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Патент USA US3032890

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33-235 .
3 a 032 9 882
May 8, 1962
Filed July 11, 1958
S-Sheets-Sheet 1
F/6. /
M9 145%
KM‘? '1
May 8, 1962
Filed July 11, 1958
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
Unite States Patent 0 " ice
Patented May 8, 1962
ing a gun. Speci?cally describing the invention, FIG.
1 illustrates a portion of a tank turret 10 having a gun
GUN tilGllT
Russell E. Bauer, Grosse l’ointe Woods, and John D.
Lorimcr, Birmingham, Mich" assiguors to Cadillac
Gage t‘ompany, ioseville, MiclL, a corporation of
Filed July 11, 1958, Scr. No. 748,023
4 Claims. (Cl. 33--47)
port 11 through which projects a gun barrel 12.
the turret 10 is the gun breech 13 which is integral with
the gun barrel 12.
The gun 12 is so mounted on the
turret that it may be elevated and depressed in relation
to turret 10 in the conventional way. Also, the com
plete turret 10 carrying the gun 12 may revolve hori
zontally. It is also customary to provide a gunner’s
Our invention relates to a telescopic gun sight, and par 10 seat 14 at the side of the gun slightly forward of the
ticularly to a sight applicable in general use on heavy
breech 13.
caliber arms. This sight is especially valuable for use in
Attached to the gun breech 13 is a left and right tele
tanks and self-propelled artillery. A paramount purpose
scopic tube sight 15 which extends out on both sides of
of the sight is to provide a supcrelevation angle to the
the turret 10. The left telescope contains ocular eye
gun; also, to reduce the mechanism and time involved in
piece 18, viewing window 16, and a reticle 21 having a
adjusting the gun for superelevation at a particular range
with a particular type ammunition.
Heretotore, stereoscopic and coincidence type gun sights
have been used to aid in estimating range.
In a stereo
vertical line. The right telescope, which is optically sepa
rate from the left telescope, contains ocular eyepiece 19,
viewing window 17, and provision for several reticles 22
having a predetermined curved line.
scopic or coincident type sight, after the range has been 20 The tube 15 is either rigidly secured to the gun 12 or is
estimated, it is computed and fed to the gun mechanism
linked by a parallelogram so that as the gun 12 is elevated
in accordance with supcrelevation requirements for a par
through a certain angle, the tube 15 also will be rotated
ticular ammunition. The mechanism in such a sight is
an equal angle. Also, the axis of the telescopic tube 15
extremely complicated and costly, and considerable time
must be held parallel to the trunnions 23 of the gun.
is involved in operating the system and training a gunner.
To operate the sight, the gunner looks through the
Therefore, it is an important object of this invention to
left ocular eyepiece 18 only, which is a telescopic view
provide a simple and straight-forward apparatus and
through window 16, and traverses the gun until the ver
method of sighting a gun and providing for a ?rst round
tical line in reticle 21 bisects the target. This is illus
target hit.
trated by FIG. 2 which shows a target 20 bisected by
It is also an object of the invention to provide different 30 reticle 21 thorugh the center of the ?eld of view. This
reticles for different ammunition by providing a simple
vertical line in reticle 21 continues to bisect the target as
mechanism that has ease of operation.
the gun is moved in elevation because it is set at a right
It is a further object of this invention to provide a
angle to the trunnions 23.
method of gun sighting which will require a bare mini
For the gunner to elevate the gun to the proper super~
mum of practice and training to obtain accurate results.
elevation for a particular range and ammunition, he sights
It is also an object to provide an apparatus and method
through the right telescopic ocular eyepiece 19, where he
of gun sighting using a minimum of moving parts.
sees a predetermined curved reticle 22. He then elevates
It is also a motive to preserve the capability of speed
the gun until the curved reticle crosses the center of the
and simplicity in operations required to lay the gun.
target 20, as illustrated in FIGS. 6 and 7. With both
It is a further object to provide a sight requiring a mini
the left telescopic vertical reticle 21, and the curved right
mum of space.
It is a further object to provide a sight requiring no
stereoscopic perception.
In the attainment of the foregoing objectives, it is ad~
telescopic reticle 22 crossing through the center of the
target 20, the gun is automatically on target with the
correct superelevation for a bit. It is to be noted that at
no time is the gunner required to know the range of the
ditionally the purpose of this invention to make the sight 45 target.
rugged throughout so that there will be a minimum tend
To arrive at the predetermined curve line or series of
ency to become impaired by the rough usage and shocks
dots on the right reticle, an optical triangulation principle
to which it will be exposed.
is employed. In FIG. 1, with the telescopic tube 15 act
Additional objects, advantages and features of inven
ing as the base of a triangle, and line of sight through the
tion reside in the construction, arrangement and combina 60 left vertical reticle to the target forming an angle, the
tion of parts involved in the embodiment of the inven
line of sight from the right window 17 to the target forms
tion, as will appear or be understood from the following
a triangle consisting of the three angles at 16, 17 and R1,
description and accompanying drawing wherein:
R2, R3, and R4, depending on the range.
FIG. 1 is a top view of the gun sight installation in a
It is helpful in determining the curve to use targets at
tank and showing various targets in line of sight.
55 a known range, such as the target shown in FIG. 1, at
FIG. 2 is a representation of the left reticle.
ranges R1, R2, R3 and R4. By noting the points on the
FIG. 3 is a representation of the right reticle showing
right reticle 22 where the line of sight for the various
the points where the line of sight of the various four
target ranges R1, R2, R3, and R4, pass through, the points
targets pass through.
FIG. 4 is a representation of the left reticle after the 60 can be plotted horizontally which correspond with range.
This is shown in FIGS. 3 and 5 at points 1, 2, 3 and 4,
gun is elevated for supcrelevation.
corresponding to target ranges R1, R2, R3, and R4, respec
FIG. 5 is a representation of the right reticle illustrat
tively. After the points 1, 2, 3 and 4, corresponding to
ing how we establish the sighting curve.
FIG. 6 illustrates how a target is sighted on the c'?’rved
a known range, are determined on reticle 22, the sight
line of the right reticle.
FIG. 7 illustrates the sighting of the target on the right
may be used to determine range. This is true when the
left reticle 21 is bisecting the target and a new target of
unknown range is sighted. The range is determined on
reticle when adjustments are made to utilize the com
plete reticle.
the right reticle 22, FIG. 3, depending on the point on
the reticle on which it falls.
MG. 8 is a diagrammatical view of the optical system
Using the ranging method shown above and knowing
of the sight.
As previously indicated, the present invention is di
the particular ammunition to be used, ballistic ammuni
rected to a new and novel method and apparatus for sight—
tion curve data may be used to determine the proper
supcrclcvntion angle at the various ranges in preparing
the right reticle of the gun sight. lf the supcrclevation
We claim:
1. A method of aiming a gun at a target of unknown
a point I’ below the range marking of 1. This point is
unuketl on the rcticle 22 at point 1’ in FIG. 5 directly
below poinl l. Points 2', 3’ and 4’, are found in a similar
range, and to provide for the superelevation required with
a known ammunition, comprising the steps of sighting a
target through a ?rst telescopic sight attached to said gun
for ?xed relative movement therewith, bisccting said target
with the vertical line reticlc of said telescopic sight, sight
ing said target through a second telescopic sight also at
tached to said gun for ?xed relative movement therewith
requirements ot~ the ammunition is 5 mils at 1000 yards,
the gun must be elevated 5 mils above the line of sight
to the target at Will) yards.
The target will appear at
It is to he noted that as the range increases,
the superelevution increases, causing points at the longer 11] and also ?xed relative movement with said ?rst telescopic
sight, and bisecting said target by a curved line reticle
ranges to lull considerably under the bore sight point 24,
of said second telescopic sight.
which is an arbitrary point in the ?eld of view where
the gun 12 is pointed.
When corresponding superclevution points are marked
below the range points, a curve of dots is formed, or a
line may be drawn through them forming an unbroken
line. It is therefore evident that with a predetermined
curve established by the above method. the gun may be
quickly aimed for a hit by traversing the turret until the
left rcticle 21 crosses the target, and then elevating or
depressing the gun to cross the curve of the right reti
cle 22.
To utilize the full ?eld of view in the right telescopic
viewing window 17, the lens are adjusted permitting the
bore sight point 24 to be sighted in the upper right-hand [0 it
quadrant as shown in FIG. 7. This permits the ballistic
_,2J.,A..mcthodmg_f.aiming a gun ata target through a
pair of telescopic sights which have been aligned with
the bore sight point of the gun and rigidly ?xed thereto,
including traversing the gun until the vertical line reticle
in a ?rst telescopic sight bisects the target, elevating the
gun in a vertical plane until the second telescopic sight
bisects the target with a curved line rcticle, said ?rst and
second telescopic sights ?xed in relative movement to
each other.
3. A telescopic sighting device providing for super
clcvation in the aiming of a gun, said device comprising,
in combination, a support having a gun pivoted thereon
for elevation and depression relative to said support, a
telescopic sight tube arranged for maintaining ?xed rela
tive movement with said gun, said telescopic sight tube
having a ?rst and second telescope mounted therein, each
having an ocular eyepiece and viewing window for sepa
such as high explosive, armor piercing and shrapnel, each
with different ballistic curves, various predetermined 30 rate viewing of a target, said viewing windows located
at each end of the telescopic sight tube permitting a target
curves for the right reticlc are required. Therefore, provi—
to be viewed from two separate locations, said ?rst tele
sion in FIG. 8 is made where by turning on a light 25,
scope having a vertical line reticle mounted within its
the curve image on glass 26 will be superimposed in the
optical system to be viewed independent of said second
?eld of view on the right reticle lens. in this method,
telescope, and said second telescope having a curved line
the gunner may change his sight requirements for the
retiele mounted within its optical system to be viewed
particular ammunition simply by illuminating the reticle
curve to be more nearly in the center of the ?eld of view.
Since a tank may carry several types of ammunition.
light opposite the proper curve. No moving parts are re
quircd for the changeover of the sight by this method.
independent of said ?rst telescope, said curved line being
dependent on the particular supcrclcvation characteristics
of the ammunition to be used, and means for interchang
Another method of superimposing a curve in the ?eld
of view on the right reticle lens is to provide a turret type L10 ing the curved line within the optical system on said sec
mechanism within the right telescopic sight. This may
consist of a disc containing several viewing ports. each
with a di?ercnt ballistic ammunition curve. To change
from one ammunition to another, the operator will rotate
the disc allowing the proper viewing port to interpose the
ballistic curve within the telescopic tube.
From the preceding description, it should he observed
ond telescope.
4. A gun-aiming device comprising; a ?rst telescopic
gun sight adapted to be viewed through independently
and having a vertical line reticlc for aiming the gun in
the horizontal plane, and a second telescopic gun sight
adapted to be viewed through subsequent to sighting
through said ?rst telescopic gun sight and having a curved
line rcticle for positioning the gun in the vertical plane,
that the invention may be used, if desired. to determine
each telescopic gun sight mounted to move with the gun.
range. However, since the gunner is not required to know
the range for placing the gun on target, he is able to 50
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
concentrate more closely upon the adjustment of tire.
While the invention has been described with reference
to certain preferred examples thereof which give satis
factory results. it will be understood by those skilled in
the art to which the invention pertains, after understand
ing the invention, that various changes and modi?cations
may be made without departing from the spirit and scope
of the invention.
Wyllic ______________ .._ Aug. 16, 1898
Grauheding __________ __ Apr. 13, 1915
Patterson ____________ __ Dec. 31,
Luboshez ____________ __ June 4,
Zaroodny ____________ __ June 24,
Back ________________ .._ May 6,
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