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Патент USA US3031154

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April 24, 1962
KENICHI SUGA
METHOD OF UTILIZING COMBUSTION HEAT OF
THE COAL 0F LOW QUALITY
Filed Nov. 25, 1958
3,031,144
$1
3&3 l , l 44
Patented Apr. 24,-, l9t'i2
l
2
3,031,144
carbonization of the coal or" low quality can be obtained
when the temperature of the heat carrier is about 500°
C.—700° C.
0F THE (MEAL CF HEW QUALITY
Kenichi duga, Minato-lru, Tokyo-to, Japan, assignor oi?
Maintenance of the heat carrier at its most appropriate
forty percent to Nippon Shinnetsu Kogyo Kahns
5 temperature for maintaining both the coal containers at
ltaisha, Tokyo-to, Japan, a joint~stocir company of
their active temperatures can be effectuated by calculat
iapan
Filed Nov. 25, 1953, Ser. No. ‘776,312
Claims priority, application Japan Dec. 23, 1957
5 Claims. (Cl. 237--1l$)
This invention relates to‘ a method of utilizing corn
bustion heat of the coal of low quality.
Heretofore, such coal of low quality as bone coal,
lignite or brown coal can be technically and industrially
roasted so far as the heat energy of said coal is about
3000 calories or more. However, in practice, combus
tion of the coal of which heat energy is less than about
3000 calories is very di?icult from both the technical
and industrial points of view. That is to say, it is very
ing the caloric energy of the coal to be burnt and that of
the coal to be carbonized, and by charging said coal in
the amounts calculated by said calculation to balance the
temperatures of said containers.
According to the above-mentioned method, the follow
ing various advantages are obtained.
(1) Combustion and carbonization of a coal of very
low quality can be effectively attained within a predeter
15 mined period of time without accompaniment of non
uniform combustion. Moreover, the coke obtained by
the carbonization in one container is very excellent and
can be used for the production of an excellent coallite.
(2) The conventional low temperature carbonization
difficult to bring the coal of said low quality to ignition 20 of a coal of low quality necessitates a large amount of
temperature and a large amount of fuel is necessary.
fuel; for example, fuel of about 200-300 kg. is neces
Consequently, such kind of coal as described above has
sary for obtaining one ton of the semiburnt coke from
not been utilized in practice although said coal is abund
the coal of a heat energy of about 6000 calories. How
ant natural resource.
,
ever, according to this invention, such fuel is not neces
It is, therefore, the principal object of this invention 25 sary, because the heat energy produced by the natural
to provide an improved method of utilizing combustion
combustion of the coal of low quality is automatically
heat of the coal of low quality, which does not accom
pany with the above-mentioned dif?culties and can afford
various additional advantages.
Another object of this invention is to provide an ap
transmitted to the coal to be carbonized through the
heat carrier, whereby fuel charging and a measure of
suppressing any over-temperature rise in the combustion
zone are made unnecessary, and the combustion di?iculty
paratus suitable for embodying said method.
‘Said objects and other objects of this invention have
been attained by eilecting the heat exchange between a
is eliminated resulting in the industrial and economical
combustion of the coal of very low quality.
(3) The heat energy produced by this invention can
heating zone and a cooling zone by use of a fused heat
be, besides the carbonization of a coal, utilized for heat
carrier consisting of a material such as inorganic salt, 35 ing any material in solid, liquid or gaseous state by
glassy material, nonferrous metallic material, and their
maintaining the heat carrier at a temperature above the
mixture.
ignition point of the coal, for instance, it can be utilized
in embodying this invention, two containers, one being
to subject charcoal, sulfuric ores, mercurous ores, calcium
used for coal combustion and another being used for
carbonate and the like to a dry distillation, to carry out
utilization of the heat energy, are arranged in a heating 40 re?ning distillation and decomposition of any ore, or
chamber and each of said containers is maintained at a
to‘ carry out heat decomposition of methane gas, carbon
temperature necessary for respective purpose by a heat
carrier which is packed in said heating chamber surround
monoxide, petroleum gas, petroleum, heavy oil, natural
oil and the like.
ing said containers.
(4) The method of ‘this invention can also be applied
According to the method described above, the coal, 45 to the production of table salt from sea water. In this
even if it is very low quality, can be easily brought to
its ignition temperature resulting in eifective combustion
thereof.
Moreover, even when over-combustion occurs,
case, the distilled steam can be utilized for the genera
tion of electric power, or can be used for the decomposi
tion of sodium vbicarbonate to obtain carbonic acid gas
the combustion Zone is favourably cooled by the heat
and soda ash. Furthermore, the method of this inven~
carrier and the heat energy produced by over-combustion 50 tion can be utilized to subject caustic soda to dehydra
can be effectively stored in the heat carrier.
tion. As the heat carrier to be used in this invention,
This invention will be described more fully in con
any organic salt such ‘as sodium chloride, calcium chlo
nection with the case, in which the container which is
ride, barium chloride, barium ?uoride, sodium carbonate,
used for the utilization of the heat energy produced is
barium carbonate and the like or caustic soda, caustic
also used for the carbonization of coal of low quality 55 potash, glass and the like, or mixtures of at least two
and an inorganic salt is used as the heat carrier.
of said substances may be used.
That is to say, two containers each containing coal
Nonferrous metals, such as zinc, lead, tin, aluminium
of low quality are arranged in a heating chamber con
alloy and the like or their mixtures may also be used as
taining an inorganic salt, one of said containers being
the heat carrier in this invention. Moreover, a suitable
used for the combustion and the other being used for 60 mixture of the inorganic salt, nonferrous metal and glassy
the carbonization. In this apparatus, when the coal in
material may be used as said heat carrier.
the combustion container is ignited by a burner while
The number of the combustion container and heat uti
feeding air or hydrogen of a suitable amount into said
lizing container may be odd or even and any arrange
container, said coal burns. The thus produced combus
ment of both kinds of containers may be freely selected,
tion heat energy is absorbed by the inorganic heat car 65 for instance, they may be intermittently or continuously
arranged in a heating chamber.
rier, thereby the temperature of said carrier rises. Thus,
the heat energy absorbed in the heat carrier is transmitted
As described above, according to this invention, the coal
to the coal in the other container, thereby said coal is
of very low quality of heat energy less than about 3000
subjected to carbonization resulting in production of
calories can be industrially utilized for the production of
methane and water gas which can be led out of said 70 heat energy to be utilized for any chemical reaction, con
container into separate accumulators. The most ap
propriate temperatures necessary for the ignition and
version, decomposition and the like by maintaining the
heat carrier at a temperature between 400° C. and 700°
3,031,144
3
I
it
C. which is necessary for maintaining the combustion con
tainer and heat utilizing container at their active tempera
used. In the heating chamber 1 is put a mixture 4 of alu'
minum of 70% and copper of 30% by weight and then
tures.
powdered coal of low quality (of about 1200 calories) is
continuously charged into the rotary kiln 2 from its end
The above and other novel features of this invention
will be more fully understood by reference to the following
examples taken in conjunction with the drawing in which
the same or similar members are indicated by the same
numbers and references, and in which;
‘FIG. 1 is a sectional elevation of an apparatus for em
bodying this invention.
opening 2a by means of a hopper 5, and air is blown into
said kiln in the same manner as in Example 1. When the
powdered coal in the rotary kiln is ignited, said coal con
tinues its combustion. The heat produced by said com
bustion is transmitted to the metal mixture 4 surrounding
The metal mixture is fused at a temperature of
about 550° C. and then the temperature of the fused mix
ture rises gradually. Upon the temperature rise of the
metal mixture to about 600° C., water is charged into the
10 said kiln.
FIG. 2 is a sectional View along the line 11-11 in
FIG. 1.
PEG. 3 is a sectional elevation of another apparatus for
embodying this invention.
Example 1
In FIGS. 1 and 2 is shown an example of the apparatus
for embodying the method of this invention, in which a
rotary kiln 2 made of a metal cylinder and a spiral-shaped
or wave-shaped pipe 3 are arranged in a heating chamber
1, respectively, at its lower and upper portions, the diam
eter and length of said kiln being, respectively, 42.4 cm.
and 363.6 cm. and the diameter and total length of said
pipe being, respectively, 7.5 cm. and 2000 cm. The rotary
kiln 2 and pipe 3 are, respectively, used as the combustion
container and heat utilizing container, and the rotary kiln
pipe 3 from its opening 3a. Then, the charged water
passes through said pipe 3 while being heated and then is
discharged out of another opening 3b in the state of
heated steam. The temperature of the thus discharged
steam is about 170° C. when the temperature of the fused
metal mixture is about 600° C.
This heated steam can
be utilized for the manufacture of pulp to be used for
paper production. In this example, granularity and water
content of the coal particles are, respectively, selected at
about 5-10 mesh and about 12%, and combustion time
and combustion amount are, respectively selected at about
25 18 minutes and 150 kg. per hour.
2 is provided with longitudinal stirring plates 8 attached
therein. The rotary kiln 2 is rotatably supported by bear
Exampie 3
dered coal of low quality (of about 1500 calories) is con
tinuously charged into the rotary kiln 2 at its end opening
pipe 6’ is driven by a motor 15 through a chair belt 18
In this example, the apparatus as shown in FIG. 3 is
ings 11 and driven by a motor 15 through a chain belt 18
used, which is almost equal to that in FIG. 1 except that
which is hung on a chain wheel 16 attached to the kiln 2 30 in this example, the combustion container consists of a
and a chain wheel 17 attached to the shaft of the motor 15.
stationary kiln 2 instead of the rotary kiln and the air blow
In the heating chamber 1 is put a mixture 4 of calcium
pipe 6’ is constructed as a screw conveyor having screw
chloride of 40%, barium chloride of 24%, sodium chlo
vanes 21 and air hole 22, said kiln being provided with a
ride of 16% and lithium chloride of 20% by weight so as
hopper 5 at the position near the right side end thereof
to surround said rotary kiln 2 and pipe 3 and then pow
and a chimney 10 at said end portion and said air blow
2a by means of a hopper 5, and air is blown into said kiln
through a pipe-shaped blower 6 extending into the kiln 2
which is hung on a chain wheel 16 attached to said pipe
6' and a chain wheel 17 attached to the shaft of said motor
15. In the heating chamber 1 is packed a mixture of soda
through another end opening 2b of said kiln, said blower 40 glass of 70%, potash glass of 20% and barium carbonate
being provided with many blow-holes 7. In the above
0f 10% by weight. Powdered coal of low quality (of
apparatus, when the coal in the rotary kiln is ignited by a
about 2500 calories) is continuously charged into the kiln
burner inserted through the end opening 2a, said coal con
2 by the hopper 5 and then transferred in the arrow direc
tinues its combustion. The smoke is discharged through
tion by means of the screw conveyer. On the other hand,
a chamber 9 and a chimney 10 and the ash is discharged
45 air is charged into said kiln through the pipe 6’ in the same
out of the end opening 2b, said chamber 9 being provided
manner as in Example 1. When the powdered coal in the
with a door 9a for the insertion of said burner. The heat
kiln 2 is ignited by a burner inserted through an opening
produced by said combustion is transmitted to the salt
2a of the end wall of the kiln 2, said coal continues its
mixture 4 through the wall of the rotary kiln 2, thereby
combustion. The heat energy produced is transmitted to
the salt mixture 4 is fused at a temperature of about 370°
the glass mixture. Thus, the glass mixture is fused at a
C. and then the temperature of the fused mixture rises
temperature of about 720° C. and then the temperature
gradually. The rotary kiln 2 is rotated after the mixture
thereof rises gradually. Upon the temperature rise of the
4 has been fused and then cooling water is circulated
glass mixture to about 770° C., preheated steam of about
through the water tanks 12 which are attached to the heat
120 atmospheric pressure is charged into the pipe 3 from
ing chamber 1 to form ring gaps 20 between said tank and 55 its opening 3a. Then, the charged steam passes through
kiln, said water being charged from pipes 13 and dis
said pipe 3 while being heated and then is discharged out
charged out of pipes 14, whereby the combustion of the
of another opening 3b in the super heated state of about
coal in the rotary kiln is uniform and the fused mixture
570° C. This heated steam can be utilized for driving
which over?ows into the gap 20 is solidi?ed and con
a steam turbine. In this example, granularity and water
tracted. The fused mixture in the gap 19 acts as packing 60 content of the coal particles are, respectively, selected at
ring and the solidi?ed mixture in the gap 20 acts as the
about 8~10 mesh and about 16%, and combustion time
bearing. Upon the temperature rise of the salt mixture to
and combustion amount are, respectively, selected at about
630° C., steam heated to 300° C. and maintained at about
18 minutes and 150 kg. per hour.
100 atmospheric pressure is charged into the pipe 3 from
its opening 3a. Then, the charged steam is discharged
out of another opening 31) after being heated to a tem
perature of about 530° C. This heated steam can be
While I have described particular embodiments of my
invention, it will, of course, be understood that I do not
wish my invention to be limited thereto, since many
modi?cations may be made and I, therefore, contemplate
utilized for driving a steam turbine. In this example,
by the appended claims to cover all such modi?cations
granularity and water content of the coal particles are,
as fall within the true spirit and scope of my invention.
respectively, selected at about 5-10 mesh and about 12%, 70
What is claimed is:
and combustion time and combustion amount of the coal
1. A method of utilizing the combustion heat of coal
are, respectively, selected at about 18 minutes and 150 kg.
of low quality, which comprises burning said coal in a
per hour.
combustion zone, directly surrounding said combustion
Example 2
In this example, the same apparatus as in Example 1 is
zone with a heat-exchange body in the form of a fused
solid consisting of a material selected from the group
3,031,144
5
6
consisting of inorganic salts, glassy materials, non-ferric
ing of inorganic salts, glassy materials, nonferrous metals
metals, and mixtures thereof, and passing a liquid to be
and mixtures thereof which is in direct contact with said
kiln means, tube means for receiving a liquid to be heated
and to absorb heat from said heat exchange body im
heated through said body in indirect heat-exchange rela
tionship therewith, said body being maintained at a
coal of low quality which comprises, in combination,
mersed in said heat-exchange body, said heat-exchange
body completely surrounding the portion of said kiln
means enclosed by said casing, said kiln means being pro
rotary kiln means de?ning a combustion zone, a casing
vided with stirring means in the form of a screw con
temperature of about 500 to 700° C.
2. An apparatus for utilizing the combustion heat of
directly surrounding at least the major portion of said
veyor, and said kiln means having ends extending beyond
rotary kiln means and containing a heat exchange body 10 said casing with one of said ends being provided with a
in the form of a fused solid consisting of a material
coal feed opening and the other of said ends being pro
vided with an ash discharge opening, said screw conveyor
selected from the group consisting of inorganic salts,
‘being effective for controllably conveying material into
glassy materials, nonferrous metals and mixtures there
said kiln means from said coal feed opening and to con—
of which is in direct contact with said rotary kiln means,
tube means for receiving a liquid to be heated and to 15 vey material from said kiln means to said ash discharge
absorb heat from said heat exchange body immersed
in said heat exchange body, said heat exchange body
completely surrounding the portion of said rotary kiln
means enclosed by said casing and said kiln means be
ing provided with stirring means including an air blow 20
pipe disposed therein, said blow pipe being provided with
opening.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,079,151
Smallwood ___________ __ Nov. 18, 1913
1,340,274
1,465,277
2,426,348
Kelly _______________ __ May 18, 1920
Mayes et al. _________ __ Aug. 21, 1923
Fulton et a1. _________ _._ Aug. 26, 1947
holes for feeding combustion air into said kiln, means
for controllably introducing coal to be burned at one end
of said kiln means, and means for removing coal ashes
2,528,037
from the other end of said kiln means.
25 2,582,134
3. An apparatus as de?ned in claim 2, wherein said
2,592,980
rotary kiln means has ends extending beyond said casing
2,717,580
and said ends are provided with exterior cooling means.
- 2,791,204
4. An apparatus as de?ned in claim 2, wherein said
tube means is in the form of a plurality of reversed 30
curves extending longitudinally of said rotary kiln means.
5. An apparatus for utilizing the combustion heat of
coal of low quality which comprises, in combination, kiln
means de?ning a combustion zone, a casing surrounding
Crise ________________ __ Oct. 31, 1950
Kimmell et al. ________ __ Jan. 8, 1952
Van Wert ____________ __ Apr. 15, 1952
Maher et al __________ __ Sept. 13, 1955
Andrus _______________ __ May 7, 1957
FOREIGN PATENTS
263,890
Germany ___________ __ Sept. 29, 1913
OTHER REFERENCES
“Fuels and Combustion Handbook” (Johnson and
at least the major portion of said kiln means and contain 35 Auth). Published by McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc. (New
ing a heat-exchange body in the form of a fused solid
York) 1951. (Pages 374, and 375 relied on. Copy in
consisting of a material selected from the group consist
Div. 19.)
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