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Патент USA US3031788

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May 1, 1962
Filed Nov. 8.‘ 1960
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
May 1, 1962
Filed Nov. 8, 1960 >
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
DON w. NA s
May 1, 1962
Filed Nov. 8, 1960
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
United Staes Patent
James F. Nicholson and Don W. Naas, Dayton, Ohio, as
signors to the United States of America as represented
by the Secretary of the Air Force
Filed Nov. 8, 1960, Ser. No. 68,139
5 Claims. (Cl. 36-—7.1)
(Granted under Title 35, U.S. Code (1952), sec. 266)
The invention described herein may be manufactured
and used by or for the United States Government for
governmental purposes without the payment to us of any
royalty thereon.
This invention relates to improved shoes and magnetic
attachments for shoes that releasably attach to metal
A background for acquiring an understanding of the
present invention as it is claimed is provided by'the
issued U.S. Patents Numbered 2,104,062 to I. C. Temple;
2,857,556 to R. W. Price, and the like.
A general statement of the exact nature, the substance,
the operation, the purpose and the object of this inven
tion as claimed is the provision of an improved shoe or
shoe attachment that magnetically releasably attaches it
self to and that releases itself from a magnetically attrac
tive surface, such as plate steel, or the like, during stand
ing and walking operations.
The object of this invention is to provide shoes, sandals,
and the like, forrstanding and moving on a metal surface
Patented May 1, 1962
positioned and are secured thereto by preferably welding
‘or soldering or by the screws 15, or the like, as shown.
The cores of the magnets 4 and 5 preferably are made
of a non-rententive magnetic material, such as soft iron,
transformer iron, silicon iron, and the like and preferably
are cast as U-shaped units.
In some installations one
magnet instead of two or more is adequate, such for
example, as where a magnet is positioned beneath the
ball of the foot and no heel magnet is needed, or the
The heel horseshoe magnet 5 illustratively is inclined
at an obtuse angle such as 130'’ to the sole 1 for ease in
slipping the device on a shoe. The heel magnet 5 has
opposed slots adjacent its spaced ends with the lateral
edges of the sole 1 and the ends of a plate 16 secured
therein by welding, solder, or the like, or by screws 17,
as shown. Each horseshoe magnet 4 and 5 comprises
four separate coils of predetermined resistance and num
ber of turns in place of single coils, as indicated in FIG. 4
of the drawings.
The power source batteries 6 and 7 preferably are con
nected in parallel through the windings of the magnets
4 and 5 since the parallel connection affords a longer
service life out of the batteries than if they are connected
in series because of the IR loss as heat in the potentiome
ter 8. The polarity of the batteries is reversible. The
batteries 6 and 7 illustratively are 11/2 volt batteries, such
as are commonly used in ?ash lights, and the like.
The batteries 6 and 7 illustratively are held in place
without failure and without undue fatigue during walking. 30 by spring clips, or the like, with a plate 18 of insulating
In the accompanying drawings:
material such as Plexiglas, Fiberglas, Bakelite, or the
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a pair of shoe attach
like, to which the spring clips are attached interposed
ments or sandals that embody the present invention;
between the spring clips and the magnet 4 by suitable
FIG. 2 is a view from above of the sandals in FIG. 1;
means such as the screws 19, or the like. The electro
FIG. 3 is a view from below of the sandals in FIG. 1; 35 magnets may if preferred be powered from an alternate
FIG. 4 is a circuit diagram of the electronics of the
power source such as may be built into a space suit, or
shoe attachment in FIG. 1;
from another source to minimize the mass to be lifted
FIG. 5 is a perspective view from below of a permanent
when steps are taken.
magnet sandal; and
The circuitry in FIG. 4 indicates that the carbon poles
FIG. 6 is an axial section of the sensing device in 40 of the batteries 6 and 7 are connected to the ?xed terminal
FIG. 1.
of the potentiometer 8 and the zinc poles of the batteries
In FIG. 1 of the accompanying drawings is a shoe at~
are connected to a normally oif, spring-loaded micro
tachment that comprises a sole‘ 1 for being positioned be
switch 20 that is secured by screws 21 to the bottom of
neath the foot or shoe to which the assembly is attached
the sole 1, as shown in FIG. 3. The microswitch in
by suitable means, such as for example a toe or instep 45 terrupts current flow when the heel is raised illustratively
strap 2 and a heel strap 3.
1,4: inch. The location of the microswitch is determined
The shoe attachment preferably comprises the sole 1,
by the rigidity of the sandal and by the characteristics
a pair of U-shaped horseshoe electromagnets 4 and 5 at
of the microswitch. The microswitch facilitates walking
the opposite ends of the sole 1, which electromagnets
inasmuch as the wearer is not required to break the
are energized by a pair of batteries 6 and 7 as power
total holding force of the magnets. It also allows the
source of a magnitude established by the setting of a
variable potentiometer 8. The potentiometer 8 is shunted
out of circuit by an abrupt acceleration or deceleration
by the operation of a sensing device 9 which automati
current to flow only when necessary to produce a mag
netic force. This on-olf circuit greatly increases the
operating life of the batteries.
Output from the microswitch 20 is to two cables in
cally strengthens the magnetic ?eld exerted by the electro 55 spaghetti tubing with four leads in each cable. The
magnets. The sole 1 is made of a non-ferromagnetic
cables conduct to the parallel windings of the magnets
material such as sheet aluminum, or the like. The sole I
4 and 5 from which corresponding cables of four wires
may be strengthened intermediate its ends, if preferred,
each connect with the movable contact of the potentiome
by a reinforcing plate 10 that illustratively may be of
ter 8 as shown. The potentiometer is shunted by the sens
U-shaped section with its edges attached by rivets 11, or 60 ing device 9, as indicated in FIGS. 4 and 6. The poten
the like to the lower surface of the plate 1.
tiometer allows the user to adjust the holding force of
The toe and heel of the sole 1 having cushioning rub
the shoes to his needs. The sensing device responds to
ber 12 and 13 respectively cemented to the lower sur
abrupt motion of a predetermined value by shunting out
faces of the sole to minimize sliding and to cushion im
the potentiometer.
pact as steps are taken‘. A U-shaped, slotted clip 22 on 65
The sensing device 9, shown in FIG. 6, comprises a
a bolt 23 is available on the shoe sole contacted side of
hollow cylindrical tube 25 of Plexiglas, or the like, that
the sole 1 for engaging the forward edge of a shoe heel
has both of its ends closed by circular plates of the same
in making the engagement increasingly secure.
insulating material cemented along the contacting edges.
The toe horseshoe magnet 4 has opposed slots adjacent
midway of the axial length of and inside of the
its spaced ends into which the opposite ends of a plate 14 70 sensing device tube 25 a copper band 26 is mounted by
below the sole 1 and the lateral edges of the plate 1 are ~
bolts 27, or the like with one of the bolts connected, as
shown, with the variable tap of the potentiometer 8. The
cured to the sole, means releasably securing the magnet
?xed terminal of the potentiometer 8 is connected to a
bolt 28 in the upper end of the sensing device. The bolt
28 also supports a spring 29 at the lower end of which
to the sole for the removal and the recharging of the
magnet and its return to the sole in maintaining an opti
mum magnetic ?eld strength in the magnet, a sensing de
vice secured to the magnetic .shoe and responsive to abrupt
is attached a ball bearing 30 or similar mass, that is free
motions to which the shoe is subjected, a microswitch
to move radially of the sensing device and'touch the
copper band 26 under acceleration or deceleration. The
secured to the magnetic shoe and controlling the ?ow of
current through the magnet, and an adjustable poten
tiometer shunted by the sensing device and allowing the
space separating the ball 30 and the band 26, such for
example as about 1%: inch or by the tension of the 10 user of the shoe to adjust the holding force of the shoe
to his needs.
spring 29.
2. A magnetic sandal for being attached to a shoe
A permanent magnet shoe or shoe attachment is illus
comprising a sole having upper and lower surfaces and
trated in FIG. 5 of the accompanying drawings wherein
sensitivity of the sensing device 9 is determined by the
a heel, cleat means'on said sandal sole, strap means ex—
a shoe sole 1' has riveted on its under side U-shaped
cleats 35 and 36 for toe and heel straps 2' and 3' re 15 tending through the cleat means and serving for attach
ing the sandal to the shoe, a ?rst sole magnet'means se
spectively. Beneath the ball of the shoe sole 1’ in FIG. 5
cured to the sole and extending thereabove an adequate
are secured by pairs of bolts 37 a desired plurality of
distance for the removable insertion of the toe of a shoe
permanent magnets 38 with sponge rubber 31 between
between the toe ?rst magnet and the sandal sole, a heel
the sole and the magnets or not, as preferred. Beneath
second magnet means secured to the sandal heel. and
the heel of the shoe sole 1’ in FIG. 5 are secured by
extending thereabove for an adequate distance for the
removable insertion of the heel of a shoe between the
pairs of bolts 39 a desired plurality of permanent mag
nets 40 with cushioning sponge rubber 32 between the
sole and the magnets, if preferred. Bolts are preferred
for these magnet mountings since magnets are discharged
heel second -magnet and the sandal heel, and micro
switeh means secured to the sandal and that automatically
by being hammered, by aging and the like, and bolts 25 selectively deenergizes the toe ?rst magnet and the heel
second magnet between steps taken by the wearer of the
The magnets 38 and 40 '
illustratively may be those marketed under the trade
3. An electromagnetic shoe device comprising a sole
name “Alnico S” marketed by the Indiana Steel Products
with toe and heel portions, a U-shaped electromagnet
Company of Valparaiso, Indiana, or other magnets such
as those of various Al—Ni—-Fe compositions, and the 30 bridging the sole toe portion and secured thereto, a
U-shaped electromagnet bridging the sole heel portion
and secured thereto, a power supply providing power to
The apparatus that is described herein is substantially
the electromagnets, and potentiometer means connected
free from atmospheric pressure limitations but is subject
between the power supply and the electromagnets for‘
to the temperature limitation that it must be used below
the curie temperature limitations of its magnets. The 35 adjusting the power ?ow therebetween.
4. The device de?ned by the above claim 3 inclusive
aluminurn-nickel-iron composition magnets have no lower
of a microswitch for interrupting the power flow between
temperature limitations but their upper temperature limi
the power supply and the electromagnets.
tation is about 5000' C. The magnetic material prefer
5. The device de?ned by the above claim 3 inclusive
ably has a high inductance, such illustratively as the
40 of a sensing device that shunts out the potentiometer
A'1-'—-Ni—Co family.
when the device is subjected to abrupt motion of‘ a pre
In‘ the use of'the electromagnetic form of'thev device,
determined value;
the microswitch 20 serves to break the magnetic ?eld and
provide replacement facilities.
to release the magnetic power of attraction as the heel'is
lifted from sheet steel without excessive exertion at the
start of a stride and then reconnects the circuit at the 45
heel impacting sheet steel as the foot next contacts its
It is to be‘ understood that this disclosure applies to
shoes that embody its teachings, sandals that ?t on shoes
and related installations without departing from its teach
ings. Changes and modi?oationsin the materials con
tours, shapes and adaptationsoi the invention may be
made Where comparable results are obtained thereby.
We claim:
1. A magnetic shoe comprising a sole, a magnet se
References Cited in the -?],e of this patent
Apostolofr' ___________ __ Dec. 20, 1932
Diehl ________________ __ May 4, 1943
Engler ___' ___________ __ June 11, 1946
Ogden _______________ .._ May 6, v1952
Mathisen _____________ __ July 6, 1954
Nelson _____________ __ Mar. 18, 1958
Brown ______________ __ Apr. 19, 1960.
Legge _______________ __ Apr. 19, 1960
Shecter et a1. ________ -._ Aug. 16,1960
Sa?ir _______________ __ Dec. 27, 1960
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