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May 8, 1962 E
c. M. KRAMSKOY
3,033,456
APPARATUS FOR MULTIPLYING BINARY NUMBERS
Filed May 10. 1957
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
103
TO N
CHARACTERS
ELEMENTARY
MULTIPLIERS
ELEM ENTARY PRODUCT
ACCUMULATORS
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MULTIPLIER
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REGISTER,
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AccmouDLAToRs l
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I80
DECIMAL PARTIAL
.
PRODUCT COUNTER
DESTINATION
FIG. 2.
Ma)’ 8, 1952
c. M. KRAMSKOY
3,033,456
APPARATUS FOR- MULTIPLYING BINARY NUMBERS
Filed May 10. 1957
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
C08 C09
DESTINAT
FIG. 3.
3,933,456
Fatented May 8, 1962
2
digits to the converting means in response to individual
3,033,456
digits of the multiplier, thereby to form partial products.
NUMBERS“;
and readily carried into effect, the invention will be de
In order that the invention may be clearly understood
APPARATUS FGR MULTH’LYHNG BHNARY
Charles Mark Kramslroy, Ealing, London, England, as
signor to Electric 51 Musical Industries Limited, Hayes,
scribed with reference to the accompanying drawings,
in which:
England, a company of Great Britain
Filed May 10, 1957, Bar. No. 658,295
Claims priority, application Great Britain May 12, 1956
9 Claims. (Cl. 235-464)
This invention relates to apparatus for multiplying bi
.
FIGURE 1 illustrates an elementary multiplier accord
ing to the present invention for multiplying two single
character decimal numbers, each number being coded in
10
nary numbers.
In data handling apparatus and in binary digital com
puters, the need for multiplying two numbers frequently
arises. Apparatus for multiplying two numbers in nor
mal binary code are known, but in data handling appara
tus for commercial use especially, it is often desirable to
express numbers in binary-decimal code or in some other
code in which different groups of binary digits represent
different characters in a higher than binary scale. It is,
of course, possible to transform a number from a binary
decima'l code or some similar code into a serial binary
code before multiplication and to re-transform the ?nal
product after multiplication. Such procedure tends,
however, to be wasteful of time and of components.
The object of the present invention is to provide im
proved multiplying apparatus which is especially adapted
for multiplying numbers in a binary-decimal or other
similar code, with a view to effecting conversions as ele
mentary steps in the multiplication process.
According to the present invention there is provided U
binary code,
FIGURE 2 illustrates diagrammatically apparatus for
multiplying in series-parallel mode two decimal num
bers each having a plurality of characters, say N and,
FIGURE 3 illustrates in greater detail part of the ap
paratus shown in FIGURE 2.
For simplicity of illustration, the apparatus has been
shown diagrammatically in the drawing and short di
agonal lines are used throughout to represent magnetis—
able cores of toroidal form.
vSome such cores are de
noted by references C and suf?xes are employed where
necessary to distinguish particular cores. The cores are
in general arranged in matrices and the cores in any one
matrix, for example to the matrix A of FIGURE 1, are
laced by two sets of conductors which are usually re
ferred to as column and row conductors respectively.
Row conductors are denoted throughout by the refer
ence X, with suitable suf?xes as required, whereas col-,
umn conductors are denoted throughout by reference Y,
again with suitable su?ixes as required. In some of the
matrices the cores are, in addition, laced by so called
diagonal conductors and these conductors are denoted
throughout by the references XY. The expression “di~
apparatus for multiplying one group of binary digits by
another group of binary digits comprising means for pro
ducing a plurality of binary code signals representing
agonal” does not of course necessarily imply that the
conductors are diagonal in space but merely that they pass
partial products of said one group of binary digits with
individual digits of the other‘ group of binary digits,
means for converting the signal elements representing in
of row and column conductors.
dividual binary digits in each partial product into char—
acter signals, each character signal comprising signal ele
ments representing a group of binary digits constituting
a character in a higher than binary scale, and means for
in a systematic manner through cores at the intersections _
Binary digital signal elements are stored in the cores in
well known manner by using the property of remanence
magnetism, remanence magnetism of one polarity repre
senting a binary digit of value “1” and remanence mag
netism of opposite polarity representing a binary digit of
summing the corresponding character signals of the par
value “0.” The conductors by which the cores are laced
tial products.
cores or reading such information from the cores.
The expression “character” is used herein and in the
claims to denote a digit of a number expressed in a high
er than binary scale, the expression “digit” having been
used always to refer to binary digits. The expression
“group” in relation to binary digits has been used herein
and in the claims to denote a series of digits of successive
ly higher order. Moreover the expression “binary code
signal” is used herein and in the claims to denote a sig
nal comprising different signal elements representing in~
dividual binary digits, such digits being arranged in some
predetermined manner but not necessarily in such a way
that successive signal elements represent digits of succes
sively higher order. The expression “signal element” is
used herein and in the claims to denote the component
of a signal representing a single binary digit. There
fore when a number in a higher than binary scale is ex
pressed in “binary code,” a “group” of binary digits is
required to express each “character” in the number, as
for example, when a decimal number is expressed in so
are employed for recording binary signal elements in the
Re
cordings of information in particular cores can be effected
by applying current pulses of appropriate polarity and of
predetermined amplitude (so-called “l” currents) to a sin
gle conductor passing through that core or alternatively
by simultaneously applying current pulses of appropriate
polarity and of half the predetermined amplitude (so
called “1/2” currents) to two conductors passing through
the particular cores. Such currents change the cores to
a combination of magnetisation states corresponding to
the data represented by the applied currents. Reading of
a recorded signal element is usually effected by applying
“1” currents with a sense tending to restore the respective
cores to the “0” condition, any corresponding magnetisa
tion changes inducing current pulses in other conductors
which are laced through the respective cores. The actual
technique of reading or writing adopted in particular cases
will be apparent in the following description. Although
the conductors are represented in the drawing as single
called “binary decimal code” when each group of binary
lines it will be understood that the conductors are ar
digits comprises binary digits of order 2“, 21, 22 and 23.
If the multiplicand and the multiplier are expressed
for the flow of currents to and from the cores.
by means of groups of binary digits with each group
representing a character in a higher than binary scale,
ranged, by suitable earth returns, to form complete loops
Referring to Fl-GURE l, the elementary multiplier
shown therein comprises a multiplier register 1 and a
multiplicand register 2!- A single character decimal hum;
the apparatus preferably comprises a plurality of elemen
her, which is to form the multiplicand, is applied to the
tary multiplying apparatuses as de?ned in the preced
ing paragraph, one for each group in the multiplicand, 70 register 2 in binary code and the register 2 may comprise
four two state devices which store signal elements repre
each elementary multiplying apparatus having means for
senting the four binary digits used to represent the num~
selectively gating the respective group of multiplicand
%
3,033,456
v3
her. The multiplier register 1 may be of similar con
struction, and as such registers are well known, the regis
ters 1 and 2 have been represented merely by means of
rectangles. The multiplier register 1 has four output con
ductors Y 1 to YD4 which constitute the Y conductors
of a store D consisting of four cores CD1 to CD4, through
The number of “shifts” corresponds to the number of
which cores pass also the output conductors of a four
digits in the multiplier. The multiplier and the multipli
stage pulse distributor 3. The pulse distributor is driven
byclock pulses applied by way of the input lead 4. Fur
cand are both spacially arranged so that the order of the
binary digit decreases from left to right as seen in the
pulse is applied to all the row conductors XAI to XA4
and this causes the multiplier to be set up in the cores
CD1 to CD4, and by the same process the multiplicand
is set up in the store A in each of the four rows thereof
with a shift of 1 binary place from one row to the next.
thermore, four row conductors XAll to XAd of a matrix
drawing.
store A, termed the partial product store, are passed re
spectively through the core CD1 to CD4. The register 2
has four output conductors which form diagonal conduc
feed driving pulses successively, in synchronism with the
The pulse distributor. 3 is then operated to
clock, to the cores CDT to CD4 and these pulses reset the
cores which are in “1” state, thereby applying the multi
plier digits in correct sequence to the row conductor XA1
tors XYl to XY4 of the matrix store A. The store A
comprises four rows of cores with each row (but the 15 to XA4 of the store A. It is of course necessary to ensure
?rst) displaced one position to the right with reference
that the pulses which represent the multiplier digits have
to the preceding row, such a displacement representing a
shift of one binary digital place. The cores of the store
A are also laced by column conductors Y, which are em
ployed for reading signal elements recorded on the cores
and it will become apparent in the following that a “1”
the correct polarity to reset cores of the store A.
In
effect, the ?rst pulse from the distributor 3 gates the
highest order digit of the multiplier to the conductor XAl.
The contents of row 1 of the register A are therefore
transferred to the drive unit 9 and thence to the cores B
signal element transmitted by the column conductor YAl
corresponds to 2°, a “1” signal element transmitted by
and C, such content being the highest partial product.
the column conductors are transferred to a pulse regen
erator or a so-called drive unit 9 which relays the signal
conductor YA7 as relayed by the drive unit 9 sets up a
“l” in each of the cores CB1, CCl and CCZ of the stores
B and C. Core C31 is laced by the third row conductor
Assume that the highest order binary digit of the multi
YA2 corresponds to 21, and so on to YA7 which corre
plier has value “1” and therefore represents 23, namely 8.
sponds to 2*‘.
25 If the highest order multiplicand digit is also “1” the prod
Signal elements read from the matrix A by means of
uct of these two digits is 64. The output on the vertical
elements to two binary to binary-decimal conversion
stores B and C. The unit 9 is shown merely as a rectan
gle, since it may be of any suitable construction, its main
function being to “clean-up” or regenerate the pulses from
the signals read from the matrix A. In the stores B and
C magnetic cores are placed only at the intersection of
selected X and Y conductors. Signals relayed by the
unit 9 at particular times may include signal elements
representing binary digits up to the seventh order and the
XBS of the store B and represents 22 namely 4. Similarly
cores CC]; and (ICE of the store C are laced by the second
and third row conductorsXCZ and XC3 and represent
21+22=6. Therefore the ‘required decimal digits 6 and
4 are set up automatically. A similar result'is produced
with the output from each other core in the ?rst row of
the matrix A. After the stores B and C have received the
?rst partial product signals are applied to. the conductors
5 and 6 by actuation of the pulse distributor 7 to transfer
cores of the stores B and C set up, in a binary code, the
corresponding units and tens decimal digits. In the case
the partial product from the cores B and C to the accumu
of the stores B and C, the X conductors are employed for 40 lators 1t} and 11.
reading recorded signals and signals so read are applied
to accumulators It} and 11, the “units” and “tens” accumu
The second pulse from the distributor 3 is applied to
the core CD2 and if the second highest digit in the multi
plier is 1, it initiates a transfer of the second partial
lators, respectively. These accumulators may be of any
suitable construction and form no part of the present in
product (that is the multiplicand, shifted one place to the
vention, and it is to be understood that provision is made 45 right) to the drive unit 9 and thence to the cores B and C.
for a carry from the accumulator iii to the accumulator
11, this provision being represented in the drawing by the
Assuming the second highest digit of the multiplier is 1,
representing 4, there will be an output in the column
connection 14. In order to drive the cores in the stores B
conductor YA6 representing 25, namely 32, and this sets
and C the output conductors 5 and 6 of a two stage pulse
up “1” in the core CB2 of store B and also sets up “1” in
distributor 7 are laced selectively through the cores in the 50 the cores CC3 and CC4< of core C. The core CB2 by its
stores B and C. It will be noted that some of the row
location represents 2 X19" and cores CC3 and CO4 repre
Wires of these two stores have two or more cores on them
sent 1 X161 and 2 Xltll respectively, and when in due
and if two such cores are within four adjacent columns
course signals are transferred from the cores B and C to
they may be set in the “1” state simultaneously when a
the accumulators lit and ll the decimal number 32 is
partial product is read from the store A. Therefore they
transferred as required.
must be. read sequentially to avoid errors in the accumula
tor ltlandll and the lacing of the conductors 5 and 6
is selected so that neither conductor passes through two
product is dealt with in a similar way.
cores in the same row which are within four columns,
only two conductors being required (and thus only two
stages in the distributor 7) since there are never more than
2 cores within four adjacent columns in any row of the
cores B and C. Subject to this limitation, the lacing of
the conductors 5 and 6 may be arbitrary.
In operation of the elementary multiplier shown in
Each other digit of the partial
By the same procedure the third and fourth digits of the
multiplier are gated respectively to the row conductors
XA3 and XA4 of the store A, to transfer the multipli
cand with appropriate “shifts” to the cores B and C
where they are converted into binary decimal code and
in due course transferred to the accumulators 1t} and 11.
It is necessary to arrange that the accumulators are in a
quiescent state after each entry before a subsequent entry
65 is made.
FIGURE I, initially the cores of the stores A, B and C
The various steps in the multiplication process described
are all in state “0.” The multiplier is set up in the regis~
can be timed automatically by means of a control organ,
ter 1 and the multiplicand is set up in the register 2. At an
but as this technique is well known to those skilled in the
appropriate time, registers l and 2 are read simultaneous
art, it has been deemed unnecessary to illustrate the con
ly, to apply “’/2” currents selectively to the column con 70 trol organ.
ductors of the store D and to the diagonal conductors of
summarising the operation of FIGURE 1, it will be
the store A, a “1/2” current being applied to a conductor
appreciated that there are produced in the column con-v
only if the multiplier, or the multiplicand as the case may
ductors YAl to YA7 successive binary code signals repre
be, has “1” in the respective digital place. Simultaneously
senting partial products of the multiplicand with individua
With the reading of the registers 1 and 2 a “1/2” current 75 al digits of the multiplier. Thus the binary digits which
3,033,456
5
6
express the multiplicand are applied to the matrix store
accumulates the tens characters and so on. There is no
A in the parallel mode whereas the binary digits which
express the multiplier are applied in the series mode.
Each binary code signal constituting a partial product is
applied, via the drive unit 9, to the two binary-to-decimal
conversion stores B and C. The signal elements represent
one-for-one correspondence between the accumulators P
and the accumulators Q because, whereas the number of
accumulators P is determined by the number of charac
ters in the multiplicand, being in fact twice that number
of characters, the number of accumulators Q is deter
converted into character signals, such character signals
mined by the number of characters in the multiplicand
and the number of characters in the multiplier, being the
being set up in the cores CB and CC.
sum of these two numbers of characters.
ing individual binary digits in each partial product are
Each character
After the
signal comprises signal elements representing a group of 10 multiplying operation is completed, the product is there
fore to be found in the accumulators Q1, Q2 . . . Q8
binary digits constituting a character in the decimal scale.
. . . with the characters in parallel form and the refer
Furthermore the accumulators 1t} and 11 in the conjunc
ence 13 indicates symbolically a magnetic core matrix
for converting the product to serial form as far as the
15 decimal characters are concerned. External couplings
cessive partial products.
are provided between the pairs of accumulators in the
In some cases, instead of reading the stores B and C in
series P1, P2 . . . to allow for digit carrying as be
two steps, by means of the distributor 7, reading may be
tween the accumulators 10 and 11 in FIGURE 1. More
effected in a single step, in which case the input to the
over the accumulators Q1, Q2 . . . are connected in a
accumulators 1i} and 11 on some conductors may have
tion with the pulse distributor 7 constitutes means for
summing the corresponding character signals of the suc
any one of three values, namely 0, 1 and 2. Consequently
in such a case the accumulators 1t) and 11 require to be
constructed to discriminate among these di?erent values.
The N character multiplier shown in FIGURE 2 em
. ploys a series of elementary multipliers similar to that
continuous sequence to allow for digit carrying opera
tions, in known manner.
In FIGURE 3, the blocks Pn- l, Pit, Pn+1 and Pn+2
represent four of the accumulators in the series P1,
P2 . . . (n being assumed to be even).
The accumula
shown in FiGURE 1 although for simplicity only four 25 tors Pn-l and Pn comprise the two accumulators for
are shown, and these are denoted by references M1 to
M4. The elementary multipliers are referred to as multi
plier planes .and decimal digits are as stated referred to
as characters. The multiplicand for the plane M1 is the
the plane
'
Mn
2
lowest order character (units decimal digit) similarly the 30 whereas the accumulators Pn+1 and Pn-l-Z are the two
accumulators for the plane
Mn+2
ing to the tens, hundreds, thousands characters . . . .
planes M2, M3 and M4 . . . receive inputs correspond
The block 15 comprises a multiplier register, store and
2
pulse distributor similar to the elements 1, D .and 3 of
Let
it
be
assumed
that
n
is
six.
The plane
FIGURE 1. However in this case provision is made for 35
feeding the binary digits of all multiplier characters in
Mn
time serial order to the planes M1, M2 . . . .
Firstly,
the four binary elements of the highest order character
'7
is then that in which operations are performed on the
are applied successively to the row wires XAl, XAZ, etc.
as in FIGURE 1. Secondly the binary elements of the 40 hundreds character of the multiplicand. Let it also be
assumed that multiplication by the hundreds character
second highest order character are dealt with in the same
in the multiplier has just been completed. The accumu
way, and so on through all the multiplier characters.
lator Pn—1 may then contain a ten-thousands (104)
Therefore the multiplier register 1 must have capacity
character, and the accumulator Pn may contain a hun
for all the multiplier characters, and switching means
for feeding the binary digits of the characters in sequence 46 dred-thousands (105) character. Moreover the accu
mulator Pn+l may also contain a hundred-thousands
to the cores CD]. to CD2. The output of the planes
M1 to M4 are accumulated in a series of accumulators
(105) character whereas the accumulator Pn+2 may
This shows that
after any partial multiplying operations, characters ac
The orders of the accumulators are indicated in the
rawings and the accumulators are denoted by the refer 50 cumulated in the accumulator Pn and Pn-l-l must be
(like it) and 11), two for each elementary multiplier.
contain a millions character (106).
transferred to the same Q accumulator, namely Q6 in
ences P1, P2 . . . P8 . . . .
The block 16 represents a
the example assumed. The three Q accumulators shown
shift store for the decimal partial products set up by
in FIGURE 3 are denoted by the references
multiplying the several characters of the multiplicand
by each character of the multiplier. The decimal partial
product shift store 16 is controlled by a decimal partial 55
product counter 17 which advances one step for each
and
multiplying operation involving a multiplier character.
The expression “decimal partial product” is used to de
Q11
note the partial product of all decimal characters of the
5+4
multiplicand with a single character of the multiplier 60 to indicate that there is no one-for-one correspondence
and is to be distinguished from the expression “partial
between the order of the characters stored in the Q ac
product” used in relation to FIGURE 1 to denote the
cumulators shown and that of the characters stored in
product of a group of binary digits by an individual
the P accumulators shown. Moreover if other values of
binary digit. The construction of the shift register 15
11 and/or other multiplier characters are considered, the
is illustrated in greater detail in FIGURE 3 and it is 65 generality of this result will be apparent. Therefore the
such as to produce successive shifts of the partial prod
full construction of the shift store 16 is adequately illus
ucts corresponding to the order of the successive multi
trated by means of the representative section illustrated
plier digits. The characters of each partial product, thus
in FIGURE 3. In the store 16 there are two sections,
70 each having as many rows of cores as there are decimal
partial products to be dealt with, but only three rows
di?’erent characters of successive partial products, after
are shown in each section and these are identi?ed by
these partial products have been shifted or weighted to
shifted, are fed to another series of accumulators Q1,
Q2 . . . Q8 . . . which perform
the
addition
of the
their row conductors respectively. Thus, the row con
ductors XOm, XOm-l-l and XOm+2 are shown in one
successive decimal partial products, the accumulator Q2 75 section, which corresponds to the odd numbered ac
become in combination a decimal partial product. Thus,
the accumulator Q1 accumulates the unit characters in
7
3
cumulators say i’n—l and ‘Pn-I-l etc. (taking it as even),
and row conductors XEm-l, XEm and XEm-I-l are
These “1A2” currents combine with “1/2” currents fed to
row Wires X1, X2, X3 and X4 from a control device 20
shown in the other section, which corresponds to the
of the conversion store 18 (FIGURE 3) to record binary
elements in different rows of the matrix 18, correspond
even numbered accumulators, Pn, Pn+2 etc. Each row
includes four magnetic cores for each accumulator such
5
ing binary elements from different accumulators being
as Pn. Output conductors from the accumulators are
also laced through these cores but in a diagonal fashion
stored in the same rows. Consequently each column of
four cores in the matrix 18 corresponds to a single
as represented in FIGURE 3. In FIGURE 3 only two
decimal character.
output conductors and only two cores are shown in each
sequencer 18a is arranged in any suitable manner to
row of the shift store 16 corresponding to each accumu
10 apply read out currents in serial order to the columns.
lator, to simplify the illustration, and it will be observed
that the inclination of the diagonal conductors is such
that the group of cores corresponding to any one ac
cumulator, say Pn-l, is shifted by one character “dis
tance” from one row to the next.
Some of the cores 15
corresponding to the accumulator Pn+1 are denoted in
FIGURE 3 by the reference C07, C08, C09 and C010.
For reading the character the time
This causes the successive characters to be read out in
time serial order. The time'sequencer may be a simple
counter, synchronised by clock pulses. The device 29
may be a simple gate.
What I claim is:
signi?cance as the cores CO7 to C010 in the other sec
1. Apparatus for multiplying one group of binary digits
by another group of binary digits comprising means for
producing a plurality of binary code signals representing
partial products of said one group of binary digits with
individual digits of the other group of binary digits, con
verting means for converting the signal elements repre
tion of the store 16. There is a similar relationship be
tween other cores in the store 16. To transfer the ele
senting individual binary digits in each partial product
into character signals, each character signal comprising
Similarly, some of the cores corresponding to the ac
cumulator Pn are denoted by the references CB5 to
CElt), the cores CB7 to CElt) having the same digital
mentary partial products from the accumulators P‘ to the
signal elements representing a group of binary digits con
store 16, the decimal partial product counter 17 (FIG 25 stituting a character in ‘a higher than binary scale, and
URE 2) applies a current pulse to and only to the re
means for summing the corresponding character signals
spective one row conductor in each section of the store
16 after each decimal partial product is formed. Assume
of the partial products.
2. Apparatus for multiplying numbers expressed in
once more that n is six and multiplication by the hun
groups of binary digits with each group representing a
dreds character of the multiplier has just been completed. 30 character in a higher than binary scale, comprising means
The characters accumulated in Pm and Pn-l-l have both
for producing a plurality of binary code signals repre
to be transferred to the accumulator
'
senting partial products of each group of binary digits in
the multiplicand with individual digits in each group of
binary digits in the multiplier before taking account of
35 the order of the multiplier characters represented by the
respective groups of binary digits, converting means for
The decimal partial product counter is therefore re
quired to deliver “1/2” current pulses to the row con
ductor XOm and to the row conductor XEm. These
current pulses may be simultaneous, and during their
converting the signal elements representing individual
binary digits in each partial product into character sig
nals, each’ character signal comprising signal elements
representing a group of binary digits constituting a char
acter in a higher than binary scale, means for summing
the corresponding character signals derived from said
converting means to form a plurality of elementary prod
cumulated therein. The elementary partial products are
uct signals each representing the product of a group of
thereby transferred to cores in the store 16 and the
“shift” produced by the row selection of the counter 17 45 binary digits in the multiplicand with a group of binary
digits in the multiplier, means for weighting said ele
is such that the characters of the partial products have
mentary product signals to take account of the order
the required weights. Similar considerations apply to
of the multiplier characters represented by the respec
all the other elementary partial products accumulated in
tive groups of binary digits, and means for summing
the accumulators P and after each transfer to a pair of
the weighted elementary product signals to produce a sig
rows of the shift store 16, the elementary partial prod
nal representing the product of said numbers.
ucts suitably Weighted so that in combination they form
3. Apparatus according to claim 1, said converting
a decimal partial product are fed into the product ac
means comprising a plurality of conductors grouped to
cumulators Q by applying suitable currents to the column
represent the respective groups of binary digits, and means
conductors of the shift store 16. This is achieved by
a two stage pulse distributor 19 like the distributor 7, 55 for injecting signals into selected conductors in said groups
in response to the signal elements in the partial products.
which applies a reading pulse sequentially to column
4. Apparatus according to claim 3 wherein said means
conductors in the two sections of the store 16. Since
for injecting signals into selected conductors comprises
the characters of the multiplier are taken in decreasing
order the counter 17 is required to count down, for ex
magnetic core means representing the individual binary
ample, when multiplication by the hundreds character 60 digits and coupled with the selected conductors, and means
has been completed, the decimal partial product has been
for inducing predetermined magnetization changes in the
transferred to the Q accumulators and all carrying proc
respective core means in response to signal elements rep
esses have ended, the tens character of the multiplier is
resenting binary digits of value “1.”
used to gate the multiplicand characters selectively into
5. Apparatus according to claim 4 wherein said core
occurrence corresponding half currents are applied selec
tively to the output diagonal conductors of the accumu
lators P, depending on the values of the characters ac
the accumulators P. The counter then applies a “1/2”
current pulse to the conductors XOm-l and XEm:_1
to initiate a transfer of the elementary partial products
to the rows XOm-l and XEm—1 for the purpose of
weighting them before they are ?nally transferred to the
means representing some individual ‘binary digits com
prises a plurality of cores linked with different conductors.
6. Apparatus according to claim 1 wherein said means
for producing a plurality of binary code signals represent
70 ing partial products comprises ‘a plurality of column con
accumulators Q as decimal partial products.
ductors, one for each binary digit in the partial products,
The transfer of the ?nal product from the accumula
tors Q1, Q2 . . . to the conversion store 18 is achieved
means for gating signals representing binary digits of
as follows, Each accumulator Q produces “1/2” currents
on its four column conductors in dependence on the value
value “1” in the multiplicand to groups of said column
conductors selectively in response to the individual digits
of‘the binary elements of the respective decimal digit. 75 of the multiplier, said gating meansbeing such that the
3,083,456
locations of the groups of column conductors represent
the order of the respective multiplier digits.
7
7. Apparatus according to claim 6 wherein said gating
means comprises magnetic cores at the intersections of
said column conductors and of row conductors, which
correspond to digits of the multiplier, means for inducing
sequential signal elements in said row conductors repre
senting respectively the binary digits of the multiplier,
10
ing means comprises a plurality of groups of column con
ductors, there being one group of column conductors for
every character signal output of said ?rst summing means,
and there being in each group one conductor for each
binary signal required to express the corresponding char
acter; two series of row conductors, there being one row
conductor in each series for each multiplier character
order; a plurality of magnetic cores disposed respectively
at the junctions of said column and row conductors so
at said intersections and means for inducing simultaneous 10 as to be coupled with said conductors; a plurality of groups
diagonal conductors passing selectively through said cores
signal elements in diagonal conductors representing re
spectively the binary digits of the multiplicand, thereby to
gate said last mentioned signals to groups of the column
of diagonal conductors, there being one group of diagonal
conductors for every character signal output of said ?rst
summing means and there being in each group one con
ductor for each binary signal required to express the
8. Apparatus for multiplying numbers expressed in 15 corresponding character; alternate groups of diagonal con
ductors being laced through the magnetic cores at the
groups of binary signals with each group representing a
junction of the column conductors and the row conduc
character in higher than binary scale, comprising a plural
conductors.
ity of elementary multipliers, one elementary multiplier
for each multiplicand character; each elementary multi
tors in one of said series to effect successive column shifts
of the respective groups of diagonal conductors; interven
plier comprising a plurality of column channels, one for 20 ing groups of said diagonal conductors being laced through
the magnetic cores at the junction of the column conduc
each possible binary digit in the output of the respective
tors and the row conductors of the other of said series to
elementary multiplier, a group of input channels \for a
effect successive column shifts of the respective groups of
signal representing the respective multiplicand character
diagonal conductors; means for successively pulsing the
in binary code, a plurality of groups of gates, one group
of gates for each possible digit required to express a multi 25 row conductors of both series to transfer character signals
from said ?rst summing means, via said diagonal con
plier character in binary code, said groups of gates being
ductors to the magnetic cores coupled with the respective
operative to connect said input channels respectively to
row conductors, thereby to weight the respective character
different groups of said column channels to effect succes
signals according to the multiplier character order; and
sive column shifts of said input channels, means for
selectively operating said groups of gates in succession 30 said distributor comprising means for alternately pulsing
the magnetic cores coupled with said two series of row
according to signal elements representing individual binary
conductors to transfer respective character signals at dif
digits of a multiplier character to- induce signals in said
ferent times to said further summing means.
column channels representing the product of said multi
plier and multiplicand characters; said gate operating
means being common to said plurality of elementary 35
multipliers to operate simultaneously corresponding ‘groups
of gates in the different elementary multipliers; means for
accumulating signals induced in the output channels of
said elementary multipliers, said accumulating means in
cluding means for differently Weighting the respective sig 40
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,394,924
2,428,812
2,604,262
2,722,375
2,734,182
2,808,986
2,846,671
2,907,526
Luhn ________________ .._ Feb‘. 12, 1946
Rajchman ____________ __ Oct. '14, 1947
Phelps ______________ __ July 22,
Chenus ______________ _.. Nov. 1,
Rajchman ___________ _.. Feb. 7,
Stone et al _____________ .. Oct. 8,
Yetter _______________ __ Aug. 5,
1952
1955
1956
1957
1958
Havens _______________ __ Oct. 6, 1959
nals to accord with multiplier characters of different
orders, means for converting individual signal elements in
the column channels of said elementary multipliers into
character signals, each character signals comprising a
group of binary signals representing a character in higher 45
FOREIGN PATENTS
than binary scale, said accumulator means including
means for separately summing the character signals de
1,101,201
France ______________ __ Apr. 20; ‘1955
rived from each elementary multiplier, means for weight
OTHER REFERENCES
ing the separately summed signals to accord with multi
plier characters of different orders, and further means for 50 Richards: “Arithmetic Operations In Digital Com
summing the weighted signals including a distributor to
puters,” D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc., 1955, pp. 247-250.
“Synthesis of Electronic Computing ‘and Control Cir
cuits,” Harvard University Press, 1951, pp. 198-200.
“Description of a Magnetic Drum Calculator,” Harvard
elementary multipliers.
9. Apparatus according to claim 8, wherein said weight 55 University Press, 1952, pp. 101-114.
render said further means responsive at separate times to
character signals of the same order derived from different
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