and an exhaust assembly 13
through which exhaust gases ?ow on leaving the tur 60 rangement may be used with the construction of FIG
URES 2 and 3.
bine 12.
I claim:
The compressor rotor 10a is mounted on a hollow
1. In a gas-turbine engine, a compressor and a turbine
shaft 14 mounted in bearings 15a, 15b and the turbine
in series ?ow arrangement, and shafting drivingly con
rotor 12a is mounted on a hollow shaft 16 which is sup
ported in a bearing 17 and is coupled at 18 to the shaft 14 65 necting the turbine and compressor; tapping means draw
ing air from said compressor, a ?ow path communicating
so that the turbine rotor 12:: drives the compressor
rotor 10a.
with said tapping means and comprising a passage ex
tending in said shafting and porting in the Wall of the
Air is tapped off from an intermediate stage of the
shafting in series ?ow arrangement, and means control
compressor 10 through duct structure 19 forming part of
the compressor rotor 10a to be delivered through ports 70 ling the ?ovv of air in said flow path from the tapping
means comprising a valve member disposed within the
20 into the compressor shaft 14, and this air is delivered
passage of the shafting to co-operate with the porting and
through the shafts 14, 16 to cool various parts of the
3,031,128
3
movable progressively within the passage between a ?rst
position in which the porting is at least partly closed and
a second position in which the porting is open whereby the
_?ow to the internal passages is progressively varied, and
in series ?ow arrangement, and shafting drivingly con
necting the turbine and compressor; tapping means draw
ing air from said compressor, a ?ow path communicating
control means connected to be responsive to the rota
with said tapping means and comprising a passage extend
tional speed of the shafting and connected to operate said
ing in said shafting and porting in the wall of the shafting
9. In a gas-turbine engine, a compressor, and a turbine
valve member, said control means being operative to move
the valve member from said ?rst position to the second
in series flow arrangement, and means controlling the
?ow of air in said How path from the tapping means com
position when the rotational speed of the shafting in
prising a valve member disposed Within the passage of the
creases from a low speed range.
10 shafting to cooperate with the porting and movable pro
2. A gas turbine engine according to claim 1, wherein
gressively within the passage between a ?rst position in
the valve member comprises a piston valve slidably ac
which the porting is at least partly closed and a second
commodated within the shafting to slide between the ?rst
position in which the porting is covered and the second
position in which the porting is uncovered.
3. A gas turbine engine according to claim 2, wherein
the porting comprises a ring of angularly-spaced ports
and the piston valve has angularly-spaced cut-aways to
cooperate with a number of the ports as the valve moves
towards the ?rst position.
4. A gas turbine engine according to claim 2, compris
ing rotational speed responsive means mounted within
position in which the porting is open whereby the flow to
the shafting passage is progressively varied, and control
means comprising a ram cylinder mounted coaxially with
in the shafting, a ram piston slidable in the cylinder and
connected to the piston valve to move it between said posi
tions, controllable ?uid-pressure supply means disposed
externally of the shafting and connected to the cylinder at
one end, spring means urging the ram piston towards said
'end of the cylinder and speed-responsive means responsive
to the rotational speed of the shafting and connected to
the shafting and connected to the piston valve to move it
control said ?uid pressure supply means in the sense to
from the second position towards the ?rst position on in
cause movement of the valve member from said ?rst posi
crease of the rotatable speed of the shafting.
25 tion to said second position when the rotational speed of
5. A gas turbine engine according to claim 2, compris
the shafting increases from a low speed range.
ing a ?y-bob mechanism mounted within the shafting co
10. A gas turbine engine according to claim 9, the port
axially therewith, said ?y-bob mechanism being connected
to the piston valve to move it from the second position
towards the ?rst position on increase of the rotational
speed of the shafting, and spring means urging the pis
ing comprising a ring of angularly-spaced ports and the
said valve member being a piston valve slidable within the
shafting, the piston valve member having angularly spaced
out aways to cooperate with a number of the said ports as
the valve member moves towards the ?rst position.
ton valve from the second position towards the ?rst posi
tion.
6‘. A gas turbine engine according to claim 2, compris
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
ing a solenoid device mounted coaxially within the shaft 35
UNITED STATES PATENTS
ing and connected to the piston valve to move it between
said positions, and means externally of the shafting sup
2,485,514
Sturrock ____________ __ Oct. 18, 1949
plying energising current to the solenoid device.
2,588,140
McFarland et al. ______ __ Mar. 4, 1952
7. A gas turbine engine according to claim 2, said con
2,592,938
McNaught ___________ __ Apr. 15, 1952
trol means comprising a ram cylinder mounted co-aXially
within the shafting, a ram piston slidable in the cylinder
and connected to the piston valve to move it between said
positions, controllable ?uid-pressure supply means dis
posed externally of the shafting and connected to the cyl
inder at one end and spring means urging the ram piston 45
towards said send of the cylinder.
8. A gas turbine engine according to claim 1, compris
ing speed-responsive means responsive to the rotational
speed of the ‘shafting and connected to operate said valve
member in the sense of uncovering the porting on increase
of rotational speed and of covering the porting on de
crease of rotational speed.
2,599,470
2,618,453
2,636,665
2,656,096
2,660,421
2,749,087
2,830,751
Meyer _______________ __ June 3,
Loos et al ____________ __ Nov. 18,
Lombard ____________ __ Apr. 28,
Schwarz _____________ __ Oct. 20,
Sorensen ____________ _._ Nov. 24,
Blackman et a]. _______ __ June 5,
Quinn et a1 ___________ _- Apr. 15,
1952
1952
1953
1953
1953
1956
1958
FOREIGN PATENTS
24,453
736,503
2,852,917
France _____________ __ Mar. 28, 1922
Great Britain ________ __ Sept. 7, 1955
France _____________ __ Sept. 23, 1958
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