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Патент USA US3031930

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'
May 1, 1962
P. 5. SMITH
3,031,920
MOSAIC PHOTOGRAPHY
Filed Oct. 18, 1956
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
Tlcil.
INVENTOR
PHIL/P STANLEVSM/?/
ATTO R N EYS
May 1, 1962
P. 5. SMITH
3,031,920
MOSAIC PHOTOGRAPHY
Filed Oct. 18, 1956
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
T1:'.5.
ATTORNEYS
United States Fatent O " rice
1
3,031,920
Patented May 1, 1962
2
MOSAIC PHOTOGRAPHY
be illuminated. Alternatively the desired vignette can
be effected by exposure of a positive ?lm prior to the
Dieterich Corporation, a corporation of New York
sides of the ?lm, or the unexposed negative ?lm prior to
Filed Oct. 18, 1956, Ser. No. 616,772
6 Claims. (Cl. 88-166)
exposure at a camera may be exposed to light along the
edge or edges thereof. The width of vignette is varied
with the diaphragm opening to insure correspondence
3,031,920
Philip Stanley Smith, Camden, N.J., assignor‘to Smith
printing operation along a narrow band on one or both
The present invention relates to mosaic photography
with width of transition area.
and more particularly to mosaic cinematography and
For a better understanding of the invention reference
comprises novel means and method for eliminating mis 10 may be had to the accompanying drawings of which
matching at the junction of projected images comprising
FIG. 1 is a diagram explanatory of a suitable camera
the elements of the mosaic. The invention comprises
also the novel projection ?lms resulting from the prac
arrangement for mosaic photography, the arrangement
illustrating a plan view of a three camera set up;
tice of the new method. In mosaic photography por
FIG. 2 is a diagram representing an image projected
tions of a wide angled scene are simultaneously photo 15 from ?lms developed ‘and printed from the cameras of
graphed by a plurality of cameras each positioned to
FIG. 1;
cover a given portion of the scene.
FIG. 3 is an enlarged fragmentary view of adjoining
edges of uncorrected ?lms developed from two of the
cameras of FIG. 1;
570,369, now Patent No. 2,896,503, and 590,995, now
Patent No. 2,918,842, ?led respectively March 8, 1956, 20 FIG. 4 is a graph which will be used for explanation
and June 12, 1956, parallax is avoided by optically center
of the invention;
ing the scene at the entrance pupil of a single camera by
FIG. 5 is a fragmentary plan view of a masking nega~
As described in my pending applications Serial Nos.
means of mirrors so positioned that but the one camera
tive ?lm made by use of a mask in accordance with one
directly views its portion of the scene to be photographed
embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 6 is a diagram illustrating use of the masking
and the other camera or cameras each views its respec
tive portion of the scene by re?ection from a mirror.
After the ?lms of the cameras have been developed and
negative of FIG. 5;
printed the original scene is reproduced by simultaneous
plied to fogging of the positive ?lm; and
projection.
FIG. 7 illustrates the method of the invention as ap
FIG. 8 illustrates the method of the invention as ap
It is important in such type of photography that there 30 plied to fogging of an unexposed negative ?lm.
be no discontinuity at the junction of the portions of the
In FIG. 1 the general layout of three cameras for
scene photographed by the separate cameras. The cam
mosaic photography of the type disclosed in my said prior
eras preferably are so positioned that there will be a
application Serial No. 570,369 is shown. For construc
transition area along the edge of each ?lm in which ob
tional details reference may be made to the above men
jects of the scene are duplicated on ?lms of adjoining 3:vi tioned application.
cameras. In projection the images on these transition
Three cameras A, B and C are positioned within an
areas are superposed thus insuring continuity of the pro
enclosureZ having an opening 4 through which the
scene to be photographed is viewed. The entrance pupil
jected scene. The width of the transition areas of the
?lms depends upon the aperture opening of the camera,
of camera A is indicated diagrammatically at 6’, that of
the width decreasing with reduction in iris opening. If 40 camera B at 8 and that of camera C at 10 and the corre
the width of the transition area is too little it is dif?cult
sponding ?lms of cameras A, B and C are indicated dia
to insure the proper overlap during projection and at
grammatically at 12, 14 and 16, respectively. The en
times there may be portions of the scene which do not
get reproduced on any ?lm. In order to insure no varia
trance pupil 8 of camera B is the optical center of the
system. A pair of wall members 18 and 20, which are
shown generally parallel but need not be so, are so posi
tion the ?lm density should vary over the entire transi
tioned that only rays entering the opening 4 through the
tion area. In practice, however, the width of the area
central angle {3 reach the entrance pupil 8 of camera
over which the density varies has been found to be less
B. Rays entering the aperture 4 through the angle a
than the width of the transition area. This has resulted
strike one surface of the wall 18, which surface is
in bright lines on the screen corresponding in width to 50 mirrored to reflect such rays to the entrance pupil 6 of
the portions of the transition areas of uniform density.
camera A. Similarly, rays entering the aperture 4
In accordance with the present invention means are
through the angle 'y strike the mirrored surface of wall
provided for insuring that the transition area will always
20 and are re?ected to the entrance pupil 10 of camera
be of a width su?icient to insure against loss of picture
C. The inner surfaces of walls 18 and 20 are non
and that the portion of the ?lm of varied density will 55 re?ecting to con?ne the light rays entering camera B
correspond in Width to the transition area. The term
to the angle )3. Preferably, as described in the said pend
“vignette” has been given to the portion of a ?lm of
ing application, thin vanes 22 and 24 disposed at the
graduated density and this term will be used hereinafter.
remote ends of wall members 18 and 20 respectively and
In accordance with the invention the vignette is made
in the planes of the limiting rays entering camera B are
to have the same width as the transition area by so ex 60 provided for preventing the side cameras from receiving
posing a narrow strip of either the negative or the posi
direct rays from the portion of the scene to be photo
tive ?lm at a suitable stage of the photographic process
graphed by camera B. Theoretically, for elimination of
that there is superposed over the transition area a region
parallax, the optimum position of cameras A and C with
tion in light intensity at the junction areas during projec
wherein light transmission is varied. Thus, when the
respect to camera B and the mirrored surfaces of the wall
transition areas are overlapped during projecting, excess 65 members 18 and 20 is such that the entrance pupil 8 is
light will not be projected to the screen at the junction
the mirror image of the entrance pupils of each of the
areas. The exposure to provide a su?iciently wide vig
other cameras.
'
nette can be e?ected, for example, by preparing a mask
In practice, I have found that better results are obtained
from which a negative having an opaque central area
when the mirrored surfaces are shifted through a small
and a band or bands along the side or sides of grad 70 angle away from the theoretical position for perfect opti
uated density can be prepared and through which an ex
cal centering and in a direction to increase the width of
posed production negative ?lm prior to development can
the transition areas on the ?lms. A shift, for example,
3,031,920
3
4
through but .06° sufficiently increases the width of the
In this arrangement a mask 54', having a slot 56 therein
is positioned over a positive ?lm 58 and light from a
source 60‘ is transmitted through suitable neutral and color
?lters 62 and 64 and lens ‘66 to the positive ?lm through
the slot 56. The lens 66 is mounted so that it may be
transition area to avoid loss of picture when the iris open
ings are reduced. Such angular shift of the mirrors does
not appreciably introduce parallax.
’
Along each margin of the ?lm 14 and along one edge
of each of the ?lms 12 and 16 there is a vignetted strip
which should be coincident in width with the transition
rocked to provide the varying illumination desired to give
cess light is projected to the screen along the borders of
the mosaic. For example, for a ?lm of a width of .999"
to a light source 68 through a light wedge 74): which is
movable toward and away from the ?lm to vary the width
between sprocket holes the theoretical vignette on each
of the vignette to be formed.
side of the ?lm of camera B should be .055” whereas 15
gradually reducing light transmission through border
the graduated exposure of the vignette and also so‘ that it
may be moved vertically to vary the Width of the vignette.
area. In practice the width of the vignettes has been
Still another arrangement is diagrammatically illus
less than the width of the transition areas and therefore
when images, projected through the transition areas, have 10 trated in FIG. 8 wherein an unexposed negative ?lm in
transit to the camera is exposed along one or both edges
been superposed to match the portions of the scene, ex
Other arrangements for
with average exposure (stop No. PS), the vignette of
areas of ?lms to provide vignettes of proper width in
such ?lm has been found to be only .027".
accordance with the invention will occur to those skilled
.
In FIG. 2 a projected image of an elongated object O
is diagrammatically indicated. The lines 26 and 23 in
dicate the margins of the portions of the scenes transmit
ted through the ?lms developed and printed by the camera
arrangement of PE”. 1. With optimum overlapping and
vignetting ‘the lines 26 and 23 would not appear in the
projected scene and the continuity of the object 0 would
not beinterrupted at these junction lines.
25
Lines 26 and 28 will appear as relatively bright nar
in the art.
The following is claimed:
1. In mosaic cinematography and projection the meth
od of eliminating during projection light discontinuities
at regions where projected images of adjacent scene sec
tions overlap by providing a composite vignette in the
transition area along at least one side of the positive ?lms
used in such projection which comprises the steps of
taking on a plurality of strips of negative ?lms moving
pictures of adjacent scene sections, overlapping the view
row strips when the vignetted areas are of less width than
in the area along the edge of each adjacent scene section
the transition areas. This will be better understood by
to provide a transition area along at least one side of each
reference to FIG. 3 wherein, on a greatly exaggerated
scale, is shown one edge of an uncorrected‘ positive or a 30 of said plurality of strips of negative ?lm each of which
overlapping transition areas contains duplicate images of
negative ?lm 3t? taken by camera A of FIG. 1 and, on
the next adjacent scene section, and while taking such
the same scale, is shown an edge of an uncorrected posi
tive or a negative ?lm 32 taken by camera B of FIG. 1.
moving pictures introducing a gradation in the intensity
of light reaching the ?lm strip in the overlapping transi
In FIG. 4111s solid line curve 42 represents light trans
mission through the ?lm, 32. The transition area on ?lm
30 is indicated at 34 and that of ?lm, 32 at 36-. The
vignetted area of ?lm 30, where the transmission curve
area of the negative ?lm which during the printing of the
positive ?lm will provide a controlled gradation in the in
such as curve 42 falls off, is indicated at 38 and that
tensity of light reaching the transition areaof the positive
of ?lm 32 at 40. In projecting through the ?lms 3t» and
32, the projectors must be so positioned that the images
projected through the transition areas 347and 36 of the
?lms 3t} and 32 are superposed. Full light intensity will
?lm and a partial vignette in the said transition area of the
positive ?lm, and as a separate step further controlling
pass'through the unvignetted portions ‘of the transition
tion area to provide a partial vignette in such transition
the intensity of light used in exposing the said transition
area of the positive ?lm to provide an additional vignette
in such transition area of the positive ?lm which addition
bands, of ‘each ?lm where transmission is as high as in the
main picture area and therefore yield a light stripe at the
lines 26 and 2870f FIG. 2.
In accordance with the invention the positive or nega
al vignette when combined with the ?rst mentioned partial
vignette introduced by the negative ?lm will complete the
composite vignette in such transition area of the positive
tive ?lms are ‘so treated that transmission will fall o? uni
2. The method of mosaic cinematography as speci?ed
in claim 1 in which the said additional vignette is achieved
by subjecting unexposed positive ?lm to a controlled
formly throughout the full width of the transition area,
as shown by the dotted line curve 42a of FIG. 4. Thus
there will be no discontinuity in light level at the mosaic
?lm.
~
gradation of intensity of light to provide partial exposure
junctions. In the arrangement illustrated diagrammati
and the said additional vignette in such transition area
cally in FIGS. 5 and 6 a negative ?lm 44- is prepared
prior to printing the developed negative on such positive
?lm which additional vignette when combined with the
from a suitable mask such that the central area 46 there
or,‘ corresponding to the portion of a production ?lm that
lies between the transition areas, is opaque and the area
?rst mentioned partial vignette introduced by the negative
?lm during the printing operation will complete the com
43 oneither side thereof (assuming the negative 44 is to
be used for correcting a production negative of camera
B) is progressively fog'ged from the region of the sprocket
posite vignette.
tral area 46 would be transparent and the strips 48 would
tion area of the positive ?lm over and above that intro
3. The method of mosaic cinematography as speci?ed
in claim 1 in which the said additional vignette is achieved
holes ‘59 to the central area 46. FIG. 5 can also be con 60 ‘(luring the printing operation before the positive ?lm is
developed by introducing an additional controlled grada
sidered as representing the mask used for preparation
tion in the intensity of the light rays reaching the transi
of the negative ?lm. In the case of the mask, the cen
be progressively denser from the area 46 to the mask
duced by the partial vignette of the negative ?lm to pro
‘edge. A series ofnegative masking ?lms having one 'or
two strips 48 of graduated density thereon, depending
vide the said additional vignette which when combined
upon "the camera ?lm to be treated, are prepared for‘ dif
ferent aperture openings and different focus of the cam
eras. The masking negatives 44 are then placed over
an exposed production negative as indicated in FIG. 6
and the production negative exposed to a light source,
indicated diagrammatically at 52, prior to delivery of the
production negative to the developer.
An alternative arrangement for providing the vignette
of desired width is indicated diagrammatically in FIG. 7.
with the ?rst mentioned partial vignette introduced by the
negative ?lm will complete the composite vignette in
the transition arearof the positive ?lm.
-
4. The method of mosaic cinematography as speci?ed
in claim 1 in which the said additional vignette is achieved
by subjecting the exposed negative ?lm prior to develop
ment to a controlled gradation of intensity of light in the
transition area thereof to provide ‘further exposure and
the said additional vignette in such transition area which
' additional vignette when combined with the ?rst men‘
3,031,920
5
6
tioned partial vignette of the negative ?lm will complete
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
the composite vignette in the transition area of the posi
tive ?lm.
5. The method of mosaic cinematography as speci?ed
in claim 1 in which the said additional vignette is achieved
by subjecting unexposed negative ?lm to a controlled
gradation of intensity of light in the transition area to
provide a partial exposure and the said additional vignette
UNITED STATES PATENTS
466,000
545,423
in the transition area which additional vignette when com~
bined with the ?rst mentioned partial vignette introduced 10
during exposure of the entire negative ?lm will complete
the composite vignette in the transition area of the posi
tive ?lm.
6. The method of mosaic cinematography as speci?ed
in claim 1 in which the ?rst mentioned partial vignette is 15
achieved in the camera by subjecting negative ?lm to a
controlled gradation of intensity of light reaching the
transition area to provide the said ?rst mentioned partial
vignette in the camera ‘during the exposure of the nega
tive ?lm to impress the scene sections thereon.
20
1,294,686
1,808,352
2,133,085
2,153,901
2,365,212
2,464,793
2,610,544
2,816,477
1891
1895
1919
1931
Draper ______________ __ Oct. 11, 1938
Thomas _____________ __ Apr. 11, 1939
Oriol _______________ __ Dec. 19, 1944
Cooke ______________ __ Mar. 22, 1949
Waller et al ___________ __ Sept. 16, 1952
Waller ______________ __ Dec. 17, 1957
Barker ______________ __ Dec. 29,
Chase _______________ __ Aug. 27,
McCormick __________ __ Feb. 18,
Hollen _______________ __ June 2,
FOREIGN PATENTS
298,615
2,708
Great Britain _________ __ Jan. 13,
Australia ____________ __ Dec. 24,
1930
1931
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