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Патент USA US3033186

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May 8, 1962
F. J. GARDINER
3,033,176
AERO~DYNAMIC WAVE MACHINE SUPERCHARGER FOR STEAM GENERATORS
WITH FAN AND HIGH PRESSURE SYSTEM
'
Filed Nov. 1, 1954
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United States. Patent O Mice
3,033,176
Patented May 8, 1962
1
2
3,033,176
a pressure drop by deceleration of the fan under certain
conditions.
It will also be noted that with my novel arrangement,
fuel economy can be obtained. That is, the steam boiler
AERO-DYNAMEC WAVE MACHINE SUPER
CHARGER FOR STEAM GENERATORS WITH
FAN AND HIGH PRESSURE SYSTEM
exhaust temperature is determined by the requirements
Frank John Gardiner, Bryn Mawr, Pa., assignor to I-T-E 5 of the aero-dynamic wave machine. Thus, if the wave
Circuit Breaker Company, Philadelphia, Pa., a corpo
machine has to produce less pressure differential for the
ration of Pennsylvania
Filed Nov. 1, 1954, Ser. No. 465,946
1 Claim. (Cl. 122-4)
boiler at a certain mass ?ow and pressure, the aero
dynamic wave machine can utilize a lower boiler discharge
temperature. This can be achieved by setting the high
My invention relates to a novel arrangement in which
a variable speed blower or fan is permanently positioned
in the high pressure system of a steam generator super
charger by an aero-dynamic wave machine.
The purpose of this arrangement is to aid the system
during starting, acceleration from low to higher load con
pressure fan to give a pressure rise across it so that this
pressure rise will appear to the aero-dynamic wave ma
chine as a reduction in the pressure drop across the boiler.
ditions, and during operation of the system below its
That is, the steam boiler discharge temperature can be
designed range.
The use of an aero-dynamic wave machine as a super
charger for a steam generator eliminates the necessity
of converting or obtaining shaft power for the compressor
and also eliminates the necessity of utilizing several stages
of compression.
Hence, the required pressure output of the wave machine
will be substantially reduced thereby also reducing the
temperature into the wave machine from the steam boiler.
reduced thereby requiring less fuel input to the boiler
and hence, fuel economy.
It will be noted that the prime mover input to the
blower represents approximately 1/a of the number of
B.t.u.’s saved in the boiler fuel economy.
As noted in aforementioned US. Patent 2,853,979,
di?iculties are encountered in the prime mover compres
The aero-dynamic wave machine may be of the type
.and have the cycle operation such as described in copend 25 sor arrangement during transient load conditions since
it is practically impossible to achieve instantaneous
ing application Serial No. 454,774, ?led September 8,
response to load changes in this type of system. How
1954, now issued as US. Patent 2,970,745, on February
ever, with my novel arrangement, it is possible to provide
7, 1961, in the name of Max Berchtold, entitled “Wave
an immediate compensation in the steam pressure from
Machine” and assigned to the assignee of the instant in
the steam generator to the steam turbine immediately
vention. In this arrangement, the main energy input of
following an increase in load on the electric generator
the aero-dynamic wave machine is in the form of hot
driven by the main steam turbine. This compensation
gas energy which is directly converted in order to obtain
in the steam pressure or rapid stability is the result of
compressed air.
two factors: (a) the prime mover of the blower in the
Although means must be provided to rotate the shaft
of the aero-dynamic wave machine, the rotation thereof 35 higher pressure cycle is responsive to the load conditions
of the main steam turbine or electrical generator and
is required only to obtain proper timing and hence, does
hence, can immediately accelerate the blower to provide
not represent shaft power or energy input to the wave
an increase in the pressure of the compressed air to the
machine. Furthermore, since the compression ratio of
steam boiler, and (b) the immediate rise in temperature
the device is in the range of 6:1 as compared to prior art
ratio of 2.521, it is possible to achieve the desired degree 40 of the exhaust gas of the steam generator is immediately
utilized by the aero-dynamic wave machine to thereby
of compressed air in a single stage thereby eliminating
the necessity of multi-stage compression,
Utilization of an aero-dynamic wave machine as a
supercharger for steam generators is described in copend
ing application Serial No. 415,899, ?led March 12, 1954,
now issued as US. Patent 2,853,979 on September 30,
1958, in the name of Max Berchtold, entitled “Aero
Dynamic Machine Super-Charger for Steam Generators”
and assigned to the assignee of the instant invention.
However, as noted in this copending application, it is
necessary to provide supplemental means to aid the per
result in a higher air pressure output available to feed
the ?re box of the steam generator. Thus, in a two-fold
manner, my novel arrangement provides for rapid
stability of the system during transient conditions.
Accordingly, a primary object of my invention is to
provide an aero-dynamic wave machine supercharger for
a steam generator wherein a blower is permanently
maintained in the high pressure system.
Another object of my invention is to provide a blower
in series with an aero-dynamic wave machine to provide
compressed air to the ?re box of a steam generator
formance during starting, low load operation and tran
wherein the aero-dynamic wave machine provides suiti
sient conditions. That is, means must be provided
cient compressed air to the steam generator during normal
whereby compressed air flow to the steam generator must
be maintained at a predetermined magnitude during full 55 load operation and in which the blower aids and supple
ments the aero-dynamic wave machine during starting,
load operation and also during starting, low load opera
low load operation and transient conditions.
tion and transient conditions.
Still another object of my invention is to provide an
Aforementioned U.S. Patent 2,853,979 discloses vari
ous arrangements such as hot or cold bypasses and an
auxiliary blower whereby compensation is provided for
the operation during normal conditions. In the several
embodiments set forth, the auxiliary components are
external to the basic system.
In contradistinction, in my novel arrangement, a
aero-dynamie wave machine and a blower, connected in
series, as a supercharger for a steam blower whereby the
boiler substantially reduces the pressure differential across
the steam boiler. With this arrangement, less mass ?ow
and pressure is required from the aero-dynamic wave
machine thereby lowering the boiler discharge tempera
ture and hence, resulting in fuel economy.
driven blower is permanently positioned in the high pres 65 These and other objects of the invention will be ap
sure system. Thus, by providing an automatic control
parent from the following description when taken in con
for the shaft power output of the prime mover of the
nection with the drawings, in which:
blower, it is possible to add work or pressure to the main
The FIGURE shows a steam generator system in cross
air stream during starting, low load operation and tran 70 section. This ?gure illustrates (a) the use of an aero
dynamic wave machine as the main supercharger for the
sient conditions. In addition to this feature, the auto
?re box of the steam generator, (b) a steam turbine which
matic control of the blower can be utilized to provide
3,033,178
I3
receives energy in the form of steam from the steam gen
erator and the electric generator which is driven by the
steam turbine, and (c) the blower which is inserted in
series with the aero-dynamic wave machine to aid and
supplement this device in supplying compressed air to the
?re box of the acre-dynamic wave machine.
As seen in the ?gure, the steam generator 200 is com
prised of an evaporator section 201 and a superheater
section 202. A water feed pump 203 is provided to
A.
Compressed air for the steam generator passes through
the port D from the wave machine 10 and the hot gas
output from the steam generator, which represents the
energy output to the wave machine 10, is supplied through
the input port C. That is, the energy of the exhaust gas
from the superheater section 202 is fed through the pipe
103 to the port C of the wave machine 10,
The wave machine 10 may be provided with a, blower
15 to scavenge the cells or channels 14 with fresh air,
supply water to the evaporator section 201 by means of
as described in aforementioned U.S. Patent 2,970,745, or
the piping system 204. Fuel valve 102 controls fuel
flow into the ?re box section 100 of the evaporator 201.
The fuel is spread into the compressed air which is fed
the machine may be provided with the con?guration for
the intake ?ow angle properly related to the r.p.m. and
helix angle of the rotor to permit scavenging of the rotor
12 without the use of an auxiliary blower, as described
into the ?re box 100 by means of the duct system 101.
The compressed air and fuel is ignited into the ?re box 15 in copending application Serial No. 463,953, ?led October
22, 1954.
100 to thereby raise the temperature of the water fed
The exhaust gas from the wave machine 10 is passed
through the piping system 204 and subsequently change
through the port B. Since the wave machine 10 utilizes
this to steam.
the energy from the superheater section 202 to obtain
The temperature of the water in the pipes 209 of the
compressed air, it is necessary to provide additional
evaporator section 201 is raised above its boiling point
means in order to aid the system during starting, low load
and then passed through the pipe 210 of the superheater
operation and transient conditions.
section 202 and the hot gas from the ?re box 100 of the
As heretofore noted, the arrangements disclosed in
evaporator section 201 is passed to the superheater sec
US. Patent 2,853,979, to aid in supplementing the wave
tion 202 through the duct system 211.
Steam is superheated in the superheater section 202 25 machine, are all external of the main system whereas in
my instant invention, the blower 107 is inserted in the
and is supplied as an input to the steam turbine 212 by
high pressure system 101 in series with the wave ma
means of the pipes 216. The shaft power output of the
chine 10_
steam turbine 212 may then be utilized in any desirable
A prime mover 108 is provided for the blower 107.
manner, as, far example, a prime mover for the electric
30 The prime mover 108 may be an electric motor or a gas
generator 213.
or steam turbine of any construction well known in the
After a major portion of the energy and the super
art which is capable of variable speed control. That
heater steam is converted to shaft power within the steam
is, the prime mover 108 must be responsive to various
turbine 212, the steam is passed to the condenser 214 and
operating conditions of the system to accelerate or decel
thence, back to the water fed pump 203 to repeat the
cycle above described.
As heretofore noted, the compressed air is fed into the
erate the blower 107 as may be required. Thus, for ex
ample, when the entire system is being started, there will
be no hot exhaust gas from the superheater section 202
?re box section 100 of the evaporator 201 by means of
of the steam generator 200. Hence, there will be no
the duct system 101. The compressed air system is as
energy input to the wave machine 10.
follows. An aero-dynamic wave machine 10 is provided
In order to overcome this situation and provide com
with an output port D to supply compressed air to the 40
pressed air to the ?re box 100 of the steam generator 200
duct system 101 by means of the duct 105. A driven
during starting operations, the blower 107 is operated
blower 107, which is the main object of my instant in
at a su?‘icient speed in order to supply the compressed
vention, is inserted in series with the aero-dynamic wave
air requirements of the ?re box. That is, during the start
machine 10 by being permanently positioned between
duct 105 and the duct 106 of the high pressure compressed 45 ing operations, the prime mover 10$ supplies shaft power
air system 101, Thus, the compressed air output of the
aero-dynamic wave machine 10 passes through the duct
105, the driven blower 107, the duct 106, and thence,
into the ?re box 100 of the evaporator section 201 where
fuel is added from the fuel valve 102.
Following combustion of the ?re box 100, the heated
gas is passed through the duct 211 to the superheater sec
through the shaft 109 to the blower 107 so that it will serve
as a supercharger to the steam generator 200.
After the system is brought up to normal or design load
operation, there will be a su?icient hot gas exhaust from
the superheater section 202 to supply energy to the wave
machine so that proper mass ?ow and pressure will emi~
nate from the wave machine .10 through the port D to the
tion 202 to superheat the steam as heretofore noted. The
hot gas exhaust from the superheater section 202 of the
?re box 100. When this operating condition is reached, it
may then be desirable to stop the operation of the prime
steam generator is then passed through the pipe system 55 mover 108 since additional pressure may not be needed
103 to an input port C of the aero-dynamic wave ma
chine 10.
The instationary ?ow operation and sequence of the
from the blower 107.
When the load requirements, of the steam turbine 212
the wave machine 10 is as follows. A rotor 12 is pro
vided with a plurality of cells or channels 14 which are
crease in temperature will result in a lowering of the
energy input to the wave machine 10 and hence, decrease
the pressure of the compressed air output thereof.
Thus, there may be an insu?'icient mass flow and pres
sure supply to the ?re box 100 to maintain operation of
the system. In order to avoid this situation, the prime
mover 108 for the blower 107 is rendered responsive to
the load operations of the steam turbine 212. Thus, if
drop below the maximum load, the combustion tempera
ture of the gas within the steam generator will decrease
cycle of operation of the aerodynamic wave machine 10
60 thereby resulting in a decrease of the temperature of the
is disclosed in aforementioned US. Patent 2,970,745.
exhaust gas from the superheater section 202. This de
A brief description of the mechanical components of
opened at each end and rotate past the ports A, B, C
and D of the machine. Ports A and C are contained in
the stator plate 16 and the ports B and D are contained
in the stator plate 17. Proper timing for the relative
position of the various channels 14- with the ports A, B,
C and D is provided by means 11 which rotates the rotor
12 through the shaft 13. The driver 11 may be a turbine 70 the load operation drops below 20% of the maximum
or electric motor to provide a substantially constant speed
load, the automatic controls, well known in the art, will
for the rotor 12 and has a minimum shaft power require
cause the prime mover 108 to accelerate and increase the
ment since it is only necessary for this unit to rotate the
speed of the fan or blower 107. Thus, a proper mass flow
rotor 12 for proper timing and does not represent an
or pressure will be supplied to the ?re box 100 even though
energy input to the wave machine 10,
the temperature of the exhaust gases from the super
3,033,176
5
heater section 292; to the Wave machine 153 may drop be
6
required to operate the steam generator 2% thereby re
low a level required for stable operation of the wave ma
sulting in economical operation.
chine 14}.
Test runs have indicated that the increased energy input
from the prime mover 108 to drive the blower ‘107 repre
sent only 1/3 of the B.t.u.’s which are saved within the
steam boiler by the reduced exhaust temperature opera
tion. This operation should be used in speci?c cases as,
Thus, my novel arrangement aids and supplements the
wave machine during starting and low load operations.
However, it will be noted that my novel system also func
tions to provide rapid compensation during transient
for example, where desuperheated steam is desired.
load conditions such as acceleration from low to higher
In the foregoing, I have described my invention only
load conditions. In this arrangement, the prime mover
108 is made responsive to transient changes so that the 10 in connection with preferred embodiments thereof. Many
variations and modi?cations of the principles of my inven~
blower speed 107 can be substantially instantaneously in
tion within the scope of the description herein are ob~
creased to increase the mass ?ow in air pressure output
vious. Accordingly, I prefer to be bound not by the
speci?c disclosure herein but only by the appending
The control means for the prime mover 108, responsive
to the various conditions and operations of the system, 15 claim.
I claim:
may be of any type well known in the art. Thus, in re
A steam generator system being comprised of a steam
sponse to load increases in load requirements, the speed of
generator, an acre-dynamic wave machine and a blower
the prime mover 108 will be immediately increased to
maintaining proper mass flow and air pressure input to
thereby accelerate the blower It)?’ so that proper mass
?ow and air pressure will be supplied to the ?re box ‘100. 20 said steam generator during starting, low load operation
and transient conditions; said aero-dynamic wave ma
In the FIGURE I have diagrammatically illustrated an
chine having a high pressure outlet port connected to sup
automatic control means 217 for the prime mover 108.
ply compressed air through said blower to said steam gen
The automatic control means 217 can be selectively con—
thereof during transient conditions.
erator; a duct connection between said steam generator
nected to such units as the steam turbine 2&2 or the gen
erator i213 as illustrated by the dotted lines. Thus the 25 and a high pressure inlet port of said aero-dynamic wave
machine; a high pressure hot gas exhausted from said
prime mover 1498 can be selectively responsive to various
conditions and operations of either the steam turbine 212
steam generator being supplied to said high pressure in
let port of said aero-dynamic wave machine; the energy
of said high pressure hot gas being converted to high pres
In addition to serving as an aid during starting, low 30 sure air within said aero-dynamic wave machine; said
or the generator 213 as a result of the automatic control
means 217.
load operation and transient conditions, the blower 107,
in series with the wave machine 1%, also serves to con
serve the fuel consumption of the steam generator 230.
That is, the boiler exhaust temperature through the pipe
blower being connected in series with said high pressure
outlet port of said aero-dynamic wave machine to supply
high pressure air directly to said steam generator; said
blower being driven at an increased speed during starting,
193 is set by the requirements of the wave machine it}. 35 low load, and acceleration transient conditions; means re
sponsive to the load operation and transient conditions
Thus, if the wave machine has to produce a smaller
of said steam generator system to alter the speed of opera
pressure differential for the boiler to work on or less mass
tion of said blower; said blower being operatively con
?ow to the pipe 105, then the wave machine 10 will be
nected to modify the mass flow and air pressure output
able to operate on a lower boiler discharge temperature.
This can be achieved by continuously operating the high 40 of said acre-dynamic wave machine to said steam genera
tor and also to maintain proper mass ?ow and air pressure
pressure blower ‘107 so that there will be a slight pres
input to said steam generator during starting, low load
sure rise there-across. That is, the pressure in the pipe
operation and transient conditions.
196 will be higher than the pressure in the pipe 105 due
to the operation of the blower 107. This pressure rise
45
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
appears when the wave machine 10 has a reduction in the
UNITED STATES PATENTS
pressure drop across the steam generator 200 and hence,
will reduce the mass flow and air pressure output require
2,399,394
Seippel _____________ __ Apr. 30, 1946
ments of the machine 10.
2,461,186
Seippel _______________ __ ‘Feb. 8, ‘1949
Since the energy output is reduced, the energy input can 50 2,738,123
Hussmann __________ __ Mar. 13, 1956
correspondingly be reduced which will thereby permit
the machine 10 to operate with lower exhaust tempera
tures from the pipe 193. Since the exhaust temperatures
of the steam generator 200 are reduced, less fuel will be
FOREIGN PATENTS
407,158
Great Britain ________ .. Mar. 15, 1934
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