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Патент USA US3031993

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May 1, 1962
Filed Aug. ll, 1958
5 Sheets-sheet 1
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May 1, 1962 '
Filed Aug. 11, 195s
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Filed Aug. ll, 1958
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United States Patenti
Patented May 1, 1962
`-FIGURE? is a fragmentary cross-sectional view taken
Ellis E. Smauder, Birmingham, Mich., assigner to Ameri
can Incinerator Corporation, Detroit, Mich., a-corpora
tion of Michigan
along the line 7--7 of FIGURE 3. and showing the re
turn line used when full Water pressure is appliedA tol
the curtain wall;
FIGURE 8 is a fragmentary elevational View showing
the deñector carriage for diverting the ash- to one or the>
other of the pickup cross conveyors; and
'FIGURE 9 is a plan view of the deilector carriage.
Filed Aug. 11, 1958, Ser. No. 754,361
5 Claims. (Cl. 110-8)
In general terms, the novel municipal incinerator of
This invention relates to incinerators, and more par
ticularly to the automatic incineration of municipal and 10 this invention is of elongated shape and has a receiving
hopper at one end adapted to be located adjacent a
heavy industrial refuse.
crane operating center, so that refuse dumped from de
The development and construction of municipal in
livery trucks may be placed in the hopper. During oper
cinerating equipment presents several important prob
ation, the hopper is kept filled, and a plurality of recipro
lems which it is the general object of this invention to
overcome. Besides the necessity of accomplishing large 15 cating ram feeders at the bottom of the hopper are
adapted to force the refuse past a regulating or shut-olf
scale incineration at the lowest possible cost per ton of
gate into a drying chamber. Novel means are provided
refuse, incinerating units of this type must be capable of
for varying lthe position of the gate so that the rate of feed
meeting the most stringent air pollution and other health
may be restricted, and means are also provided for auto
and safety requirements and must have low initial, oper
20 matically stopping the gate if it encounters `an obstruction
ating and maintenance costs.
during its closing movement.
Among the reasons why presently known municipal
The activated grates in the dryingl chamber move the
incinerating equipment has failed to overcome -all these
problems in a satisfactory manner has been that conven
tional material handling systems in and adjacent the fur
refuse to a primary combustion chamber which has a
plurality of zones of independently controllable acti
nace have been incapable of moving the refuse with 25 vated burning grates, so that the rate of feed of the burn
ing refuse may be varied in accordance with require
full eíîiciency, thus detracting from the economy of the
ments. At the lower end of the burning grates is a iinal
operation and creating additional problems in the com
burndown chamber of novel construction. This charn
bustion as well as other phases of the process.
ber comprises a space at the bottom of which is a sloping
It is an object of the invention to provide an improved
municipal incinerator which» will fully meet the above 30 floor, with a water-cooled curtain wall above this floor to
confine the burning refuse. A plurality of agitators are
requirements and which provides for continuous feed of
provided in spaced relation with the curtain wall for
refuse, the material handling components both in the
slowly stoking the mass which collects in this chamber,
furnace and at the entrance and rexit thereof being ca
yand reciprocating rams are disposed below the agitators
pable of a highly efficient and economical movement of
35 to remove the burned-out refuse. A blower is also pro
the refuse in an automatic manner.
It is another object to provide an improved municipal
incinerator of this type which includes means for care
fully controlling the combustion, cooling and excess air
required for the process of combustion` and at the same
vided for forcing air upwardly through the burning mass
at a slight pressure. A main ash conveyor of an under
water endless drag link type is disposed below the dry
ing chamber, primary combustion chamber and ñnal burn
40 down chamber.
time provides for a wide range of adjustment.
The combustion gases pass through a mixing chamber
It is a further object to provide an improved munici
and flue to a secondary combustion or smoke-burning
pal incinerator of the above character which includes a
novelY final burn-down chamber which will insure even
chamber, and then pass to a settling chamber. Means are
and> continuous burning, and will eliminate delays due to
provided for passing the combustion gases through a ily
the improved municipal incinerator of this invention,
55 ing arrangement is provided for delivering the ash from a
particular incinerator to one or the other of the cross
the accumulation of unburned material in one portion 45 ash Wet collector or alternately discharging the gases
directly to the vent stack. The wet collector includesl a
of the furnace.
' ‘
novel inclined baffle construction for increased efficiency
It is also an object to provide an improved incinerator
in retention of ily ash. The fly ash conveyor is of an
of this nature which provides forre?licient retention and
underwater endless drag link type passing under the wet
removal of fly ash in anl economical manner.
Other objects, features and advantages of the present 50 collector and secondary combustion chamber. and' de
livering fly ash to the main incinerator ash conveyor with
invention will become lapparent from the following de
which-it is aligned. In cases where the incinerator is
tailed description taken in conjunction with the accom
one of several which operate in parallel and have two
panying drawings, in which:
pickup cross conveyors for ash reception, a novel divert
`FIGURE 1 is a cross-sectional view in elevation of
showing the relative locations of the various stations;
FIGURE 2 is a plan view, partially in cross section,
Referring more particularly to the drawings, FIGURES
1 and 2 show the overall layout of the incinerator whichk
plurality of parallel units;
' '
v `FIGURE. 3 is afragrnentary elevational view in >cross 60 is generally indicated at 21'. In the illustrated embodi
of the incinerator, as used in an installation having a
section of the final burndown chamber;
*FIGURE 4 is a sectional plan view takenv along 'the
line-4_4 of FIGURE 3` and showing; the reciprocating
ment, several incinerators 21 are shown in side-by-side
relation within a building >22 which is provided at one
, end with a dumping area 23 for the reception of refuse
delivered by trucks 24. Area 23 extends the full width
FIGURE 5 is a cross-sectional view taken along the 65 of building 22, and a crane 25 is provided for removing
refuse from area 23 and delivering it to vany of inciner
line 5_5 of FIGURE 3 and showing the internal con
struction of »the curtain 4Wall and associated water supply
ators 21.
Building 22 is provided with a corridor 26
extending between the incinerators, as seen in FIGURE
2, and control centers 27 may be provided along corridor
FIGURE 6 is a fragmentary cross-sectional view taken
along the line 6_6 of FIGURE 3 and showing the con 70 26 for the incinerators. For purposes of drawing simpli
iication, the particular materials of which building 22 and
nection between the curtain wall and the spray pipe there
for; v
incinerators 21 are constructed have not been designated >
in most instances, it being understood that conventional
construction and refractory materials will be used as
Before considering each of the incinerator stations in
detail, it is believed advisable to present a brief summary
of these stations with reference to FIGURE l. Crane l25
is adapted to dump the refuse into a receiving hopper 28, `
this hopper having means at its lower end lfor feeding the
down chamber. A plurality of agitators 102 are pivotally
mounted below wall 193 of corridor 26 and in spaced
relation with curtain wall 85. Six such agitators are
shown in the illustrated embodiment, each agitator being ,
of segmental shape and being movable by a reciprocating
motor 163’. Each agitator is adapted to be rocked be
tween the solid-line and dot-dash line positions shown in
FIGURE 3, so that the mass of refuse disposed between
agitators 1027and curtain wall 85 Will be continually
refuse to a drying chamber 29. From the drying chamber
the refuse is moved to a primary combustion chamber 31 10 stoked. The agitators may be operable alternately or in
unison at the will of the operator in control center 107
and then to a final burndown chamber 32 located adja
and at any desired speed. Thus, continuous and even
cent corridor 26. Ash from the iinal burndown chamber,
burning of the refuse may be achieved, and if any un
as well as that from the primary combustion and drying
burned material is observed by the operator at a specific
chambers, collects on a main incinerator ash conveyor
33, while the combustion gases pass through a mixing 15 location in the mass of refuse in burndown chamber 32,
he may operate corresponding agitatorsr1ۓ2 to stoke this
chamber 34 above corridor 26 to a secondary combustion
refuse for burning. It should be noted that the arcuate
or smoke burning chamber 35. The lower end of this
bottom wall 104`a d the side walls 105 of each agitator
chamber has a lateral connection 36 leading to a settling
102 will prevent any refuse from passing between the
chamber 37, which as seen in FIGURE 2 is alongside the
' combustion chamber. A direct connection 38 is provided 20 agitators during their movement. A pipe 106 may be dis
posed above the agitators to carry spray water for pre
from chamber 37 to a vent stack 39 aligned therewith,
venting overheating of the agitators.
opening of this bypass being controlled by a damper 41.
The upper end of settling chamber 37 has a connection
42, seen best in FIGURE l, which leads to a mixing tower
Immediately below agitators 1112 are a plurality of dis'
charge rams 107 which are slidable on iioor 101 between
end of mixing tower 43 is connected to a wet collector
44 aligned therewith at the exit end of which an induced
Three such rams 'are shown in the illustrated embodi
43 aligned with the combustion chambers. The lower 25 the solid line and dot-dash line positions of FIGURE 3.
ment, the rams being movable by reciprocating motors
10S. As in the case of agitators 162, rams 107 may be
draft fan 45V is provided, the outlet of this fan being
independently controllable by the operator in order to
connected with stack 39. A ily ash and collector residue
conveyor 46 is disposed between collector 44 and mixing 30 achieve even removal of the ash. Also provided adjacent
burndown chamber 32 are a plurality of blowers 109,
tower 35, this conveyor being aligned with and delivering
two blowers being shown in FIGURES 3 and 4. The
material to conveyor 33.
blowers are adapted to apply forced air at a relatively
Final burndown-»chamber 32 is seen in detail in FIG
low pressure to the refuse in burndown chamber 32.
URES 3 toV 7 and is located adjacent corridor 26 which ‘
may have a viewing port 83 so that the operatorkmay 35 For this purpose, blowers 109 are disposed below corridor
26 and rearwardly of agitators 102 and rams 107, the air
observe the combustion process in chambers 31 and 32.
from the blowers being guided between floor 111 of
The ñnal burndown chamber is of downwardly ilared
corridor 26 and 27 and a plate 112 seen in FIGURE 3,
shape, having a relatively narrow throat at its upper Vend
and liowing around the agitators and rams into the burn
between the rounded edge 84 of the main combustion
chamber ñoor and the adjacent wall of corridor 26. Ex 40 down chamber. ‘
Fly »ash and >collector residue- conveyor -46 is of an
tending downwardly `from lip 84 is a water-cooled curtain
underwater endless drag link type and is adapted to col
wall 85, this wall being slanted away fromv the forward
lect ash from collector 44 as well as mixing'tower 43,
portion of the burndown chamber. Curtain wall 85 is
settling chamber 37 and secondary combustion chamber
of hollow construction, as seen in FIGURES 3 andS, and
a pipe 36V is secured along its upper end, this pipe having 45 35. One end 138 of this conveyor is disposed above the
adjacent end `of conveyor 33 which is also of the under
apertures 37. connecting with the curtain wall. The Awall
water endless drag link type, so that conveyor 33 Will
has internal baiñes 8S for facilitating circulation of the
transport the ash to the pickup cross conveyors.
water which is supplied to pipe S6 by a water supply con
In the illustrated embodiment, two parallel endless drag
duit 89. A valve 91 is disposed in conduit S9 and will
normally permit only a restricted rate of water iiow. A 50 link pickup cross conveyors 139 and 141 are shown, these
conveyors extending transversely to incinerators 21.
temperature sensing element 92 Vis disposed within curtain
Novel means are provided for selectively discharging the
wall 85 and is connected by means shown schematically
'ash from conveyor 33 of anyl incinerator to one or the
at 93 to valve 91, so that when the water >temperature
rises above a predetermined value, valve 91- will open fully
to permit full water pressure to flow through pipe 86 and
f curtain wall 85. ~ A full pressure return conduit 94 is con
. nectedY to one end of curtain wall 35 as seen in FIGURES
3 and 7. Return pipe 94 has a valve 95 which is con
trolled by temperature sensing element 92 through a con
other of the cross conveyors. ~ This means is shown in
FIGURES Sand 9 and is indicated generally at 142.
Essentially, this discharge diverting means includes a car
riage frame 143 supported by rollers 144 which are
mounted adjacent conveyors 139 and 141, the carriage
being movable between the solid l-ine and dot-dash line
.positions `of FIGURE 9. Frame 143 carries a' pair of in
clined chutes> 145 and 146, these chutes‘having upperl
ends which are aligned with exit 147 of conveyor 33. The
lower end of chute 145 is aligned‘with cross conveyor
141, while the lower end of chute 146 is aligned with
nection shown schematically at 96, so that valve 95 will
open simultaneously with full opening of valve 91. vA
spray pipe 97 extends along the back surface of the curtain
wall along its upper portion, as seen in FIGURES 3 and 6,
this pipe being connected to curtain wall 85 by a conduit
98 and having sprayy apertures 99 which will direct a water
spray against the back of the wall. As the spray runs
down the curtain wall, it will serve to quench the ash
exiting from the burndown chamber, and will also help
cool curtain wall 85. The water spray will constitute the
exit for the water supplied to wall S5 when valve 91 is -in 70
its restricted-how position.
cross conveyor 139.
It will thus be seen that with di
verter 142 in the solid line position of FIGURE 9, the
`ash will be discharged to cross conveyor 141, while move
ment of diverter 142 to its dot-dash line position will cause
the ash to be discharged to conveyor 139. Diverter 142
may be moved between its positions by a reciprocating
motor 148.
removal conveyor 149 is provided -at one
end of building 22 for carrying the ash to trucks 151.
Spaced below curtain 85 isa downwardly and> iorwardly
Although the operation of the incinerator will be ap
sloping floor 101, this door >extending a substantial dis
parent from the foregoing description, a brief summary
tance forwardly of curtain wall 85, as seen in FIGURE
3, to prevent undesired air flow through the iinal burn 75 is here provided in order to bring out the cooperation
between the various incinerator components. Crane 25
will supply the refuse to receiving hopper 28, the hopper
being kept at least partially tilled dur-ing normal opera
removing burned refuse from said last-mentioned floor,
tion so that air will be prevented from flowing there
through, and the refuse will travel through drying cham
ber 29 to main combustion chamber 31. The various
zones of burning grates in the combustion chamber ‘will
and means for forcing air into the space between said
curtain wall and agitators.
2. The combination according to claim 1, said curtain
wall comprising a water pipe extending below the exit
end of said combustion chamber ñoor, a hollow wall
secured to and extending downwardly from said pipe,
apertured portions in said pipe connecting with said hol
be activated in accordance with requirements, ash from
low wall, battles within said hollow wall, and a water re
the grates falling onto conveyor 33, and the refuse will
then enter ñnal burndown chamber 32. Here, agitators 10 turn line connected to one end of the hollow wall.
3. 11n a municipal incinerator, a primary combustion
102 will stoke the burning refuse which will be retained
chamber, a secondary combustion chamber in communica
by curtain wall 85 and gradually descend to ñoor 101
where the ash will be removed by rams 107 to under
tion with said primary combustion chamber, and a wet
collector in communication with said secondary combus
water conveyor 33.
The ash-laden combustion gases will pass through mix 15 tion chamber, a first ash conveyor below said primary
combustion chamber and means for depositing ash from
ing chamber 34 and secondary combustion chamber 35,
entering settling chamber 37. Assuming that bypass
said primary chamber onto said first conveyor, a second
ash conveyor below said secondary combustion chamber
damper 41 is closed, the gases will enter mixing tower
and wet collector and means for depositing ash from said
l43 where they will be mixed with air drawn by fan 45
and with water spray. The gases will pass through col 20 secondary chamber and wet collector onto said second
conveyor, said ash conveyors being of the endless drag
lector 44, conveyor 46 removing the fly 4ash trapped in
the collector as well as that deposited in secondary corn
link type and being in alignment, the exit of said second
ash conveyor being ‘positioned to discharge ash onto said
bustion chamber 35. The gases will then be forced by
fan 45 to vent stack 39.
To summarize the means for delivering ash from the
first ash conveyor, a pickup cross conveyor, and means
chamber and wet collector to their respective conveyors,
for discharging the ash from said first ash conveyor onto
said pickup cross conveyor.
4. In a municipal incinerator of the type adapted for
`ash will drop through the grates of primary combustion
use in parallel with other incinerators having two adja
primary combustion chamber, secondary combustion
chamber 31 to conveyor 33. Ash deposited in secondary
cent parallelpickup ash conveyors extending thereacross,
combustion chamber 35 will fall onto conveyor 46.' Ash 30 an incinerator ash conveyor having its exit end above
trapped in wet collector 44 will also be carried off by con
the two pickup cross conveyors, and a diverter for selec
veyor 46.
tively discharging ash from the incinerator ash conveyor
lt will be observed that the incinerator is adapted for
to one or the other of the two pickup cross conveyors,
completely `automatic operation which not only results in
said diverter comprising a carriage movable transversely
carefully controlled combustion of the refuse but `also 35 to the incinerator ash conveyor, a pair of inclined chutes
permit rapid and continuous ash removal. The operator
on said carriage, the openings at the upper ends of said
in control center 27 will be able to vary the rate of feed
chutes being aligned in the direction of said pickup cross
of refuse from hopper 28 into the drying and combustion
conveyors, the opening at the lower end of one of said
chambers, as well as the rate of movement of the refuse
chutes being above the iirst cross conveyor, the opening
in various portions of the combustion chamber. Like 40 at the lower end of the other chute being above the sec
wise, any unevenness in the combustion process which
might occur in burndown chamber 32 may easily be
ond cross conveyor, and means for moving said carriage
between a first position in which the upper end of said
remedied by controlling agitators 102, thus preventing a
ñrst chute is aligned with the exit of said incinerator ash
holdup at this station from delaying the movement of
conveyor, and a second position in which the upper end
refuse in other parts of the incinerator. The aligned 45 of said second chute is aligned with the exit of said in
nature of ash conveyors 33 and 46, and the novel divert
cinerator ash conveyor.
ing means for cross conveyors 139 and 141, will insure
5. The combination according to claim 1, said agitators
constant ash removal from the incinerator.
being positioned in the path of forced air.
While it will be apparent that the embodiment of the
invention herein disclosed is well calculated to fullill the 50
References Cited in the tile of this patent
objects of the invention, it will be appreciatedv that the in
vention is susceptible to modification, variations yand
change without departing from the proper scope or fair
meaning of the subjoined claims.
What is claimed is:
1. In a municipal incinerator, a combustion chamber
having a floor, a wall spaced from the exit end of said
combustion chamber and extending a relatively short dis
Regan _______________ __ Dec. 26,
Kidwell ______________ _- Sept. 4,
Woolson ____________ __ May 20,
Danner _____________ __ Apr. 26,
Hagan ______________ __ June 21,
Robey _______________ .__ Feb. 3,
Kohout ________ __ _____ __ Jan. 8, 1929
`Ratel ________________ _.. July 12, 1932
Staples ______________ __ Mar. 27, 1934
dependently moving each of said agitators toward and 65
Kelly ______________ __ Aug. 13,
Corbett _____________ __ Nov. 14,
Coder _______________ __ Nov. 4,
Ellis ________________ -_ Mar. 7,
away from said curtain wall, a ñoor spaced below said
curtain wall and said agitators, reciprocable means for
'Penn `_ ______________ _.- Mar. 27, 1951 Y
Pond _______________ _.. Aug. 11, 1953
tance therebelow, a water-cooled curtain wall secured
beneath the exit end of said combustion chamber floor 60
and extending downwardly and away from said ñrst
named wall, a plurality lof agitators movably mounted in
side-by-side relation below said first-mentioned wall and
in spaced relation with said curtain wall, means for in
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