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Патент USA US3031354

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April 24, 1962
J. PHILIPSON
3,031,347
SLOW BURNING SOLID COMPOSITE PROPELLANT
Filed Feb. 5, 1951
0.40
0.30
IBRNUAr/TISNE,G C
a
6
O 8
.0
9
.0 o m
CHAMBER PRESSURE, Pc, PSIA
INVEN TOR.
JOSEPH PHIL IPSO/V
Jim Qty“
AT TORNE
3,h3l,347
Patented Apr. 24, 1962
2
In accordance with my invention, I provide a solid pro
pellant material which can be made into a solid grain or
charge of conventional size and shape, without any unu
3,031,347‘
SLG‘W BURNING SOLEDCOMPOSITE
,
PROPELLANT
J0seph‘Philipson,Temple City, ,Calif., assignor, by mesne
assignments, to, Aerojet-General Corporation, Cincin
sual con?gurations, and possessed of good physicalcharr
asteristics of strength, consistency and the like.
I have accomplished my invention by the discovery of
particular qualities and characteristics of the components
of the propellant. One of the requirements which I have
5
nati, Ohio, a corporation of Ohio
Filed'Feb. 5, 1951, Ser. No. 209,507
12 Claims. (Cl. 149—48)
This invention relates to jet propulsion and. more par
ticularly to solid propellant materials useful in rocket or 10
discovered is that the fuel in the propellant should be one
which contains reduced oxygen atoms in the molecule;
and by the term “reduced oxygen,” I mean oxygen atoms
jet propulsion motors. . ‘
The principal‘ object of my. invention is to provide a
solid propellant charge capable of burning at an unusu—
included in the molecule whichare linked directly only
ally slow burning rate.
ponent having reduced oxygen in the molecule decreases
to a carbon or a hydrogen atom.
The use of a fuel com
A further object is to'produce such‘ a slow burning 15 the amount of oxidizer which would otherwise have to be
added to the ‘fuel to oxidize the carbon and hydrogen
propellant which burns" in a substantially smokeless man
atoms to the proper degree.
I181‘;
A second criterion is that the oxygen in the fuel must
A further related object is to produce such a slow burn
be the equivalent of at least one-?fth of the weight of
ing and smokeless propellant capable of developing a
the combined carbon and hydrogen in the fuel.
satisfactory speci?c impulse ‘ preferably above 200 lbs.
A third, and somewhat related requirement is that the
see/lb. when burned at 1000 psi.
oxygen in the propellant charge must be su?icient to burn
In the operation of certain types of rocket motors, a
all of the, carbon in the charge to CO and to convert at
solid propellant charge or grain is burned within the
least one-third of all the hydrogen in the propellant to
chamber to. generate alargevolume of gas under pressure.
The gas escapesin the form of a high velocity jet through 25 water. The amount of oxygen cannot be permitted to be
substantially less than this critical amount for if less oxy
theexhaust nozzle,.producing the reaction force.
gen than this be present there will result carbon in the
A solid propellant commonly comprises a fuel having
discharge which would produceundesirable smoke.
mixed with it the oxidizer required. for its combustion.
A fourth requirement of the propellant is that no oxid
Many solid propellant charges heretofore known burn at
a higher rate than isoften desired for long burning charges 30 izer should be used in it which forms any solid particles
duringcombustion, for such solid particles would form
such as are frequently required in motors for jetassisted
the undesirable smoke. This requirement excludes me
take-off or for sustainingh?ight. In some cases it might
tallic salts as oxidizers.
be possible to approximate the performance’ of such a
A ?fth requirement is that the oxidizers which are used
slow burning charge by use of previously knownpropel
lants; but this would normally require resort to some spe 35 must be limited to the group consisting of cellulose nitrate,
nitroguanidine, guanidine nitrate, ammonium nitrate, am
cial technique such as a substantial lowering of the speci?c
monium perchlorate, and mixtures of any of these; with
impulse of the propellant-or employing a‘complex grain
the added proviso that if ammonium perchlorate be used
con?guration. Disadvantages of employing such special
as the oxidizer, it cannot be allowed to exceed about 60%
techniques are that the resulting intricate structureof- the
grain or. charge oftenrequires an unduly greatincrease 40 by Weight of the propellant mixture. Thus, if ammonium
perchlorate be selected as the oxidizer, and if more than
in the weight of‘the chamber; furthermore, the grain so
the 60% oxidizer be desiredfor the propellant, the excess
produced is generally structurally weak.
must be made up by one or more of the-other of the ?ve
One factor by which the burning rate of the propellant
named oxidizers.
can be a?ected 'is'the coarseness .of the oxidizerparticles.
A sixth requirement is that the fuelcomponent of{ the
The coarser the’particle of oxidizer the slower will be the
propellant must amount to at least, 15% by weight of
burning rate. Increasing’ the coarseness of the oxidizer,
the ?nished propellant itself.
however, should not be allowed to interfere with the cast
The fuel component of the propellant should further
ability of a cast propellant; and the oxidizer cannot be
coarsened to the point where the oxidizer will settle out 50 more be a monomer which polymerizes by addition poly
merization, that is, polymerization without the formation
in the liquid mixture before polymerization has taken
place.
.
A slow burning propellant according to my invention
is de?ned as one havinga burning rate not exceeding 0.15
of an inch'per‘ second at. l000.p.s.i. chamber pressure.
Furthermore, when the log burning rate is plotted‘against
of any by-products such as water.
Examples of unsaturated monomers useful in the prac
tice of my invention are unsaturated polyesters, com
prising the condensation product of an. alcoholand an
- organic carboxylic acid, lower alkyl alkenoates such as
methyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, n-butyl acrylate,
diethylene glycol diacrylate, and butanediol-l,3-diacryl
the log chamber pressure-the slope n. of the curve, deter
mined by the equation
1'=C’Pcn.
_
(in. which;;r=the linearpburningrate. in inches/sec.
C=a constant
ate; lower alkenyl alkenoates such as diallyl maleate, and
diallyl fumarate; lower alkenyl alkanoates such as vinyl
60: acetate; lower alkenyl phthalates such as diallyl phthalate;
phenyl substituted alkenes such as styrene; as well asrother
Pc=the chamber pressure in p.s.i.)
shall beequal to or less’ than 0.5.
unsaturated compounds, such as diallyl diglycollate and
A typical curve for
a satisfactory propellant is shown in the graph.
According to-my invention, I-provide asmokelesspro
‘ pellant. charge. thatconformstothe above requirementsv
by compounding the‘ propellants with- fuels, which are
capable of supplying a portion of the oxygen required
for the oxidation ofthe carbon and hydrogen, atoms in
diethylene glycol bis-(allyl carbonate).
65.
The polyesters that may be used in the practice of this
invention are the condensation products obtained by re
acting a polyhydric alcohol, a saturated dicarboxylic acid
and anunsaturated dicarboxylic acid. These resinsihave
been described in detail in copending application of Joseph
the finished propellantcharge;.andasoxidizer, substances 70 Philipson, Serial No. 200,881, ?led December 14,1950,
that yield their. oxygen at arelatively slow rateandfur
thermore form no solid oxidation products.
now Patent No. 2,941,976,,issued June 21, 1960', and
assigned to’ the same assignee as the present application.
3,081,343?
4
01;
13
Some speci?c examples of large numbers of polyester
Among the oxidizers which meet these requirements are
resins that are suitable for this purpose are as follows:
nitrates, perchlorates of non-metallic basic materials, and
nitro compounds containing suf?cient oxygen, which form
A condensation product made by reacting 4 moles of
sebacic acid, one mole of maleic anhydride and 5 moles
of propylene glycol. This resin will hereafter be referred
no solid oxidation products on combustion.
Examples of this class of substances are cellulose nitrate,
guanidine nitrate, nitro guanidine, ammonium nitrate, and
amonium perchlorate. While ammonium perchlorate is
to as resin A.
A condensation product made by reacting 7 moles of
adipic acid, 3 moles of maleic anhydride and 11 moles of
diethylene glycol or ethylene glycol. This resin will here
after he referred to as resin B.
normally regarded as a fairly slow burning oxidizer for
most propellant compositions, its use in propellant com
10 positions heretofore compounded resulted in burning rates
faster than the maximum burning rate for slow burning
A condensation product formed by reacting 7 moles of
adipic acid, 3 moles of maleic anhydride and 12 moles of
diethylene glycol. This resin will be referred to hereafter
propellants according to the present invention, which by
de?nition is 0.15 in./sec. at 1000 p.s.i. chamber pressure.
But ammonium perchlorate may be used in limited quan
tities or it may be mixed with others of the above-listed
oxidizers to produce a propellant having the required slow
burning rate. To avoid high burning rates, the amount of
as resin C.
A condensation product formed by reacting 1 mole of
diethylene glycol, 0.9 mole of adipic acid and 0.1 mole
maleic anhydride.
This resin will be referred to hereafter
ammonium perchlorate to be used in any case should not
exceed a maximum of about 60% by weight based on the
as resin D.
A condensation product formed by reacting 1 mole poly
propylene glycol (425 molecular weight), 0.9 mole adipic
weight of the propellant. If additional oxidizer is then
required it should be one of the slower burning oxidizer
acid and 0.1 mole maleic anhydride. This resin will be
substances mentioned above such as ammonium nitrate,
guanidine nitrate or nitroguanidine.
referred to hereafter as resin E.
A condensation product formed by reacting 1 mole poly
propylene glycol (425 molecular weight), 0.8 mole adipic
acid and 0.2 mole maleic anhydride.
This resin will here
after he referred to as resin F.
The following formulations set forth examples of pro
25 pellant combinations which fall within the scope of this
invention and will burn at the desired rate:
A condensation product formed by reacting 1 mole poly
ethylene glycol (300 molecular weight), 0.9 mole adipic
acid, and 0.1 mole maleic anhydride.
Example 1
This resin Will here
Percent by Weight
after be designated as resin G.
A condensation product formed by reacting 1 mole poly
ethylene glycol (300 molecular weight), 0.8 mole adipic
Ammonium perchlorate
acid, and 0.2 mole maleic anhydride.
Ammonium nitrate ____ __
This resin will here
after be referred to as resin H.
A condensation product formed by reacting 8 moles of 35
adipic acid, 2 moles of maleic anhydride and 10.5 moles
of diethylene glycol. This resin will hereafter be referred
toas
Cellulose nitrate _____ __
Fuel:
Diethylene glycol bis-(allyl carbonate). _
Methyl acrylate ____________ __
Methyl methaerylate ______ __
This mixture had a burning rate of .115 in./sec. at
to as resin I.
1000 p.s.i.
A condensation product formed by reacting 8 moles of
adipic acid, 2 moles maleic anhydride and 12 moles of 40
diethylene glycol. This reaction will hereafter be referred
Example 2
to as resin J.
Percent by weight
A condensation product formed by reacting 10 moles of
diethylene glycol, 4.5 moles adipic acid, 4.5 moles of
azelaic acid and 1 mole maleic anhydride.
This resin will
hereafter be referred to as resin K.
Ammonium perchlorate ___________________________________ __
Cellulose nitrate_ _
40
9
Ammonium nitrate _______________________________________ _.
15
Fuel:
The condensation process by which the above polyesters
are formed is briefly as follows:
0
The ingredients com
Diethylene glycol bis-(allyl carbonate) ______ __
45
Methyl acrylate _____________________________ __
Methyl methacrylate _______________________ __
50
5
36
prising the saturated diearboxylic acid, the saturated diol
and the unsaturated dicarboxylic acid are mixed together 50
and heated to a temperature of approximately 140° C.
until the water formed by the reaction is substantially
This mixture had a burning rate of .115 in./sec. at
' 1000 p.s.i.
Example 3
driven off. This process is carried out in an atmosphere
of inert gas such as nitrogen, carbon dioxide, helium, etc.
When the water has been substantially removed the reac 55
tion product may then be subjected to higher temperatures
not exceeding 250° C. The preferred temperature range
for the ?nal stage of the condensation is between 200 and
230° C. The condensation is continued until the poly
ester has reached a desired degree of polymerization as 60
determined either by an acid number or by measuring the
viscosity of the polyester. The preferred degree of poly
Percent by weight
Ammonium perchlorate
HCA?GOD!
Ammonium nitrate _
Guanidine nitrate
Cellulose nitrate
Fuel:
Diethylene glycol bis-(allyl carbonate) ______ __
45 }
Methyl acrylate _______ __
Methyl methacrylate...
merization of the application described above is between
5 and 100. The resulting product is generally a viscous
This mixture had a burning rate of .127‘ in./sec. at
liquid which when cooled may be stored until it is ready 65 1000 p.s.i.
Example 4
to be copolymerized.
All of these resins are capable of copolymerizing with
a vinyl or diallyl type of compound such as methyl acry
Percent by weight
late, methyl methacrylate, styrene, vinyl acetate, diethyl
ene glycol-bis-(allyl carbonate), diallyl maleate, diallyl 70
fumarate, dialyl diglycollate.
The oxidizers contemplated by this invention should be
capable of burning without the formation of appreciable
solid particles, and they should be characterized by a rela
tively slow rate at which they give up their oxygen.
75
Ammonium perchlorate
50
Cellulose nitrate..-"
Nitro Qnanidine
Fuel:
7
15
Diethylene glycol bis-(allyl carbonate _______ __
45
50
Methyl methaerylate ________________________ -_
5
28
3,031,347
6
r-t
I
c
a _
organicperoxides or peresters such as tertiary butyl hy
Tins . mlxture ‘had: a; burning, rate of .15 . in./ sec. at
1000 p.s.i.~
droperoxide,
l - hydroxycyclohexyl
hydroperoxide - 1,
methyl ethyl ketone peroxide, benzoyl peroxide, cumene
hydroperoxide, lauryl peroxide, methyl amyl ketone per
' Example .-5
5 oxide, etc.
Examples of the organic peresters are t-butyl
perbenzoate, di-t-butyl. diperphthalate, etc. When a
catalyst is used it is generally employed in amounts rang
ing between 0.5 %. to 2.0% by weight based on the weight
Percent by weight
Ammonium'perchlorate ___________________________________ _Ammonium nitrate
,
__
Guanidine nitrate _________________________________________ __
Cellulose nitrate
50
5
5
___
Fuel:
of the substances to be polymerized.
8
Diethyleue glycol bis-(allyl'carbonate')
45
Methyl acrylate ______ __
50-
Methyl methacrylate...
5
The normal
10 amount usually employed is about 1% by weight.
Co
polymerization is continued until the sample taken from
the polymerized batch ‘shows the desired tensile strength.
32
The propellants according to my invention are capable
of developing-thrust for an extended period of time since
15 the rate at which the oxidizers give oif, their oxygen is
relatively slow. In addition'the incorporation with the
above type oxidizers of fuels with reduced oxygen in an
amount equal to or greater than one-?fth the Weight of
Percent by Weight
the carbon and the hydrogen atoms in the fuel, results in
This‘ mixture had a1burning rate of,.1>34 in./sec. at
1000 psi.
Example _ 6.
Ammonium perchlorate: __________________________________ __
Ammonium nitrate- _______ _., _____________________________ .
Cellulose nitrate
20 propellants which burn with a linear rate of not more
_than 0.15 in./ sec. Without the presence of reduced oxy
57
.
‘
l5
5.‘ 5
Fuel:
Diethylene glycol bis-(allyl carbonate). -.
gen in the resins the propellant charges containingv the
above oxidizers possibly would not burn at all, and if
45
Methyl aerylate ______ __
_
50 t
Methyl methaerylate__
_
5
22. 5
they did burn, solid carbon (smoke) would be present in
25 the exhaust gases.
My.inventionvhas made possible a series of propellant
This mixture had av burning. ratebf .125. in./sec. at
1000 p.s.i.
Example 71'
charges which are useful where a reasonable amount of
thrust is to be appliedv over an extended period of time,
such as, for example, in jet assisted take-0E, sustaining
30 rockets or aircraft devices.
Percent by weight
‘ Ammonium perchlorate‘
I claim:
1. A solid, slow burning, propellant composition con
5Q
Nitro mi'miriine
___
Fuel:
sistingof a, cured intimate mixture of a solid, non-metal
15
lic, inorganic oxidizing salt selected from the group con
‘
Resin 0 _____________________________________ ..
4O
Styrene _________ __
_.
10
Methylacrylate _____________________________ __
50
35
35
sisting of ammonium perchlorate, ammonium nitrate,
and‘mixtures thereof, in an amount of from about 72%
tov 45%-by weight of the total propellantw formulation;
Example 8
from about 5% to 22% by Weight of an oxygen rich ad
Percent by weight 40
ditive selected from the group, consisting of guanidine
nitrate,.nitro guanidine, cellulose nitrate, andmixtures
thereof; aud‘yfrom about 23% to, 36% by weight‘ of a
Ammonium perchlorate ___________________________________ __
Cellulose nitrate
_
Guanidine nitrate
__
50
5
5
Nitm gnanidine
________ __
5
consistingv of unsaturated polyester resins consisting of
35
45 the. condensation product of saturated polyhydroxy‘ al
cohol and polybasic carboxylic acid, a mixture of phenyl
Fuel:
Rosin G _____________________________________ -_
Styrene _________ __
40
i
Methylacrylate _____________________________ ._
Example 9
Ammonium perchlorate
_
Nitro gnanidine
__
Fuelz'
Resin A _______________ ._
n-Butyl acrylate ______ -.
10
50
substituted lower alkene and an unsaturated, polyester
resin consisting of the condensation product of saturated
polyhydrox-y alcohol and polybasic carboxylic acid, low
50 or alkyl esters of lower alkenoic acids, diethylene glycol
Percent by weight
bis-(allyl carbonate), lower alkenyl esters of lower al
kenoic acids, lower alkenyl esters of lower alkanoic acids,
lower alkenyl phthalates, diallyl diglycollate, and mix
50
15
tures thereof, provided that the amount‘ of ammonium
40 }
35 55 perchlorate present in said propellant composition shall
60
in no event exceed 60% by Weight of the total propellant
composition.
Example 10
0 Percent by weight
Ammonium perchlorate ___________________________________ ..
C'ellulosenitrate ‘
__
Guanidinenitrate. ______________________ _.
___-
Nine. Qnsmidine
Fuel:
Resinl‘A; _____________________________________ _.
n-Butyl acrylate ____________________________ ._
polymerized resin fuel comprising‘ the addition poly
merization product of monomer selected from the group
50
total propellant of'cellulose nitrate, 20% by weight based
5
on the Weight of‘ the total propellant of ammonium
nitrate, 32% by weightbased on the weight-of the total
propellant of a polymerized fuel comprising 45%- by
weight basedv on the weight of the total fuel of‘ cliethylene
glycol bis-(allyl‘carbonate), 50% by- Weight based on
the weight of the total; fuel of methyl acrylate, and 5%
by weight based on the weight of the total fuel of methyl
5
5
40 },_
2. A slow burning solid propellant composition com
prising a cured intimate mixture of about 40% by weight
60 based‘. on the weight of the total propellant of ammonium
perchlorate, 8% by weight based‘ on the Weight of the
35
60‘
The. manner in which .the above propellants are formed
is by copolymerizing,theingredients shown above. The
soluton is polymerized by the use of heat and/or poly
m'erization catalysts in~a~~manner that-‘is well known in
the art. The" temperatures; in‘ which- copolymcrization
takes place is' generally in‘the rangeubetween 20*? C. to
methacrylate. .
3. A slow burningsolidipropellant< composition com
prising a cured intimate mixture‘ of about‘35% by weight
based on the weight of'the total, propellant of ammonium
perchlorate, 10% by weight based onthe weight of. the
100° C..
The catalysts which are normally employed are the 75 total propellant of' guanidine nitrate; 10%‘ by Weight
3,031,347
based on the weight of the total propellant of ammonium
nitrate, 9% by weight based on the weight of the total
propellant of cellulose nitrate, and 36% by weight based
on the weight of the total propellant of a polymerized
fuel comprising 45% by weight based on the weight of
the total fuel of diethylene glycol bis-(allyl carbonate),
8
acid heteropolymerized with a mixture of phenyl sub
stituted lower alkene and lower alkyl ester of lower
alkenoic acid, provided that the ammonium perchlorate
present in said propellant composition shall in no event
exceed 60% by weight of the total propellant com
position.
9. A solid, slow burning, propellant composition con
50% by weight based on the weight of the total fuel of
sisting essentially of a cured intimate mixture of from
methyl acrylate and 5% by weight based on the weight
about 45% to 72%, by weight, of a solid non-metallic
of the total fuel of methyl methacrylate.
4. A slow burning solid propellant composition com 10 inorganic oxidizing salt selected from the group consist
ing of ammonium nitrate, ammonium perchlorate, and
prising a cured intimate mixture of about 50% by weight
mixtures thereof; from about 5% to 22%, by weight,
based on the weight of the total propellant of ammonium
of a mixture of cellulose nitrate, guanidine nitrate and
perchlorate, 7% by weight based on the weight of the
nitro guanidine; and from about 23% to 36%, by Weight,
total propellant of cellulose nitrate, 15% by weight based
on the weight of the total propellant of nitro guanidine, 15 of the total propellant composition of an unsaturated
polyester resin consisting of the condensation product
28% by weight of a polymerized fuel comprising 45%
of saturated polyhydric alcohol and polybasic carboxylic
by weight based on the weight of the total fuel of di
acid heteropolymerized with a mixture of phenyl sub
ethylene glycol bis-(allyl carbonate), 50% by weight
stituted lower alkene and lower alkyl ester of lower al
based on the weight of the total fuel of methyl acrylate,
and 5% by weight based on the weight of the total fuel 20 kenoic acid, provided that the ammonium perchlorate
present in said propellant composition shall in no event
of methyl methacrylate.
exceed 60% by weight of the total propellant com
5. A slow burning solid propellant composition com
position.
prising a cured intimate mixture of about 50% by weight
10. A solid, slow burning, propellant composition con
based on the weight of the total propellant of ammonium
perchlorate, 5% by weight based on the weight of the 25 sisting essentially of a cured intimate mixture of a solid
non-metallic inorganic oxidizing salt selected from the
total propellant of cellulose nitrate, 5% by weight based
group consisting of ammonium nitrate, ammonium per
on the weight of the total propellant of guanidine nitrate,
chlorate, and mixtures thereof in an amount of from
5% by weight based on the weight of the total propellant
about 72% to 45%, by weight; from about 5% to 22%,
of nitro guanidine, and 35% by weight based on the
weight of the total propellant of a polymerized fuel com 30 by weight of nitro guanidine; and from about 23% to
36%, by weight, of the total propellant composition of
prising 50% by weight based on the weight of the total
unsaturated polyester resin consisting of the condensa
fuel of methylacrylate, 10% by weight based on the
tion product of saturated polyhydric alcohol and poly
weight of the total fuel of styrene, and 40% by weight
basic carboxylic acid heteropolymerized with lower alkyl
based on the weight of the total fuel of a condensation
product obtained by reacting 7 moles of adipic acid, 3 35 ester of lower alkenoic acid, provided that the am
monium perchlorate present in said propellant composi
moles of maleic anhydride and 12 moles of diethylene
tion shall in no event exceed 60% by weight of the total
glycol.
.
propellant composition.
6. A solid, slow burning, propellant composition con
11. A solid, slow burning, propellant composition con
sisting essentially of a cured intimate mixture of from
about 45% to 72%, by weight, of solid non-metallic 40 sisting essentially of a cured intimate mixture of a solid
non-metallic inorganic oxidizing salt selected from the
inorganic oxidizing salt selected from the group consist
group consisting of ammonium nitrate, ammonium per
ing of ammonium nitrate, ammonium perchlorate, and
chlorate, and mixtures thereof in an amount of from
mixtures thereof; from about 5% to 22%, by weight, of
about 72% to 45%, by weight; fro mabout 5% to 22%,
a mixture of guanidine nitrate and cellulose nitrate; and
from about 23 % to 36% , by weight, of the total propellant 45 by weight, of a mixture of cellulose nitrate, guanidine
nitrate and nitro guanidine; and from about 23% to 36%,
composition of the addition polymerization product of
by weight, of the total propellant composition of un
a mixture of diethylene glycol bis-(allyl carbonate) and
saturated polyester resin consisting of the condensation
lower alkyl ester of lower alkenoic acid, provided that
the ammonium perchlorate present in said propellant
product of saturated polyhydric alcohol and polybasic
composition shall in no event exceed 60% by weight of 50 carboxylic acid heteropolymerized with lower alkyl ester
of lower alkenoic acid, provided that the ammonium
the total propellant composition.
perchlorate present in said propellant composition shall in
7. A solid, slow burning, propellant composition con
no event exceed 60% by weight of the total propellant
sisting essentially of a cured intimate mixture of from
composition.
about 45% to 72%, by weight of a solid non-metallic
12. A solid, slow burning, propellant composition con
inorganic oxidizing salt selected from the group consist
sisting essentially of a cured intimate mixture of from
ing of ammonium nitrate, ammonium perchlorate, and
about 45% to 72%, by weight, of solid non-metallic inor
mixtures thereof; from about 5% to 22%, by weight, of
ganic oxidizing salt selected from the group consisting of
a mixture of nitro guanidine and cellulose nitrate; and
ammonium nitrate, ammonium perchlorate, and mixtures
from about 23% to 36%, by weight, of the total propel~
lant composition of the addition polymerization product 60 thereof; from about 5% to 22%, by weight, of cellulose ni
trate; and from about 23% to 36%, by weight, of the total
of a mixture of diethylene glycol bis-(allyl carbonate)
propellant composition of the addition polymerization
and lower alkyl ester of lower alkenoic acid, provided
product of a mixture of diethylene glycol bis-(allyl car
that the ammonium perchlorate present in said propel
bonate) and lower alkyl ester of lower alkenoic acid,
lant composition shall in no event exceed 60% by weight
65 provided that the ammonium perchlorate present in said
of the total propellant composition.
propellant composition shall in no event exceed 60%
8. A solid, slow burning, propellant composition con
sisting essentially of a cured intimate mixture of from
about 45% to 72%, by weight, of a solid non-metallic
inoragnic ovidizing salt selected from the group consist
ing of ammonium nitrate, ammonium perchlorate, and 70
mixtures thereof; from about 5% to 22%, by weight, of
nitro guanidine; and from about 23% to 36%, by weight,
of the total propellant composition of an unsaturated
polyester resin consisting of the condensation product
of saturated polyhydric alcohol and polybasic carboxylic 75
by weight of the total propellant composition.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,155,499
2,165,263
2,187,866
Lawson ______________ __ Apr. 25, 1939
Holm ________________ __ July 11, 1939
Spurlin et a1 ___________ __ Jan. 23, 1940
(Other references on following page)
3,031,347
10
9
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,255,313
2,388,319
2,416,639
2,443,613
2,443,735
2,472,963
2,479,470
~ OTHER REFERENCES
Fuller _____' ___________ __ Nov. 6, 1945
McLarren: Rocket Engine Fuels, Automotive and
Aviation Industries, Aug. 15, 1946, pp. 20-23 incl. and
Pearsall ____, _________ __ Feb. 25, 1947
p. 76.
Fuller ______________ __ June 22, .1948
Kropa ______________ _- June 22, 1948
Wheeler et 211.: Solid and Liquid Propellants, Journal
of The Institute of Fuel, June 1947, No. 114, pp. 137-152
Singleton et a1 _________ .__ June 14, 1949
incl.
Ellis ________________ __ Sept. 9, 1941
2,479,828 '
Carr ________________ __ Aug. 16, 1949
Geckler ______________ __ Aug. 23, 1949
248,089
579,057
Great Britain _________ __ Mar. 1, 1926
Great Britain _________ __ July 22, 1946
FOREIGN PATENTS
Hackh’s ‘Chemical Dictionary, 3rd edit., The Blakiston
Co., Philadelphia, Pa., pp. 178, 575.
10
Bebie: Manual of Explosives, Military Pyrotechnics
and Chemical Warfare Agents, The MacMillan Co.,
NY. (1943), pp. 43, 106-108.
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