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Патент USA US3033505

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May 8, 1962
s. J. slKoRA
3,033,495
AuToPILoT FORCE LINK
2 Sheets-Sheet l
Filed April 25, 1960
N.mi
u:
n.
INVENTOR`
STEPHEN
J. SlKORA
AGENT
May 8, 1962
s. J. SIKORA
3,033,495
AUTOPTLDT FORCE LINK
Filed April 25, 1960
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AERoDYNAMIc
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RESPONSE
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REFERENCE
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INVENTOR.
STEPHEN J. SIKORA
AGENT
3,033,495
United States Patent O.” ice
2
l
j
represent corresponding parts throughout the several
3,033,495
AUTOPILQT FORCE LINK
,
Stephen J. Sikora, Warminster, Pa., assignor to the United
States of America as represented by the Secretary of
the Navy>
„
Filed Apr. 25, 1960, Ser. No. 24,633
`
11V Claims.
Patented May 8., 19672
(Cl. 244-76)
(Granted under Title 35, U.“S. `Code (1952), sec. 266)
views, and in which:
FIG. 1 is a longitudinal sectional view of a force link
device;
5'
'
_
FIG. 2 is a schematic -electromechanical diagram of an
automatic pilot and manual aircraft control system em
bodying the invention for controlling an aircraft about
either the pitch or roll axis of the aircraft; ‘
FIG. 3 is a schematic electromechanical diagram'of
The invention described herein may be manufactured 10 the preferred form of'an integrator shown in FIG. 2; and
FIG. 4 is a schematic electromechanical diagram of an
automatic pilot and manual aircraft control system em
bodying the invention for the yaw aXis of an aircraft.
ment of any royalties thereon or therefor. .
_t is to be lunderstood that the invention is not’limited
The present invention relates to aircraft control sys
tems, and more particularly the invention relates to an 15 to the details of construction and arrangement of parts
shown in the drawings Yand hereinafter described in de
automatically and manually operated aircraft control sys
and used by or for the Government of the United States
of America for governmental purposes without the pay
tem.
tail, but is capable‘of being otherwise embodied and of
being practiced and carried out in various-ways. It is
to be further understood that the phras'eology or termi
'
An object of this invention is the provision of novel
Vmeans for establishing a new attitude reference for an
aircraft in the pitch, roll and yaw axes Without switching 20 nology employed herein is for the purposeof description
and there is no intention to herein limit the invention
the automatic pilot off but Iby merely manipulating the
beyond the requirements for the prior art§`
manual controls.
Referring to FIG. l, a device embodying invention
Another object of the invention is the provision of a
and hereinafter referred to` as a force link is indicated
novel force link for use in an aircraft adapted to be man
ually and automatically controlled, the force link permit 25 generally by the reference numeral 10. The force link
10 comprises a housing 11 having an eye 12 threaded
ting the attitude of the aircraft to be changed by the mere
into and fixed with a lock nut 13 to a closed end 11a
`manipulation of the manual controls and for establish-`
ing new attitude references in the pitch, roll and/ or yaw ' Qthereof, and a plunger assembly, indicated generally by
the reference numeral 14. The plunger assembly 14 com
axes Without switching olf the automatic pilot.
Yet another object of the invention is the provision of 30 prises a rod endniember 15 having an eye 16 at oneend
thereof and an internally threaded nut portion 17
i a novel force link for use in the control linkages of an>
threaded onto the outer end of a cylindrical actuating '
aircraft and more particularly in a rotary wing aircraft,
.shaft 18.
`
wherein the automatic pilot need not bel switched off in
The actuating -shaft 18 is threaded 'throughout approxi
order for a new aircraft attitude to bevestablished in the
pitch, roll and yaw axes, the autopilot continuing to main 35 mately half of its length and extends a substantialrdis
tance inside of the housing 11 so that a flanged end por
tain the aircraft at the newly' established attitude after
tion 1,9 thereof is normally substantially coplanar with an
the manual controls have been released.
internal' annular shoulder portion 20 located substantial
Another object of the invention is the provision of> a
» novel compact and simple electromechanical force link 40 ` ly two-thirds from the outer open end 21 'of the housing
11. The housing 11 is formed with a rectangularopen
suitable for use in the pitch, roll and yaw channels of an
ing 22 in the bottom or closed end 11a and with a cy
" autopilot.
l
A further object of the invention is the provision-of
an easily adjustable autopilot force link comprising a
spring-loaded plunger in a housing arranged in-such a
manner that push. or pull on the plunger in' the housing
is resisted by a spring, the spring being compressed when
ever the force link is extended or contracted along the
longitudinal axis thereof.
v
.
lindrical bore or Wall 23 forming the balance of the in
'ternal wall of the cup-shapedhousing 11. The outer end
of >the wall 2~3`is internally threaded so as to receive an
45 "
externally threaded adjustable preloading screw 25 which
vhas a hexagonally-shaped radial flange 26 at the outer
end thereof. The preloading screw 25 has al central cy
lindrical opening 27 and a counterbore portion 28 so as
to reduce ¿the sliding friction between the preloading
A still yfurther object of the invention is the provision 50
screw 25 and a hollow shaft sleeve 30.
`
of coaxial signal pickoif means in the force link adapted
The actuating shaft 18 has a central cylindrical pas
to transmit a signal representative of the relative dis
sage 31> for receiving an armature positioning rod 32
placement of the plunger and the housing and indicative
which on the extreme inner end thereof carries a variable
of whether the ¿force link has been contracted or elon
impedance transformer core 33 movable with respect to
gated.
Y
.
55 the fixed windings of a variable impedance transformer
A still further object of the invention is the provision
34 fixed in the bottom of the housing 11 and conform
of a means for feeding a signal back to the input of an
ing to the shape `of the Wall 22 of the housing 11. The
autopilot servomeehanism which is proportional to the
outer end of the armature positioning rod 32_is slotted
length of time that the force link is elongated or con-l
tracted, as set forth in the preceding object, algebraical 60 for a screwdriver and- is provided with a lock nut, 35
threaded thereon lso as to permit the armature 33 to be
- ly -multiplied by the magnitude of the elongation or con
adjusted to` a zero output or central position within the
traction of the force link, the algebraic product of the
jtransformer 34 an-d then locked in position.
' time and displacement magnitudes being integrated and .
The actuating shaft 18 has a cup-shaped spring re
fed at a predetermined rate to the input of the servo- - I
taining
washer -40 on the inner end thereof normally
mechanism _of the autopilot.
65 biased- against the ñange 19 and seated 4against the in
The invention further resides in certain novel features
i ' of construction, combinations and arrangements ofgparts,
ternal shoulder'20 of the housing 11. y
;
_
The actuating- shaft 18` has an helical spring 42 dis
and further objects and advantages of the invention will
posedv thereaboutl with vone end of the spring acting
be apparent to those skilled in the art to which it per
-tains from the following description of the preferred em 70 against the Washer 40 and with the other end acting
against an identical but oppositely -facing* cup-shaped
bodiment thereof, described with reference to theY accom
l panying drawings inwhich similar reference characters
spring retaining washer 43. t The backside of the-Washer
3,033,495.
3
4.
43.is.sl10.wn engaging the terminal. inner ends of thepre
ments> 71, 100, 101, and Si) form. a. common juncture.
In its most complicated -form mixing point 72 would be
composed of resistors and capacitors `arranged to insure
proper phase and gradient relationships of the outputs
from elements 71, lill?, 1,01,Y and 80. For purposes of
loading screw 25 and the sleeve 36, FIG. l.
The spring 4Z is preloaded by adjusting the preloading
screw
so that aA load of preferably 50 pounds per inch
of displacement is required to elongate or contract the
thisinvention,howevenritvinay be' assumed that the out
puts from'thevelementsvare ofl proper phase and gradient
force. link 10, It isV tobe. understood, however, that the
preload of the spring 42 can be set at any force so that
when a predetermined force is exerted against the force
relationships.
link 10, the-force link 10 is contractedl or extended by
compressing». the spring 42.. Therefore, the forceV link
Should the helicoptery beon a normal horizontal course
and -the pilot decide. to nose-up the helicopter fuselage
10 will transfer forces upto 50 pounds, and any load
A lock nut Si? is providedA on the preloading screw 25
a selected preload adjustment of theY sleeveêtl is attained
by. means. of an adjustable Prelcading. nut 5.1- The nur
totalamoun't
'
i
i
V
nected. inr any push-pull, linkage in an aircraft control
windings 83- and 84. The .Output of the integrator
Sois fed at alpredeterminedV rate tothe mixing. point 72.
Referring toiFlG. 3,»the integrator 80 is comprised of
an ampliñer 86‘having its inputs connected to the trans
former pick-utf coil 824» and its output electrically connect
ed' to a synchronous motor 87, which` is~_ mechanically
connected'tovdrive a generator unity 88. A_pic‘koifl coil
89 of¿a generator 8S feeds a nulling signal back into and
system as lWelll "as ina cyclicpitch or Vroll control sys
tenif'for. `controlling a swÍash plate, can be in any of a
in series with the input to the ampliñer 86l so that-the
feedback is proportionalto servo‘shaft displacement and
speedofj the synchronous Imotor 87. The' signal picked
otbby, the` generator` coil v-89-is opposite in phase to that
oftheseeondarywinding 82 of_¿ the transformerv 34, A
drive shaft 91B of the Synchronous motor 87` positionsa
rotor clarryingan input> coilz91-Vv of a, synchro transmitter
92 and.;-tfaasrr1îts a Sisnalby- a. Sewadary winding 9.3.
35
crankv arm. of .an autopilot. servomotor . and the Àother end
lîxcdf'to'a'fbell crankin. a manual controlsystem where
the `control.motion of the'co'ntrol stickfor pedal is trans
;-b'y'means ofsomefform of shaft rotation. Al 40
v_ely, if there is,l push-pull linkage.` in the Vaircraft
. l``syS'.ttSri1,`thel force flink canV be.. directly incor
ted b'y “merelyïbr'eam'ng'the linkage 'and‘insertin «
u
which is Preferably. Yrshaped- The transmitter-Winding
orcelink 19, by meansgof the eyes 12 and 16.
In the' eyclicpitch sw'ash plate contro-lI 'system` of, a
helicopter, FIG. 2; the force link lo" has one end ñxed
"
centralt null position relative toA the primary transformer
connection with an helicopter control system, it is under
stood'th'atithe force link ’can be 'used' in any aircraft con
troll- system, wherein ‘an autopilot and/or a stability. aug
n‘ientatio'nsystem Iis being utilized. Theactual location
ofthe 'force' links, iny an helicopter rotor pitch control
Fo‘r'exa'mple, one end of the force Ilink may be iìxed to a
"
tance by which the armature has been` moved from its
25
system. Although, the> invention will be described in
nun'i'be'r` -ofplaces where there isa push pull relationship.
'
'184 ofthe samev voltage but ofr'opposite electrical phase.
TheÍ output ofthe integrator `Sois a function of the al
gebraic'product of the totalY time the force link 10g-is
retracted multiplied by the magnitude of they total dis
'
"Referring to FIGS 2 and 4, the force link 10 can _be con
'
20 The transformer 34 has two primary windings S3 and
which thelforce link ltlcan be extended
'
'
electrical phase is fed backto an( integrator unit Si)l by
means Vof anrelectrical conduit S1l from the transformer
34.y More particularly, a signal. is fed to the integrator
80 from> a secondary winding b2> of the transformer B4.
shaft 1,8. Í The’screws 2S'¿ and 5.1, respectively, limit the
and retracted.
`
for the pilot to overcome the resistive force of the spring
A42d so as to cause, for example, theretraction of the force
-linkv 1t). lf‘lccordingly,- »the core 33- moves to the left,
as seen in FIG. .1»„sothat a displacement- signal-of- proper
sothat the preload adjustment canibe maintained. Also,
looking: the adjusting nut. Si in'place on the actuating
'
70. by Operating thé. Qyêlìçritchlstìçk @3., itis necessary
thereover will cause relative axial> displacement> of the
core’ââ'within the transformer 34.
5_1 is?threade‘d. ontoztheouter endA of. the actuating shaft
1-_8 s_o as to adjust vthe relative position ofthe sleeve 30
on the actuating shafblS. Arlock nut` 52is provided -for
'
93 feeds a signal, proportionalïto the product of- time
and, magnitude of relative Vdisplacement of-»the core
33,
.
¿to the mixing point '72 in series with the `amplifier 75
45.
toay ‘rank arm/6110i a servomotor ‘61 with the other
via leads 94, 74..“ The output of the synchromotor 8,7
isnulled because the signalpickedotf from the winding
pitclhcolitrol stick 63. -Motion`of the ’bellcrank 62 is
8.9 is in opposition to the signal -picked olf by the «Winding
tiarisrnitte'dl tor a mechanical differential via a push-pull 50. 82 and’aeeordingly, when the sum of the two signals is
rodfóâffor'ch'alnging'the pitch of a swash plate 616,. vMo
eid;y Yx'ecl toa bellcrank 62.0perated by a pilot’s cyclic
Zero, the output of the amplifier 836 isnulled.
tìôri- from the diiferentialV 6,4 'is preferably transmitted
VInoljder; that the output of the servomotor 61 be nulled
fora given input fromthe cyclic pitch stick, a feedback
through a push-pull linkage I67, which has a 'conventional
hydraulic boostenunitf
therein. Movement of. the
silvash plate oo__causes aerodynamic response in the heli
75.k Furthermore, in order to prevent overrun and hunt
' The autopilot4 inFIG. 2 isprovided with a vertical
ing of¿tl_1_e.servon_1otor 6i a followup follower unit 101
helle _ter fuselage deviation vertically fromfa reference
plane. ""Accordin'gly, any. deviation ofthe helicopter fuse
feedback-unit 10]) langl-tigre followup. follower unit »1011
are similar to those found in the U.S.' Patent No. 2,919,384
_issued December 29, 19.59, to Louis'S. Guarino and Wil-V
liamï M. Ogdenr for a “Helicopter lAutomatic Engine Speed
unitlüi) is v_provided for nulling the output of the amplifier
copierP fuselage 70, which is yschematically illustrated.
is provided in parallel with the feedback unit 169.> The
disp/lac'ement"V gyro_71 which reacts in responsevto any*`
lage, 70, from thel reference planercauses .the gyro_71 to
generate an electrical output signal ofy a~ phase depending
uponwhether fuselage displacement‘is taking place in a.
vertically upwardly, or -a vertically downwardly direction.
The magnitude. of“v the._ signalis, representative of the ¿5
amount of fuselage pitch and is fed yfrom' the vertical
71 to aimixing pointiTZl byv means_of. anelectn'cal '
connection _73. Fromthe mixing point ‘72, therdisplace- `
ment rsignal-from the g’yl’Q '71 feeds intoan amplifier 75
-by :means_*of anfelectrical conduitA 74." "The output of
the'k amplifier 75 isgfed via an electrical conduit. 76A to
energize and excitethe ysynchronous,servornotor 6_1. '
Mixing pointV ’72l is a,cmiventional> electrical juncture
_where the variousvvoltages maycombine. In ,itsV simplest
Selector and-Control”. Alternatively, the feedback and
followupfollower unit y10i), 101 may 'be similar to that
disclosed in copending patent application entitled “Stabil
ity Augmentation _Systern’î by Stephen _T.` Sikoraand Louis
S. Guarino, application Serial No.y 862,7 30, tiled December
29, 1959.
"
,
Referring to IFIG. 2, shouldl a gust_of¿Wind Cause the
helicopter. 701°»S11dde111y Pitch up, @proportionate dis
70 placement signal isfedy to the amplifier 75Ívia the leads
73, ’MofronlÁ the displacementgyro71. Should the pilot
simultaneously desire. to Apitch upthehelicopter 70 vby
a. slightly greater degree, the cyclic .pitch stick 63'is pulled
backjand thè. `'force link 10 iscontracted.v . As. a,resu1t,f_a
form'it is a point Where’the output conductors from ele 75 signal is fed- from the transformer 34 via theintegrator 80
3,033,495
5
6
_ While several specific embodiments in accordance with
to the mixing point 72. lNow since the aircraftfis al-`
_ready inadvertently nosed-up by the gust of wind, the
signal from the integrator S0, which has been picked >olf
from the Iforce link 10, will be in opposition- to the ’signal
the invention have been shown and described, it is under
stood that the invention issusceptible of many changes
andinodiñcations, as known to persons skilled in the art,
and is intended to cover all such changes and modifica
from the vertical displacement gyro 71 and the difference
of vthat signal will be transmitted to the amplifier 75.
Since it is desired to nose the aircraft up slightly more
tions coming within the scope of the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
‘
l. In an aircraft having a control surface, the' combina
than that which has been inadvertently caused, only the
tion comprising manual control means including push
_difference between »the signals from the vertical gyro 71
and the integrator 8i? will` be fed to the yservo motor 61 10 pull means for operating and controlling said control sur
face, automatic pilot meansincluding displacement gyro
for causing a signal to be transmitted via force link mech
means adapted -to generate an electrical error signal pro
anism 10land the link 65 to the mechanical diiïerential
portional to the displacement of the aircraft from an es
tablished reference attitude, amplifier means, circuit
vertently pitched down dueto ambient atmospheric con 15 means electrically connectingsaid amplifier means to saidv
gyro means, synchro motor means electrically connected
ditions, the signals from the Yvertical gyro 71 and the in
464 and accordingly to‘slightly pitch up'the swash plate 66.
` Conversely, if the helicopter hadhaccidentally or inad
to the output of said amplifier means and having a crank
arm operating said push-pull means, force link means
tegrator 80 would be additive and accordingly the sum
of the signals would be fed tothe amplifier 75.
Referring to FIG. 4, an automatic and manual control
connected in said push-pull means «for transmitting me->
system for the yaw axes of the helicopter is schematically 20 chanical motion initiated by said synchro motor means,
said circuit means having a mixing junction, feedback
illustrated. The system is comprised of a force link 10
means connected from said synchro motor means to said
adapted to transmit control motion from a crankV arm
mixing junction for 'picking off a null signal and nulling
121i of a synchro motor -121 to a tail rotor pitch control
the output of said amplifier means, followup-follower
mechanism '122 via a push-pull linkage `123, a mechanical
differential 124, and «a shaft linkage 125, which preferably 25 means connected in parallel with said feedback means
for preventing overrun and hunting of said synchro motor
has van hydraulic booster unit 126 therein. Change of
means, said force link means having a housing with a
the pitch setting of the tail rotor causes aerodynamic re
sponse vof the helicopter fuselage 70. The synchro motor
121is'energized by an error signal generated by a heading
spring loaded plunger therein for permitting said force
duitsf131, l132, a switch 133 normally closed with acon
tact 134, a mixing point 135, an4 electrical conduit 1’3'6,
able impedance transformer meansin said housing having
link means to be contracted and elongatedby override
reference gyro' unit 130 and transmitted via electrical con ,30 command movement of said manual control means, vari
a core adapted to be axially displaced whenïthe length of
said force llink means is. changed for picking olf an elec~
an ¿amplifier 137, and an amplifier output conduit' 138.
The output of the amplifier 137 'is nulled by means o_f'a
trical command signal representative of change of forcelinklength and the duration the length of said Áforce link
feedback mechanism 140. Overrun and hunting of the _
servo motor 121 >is eliminated by means of a followup
means 4is changed, integrator means connected to inte
grate said command signal, said integrator mea-ns having
`follower mechanism 141 connected in parallel with the
feedback mechanism 14%. Signals _are picked oí from
lan output electrically connected to said mixing junction
in opposition .to said’electrical error signal ofsaid gyro
the' servo motor ‘121 and vfed to the mechanisms 140, 141
via aline 142. rlïhe outputs of the mechanisms 140, ._141 _ 40 means, 4said f integrator means supplying said electrical
command signal to said
junction at a predeter
mined rate, an electrical-command signal of one phase
being picked off from said transformer means and -fed
turn maneuvers without sideslip and undue yawing and
-to said integrator' when said force link means is con
`ro1ling,_`~a dynamic vertical displacement gyro »unit'150
lis _adapted to be connected into the autopilot circuit prefer' 45 tracted and an electrical command signal of an opposite
phase :being picked off Whensaid force link means is
ably, whenever .a roll of greater than four degrees in '
extended upon the manipulationof said manual control
either direction is .experienced by the helicopter and
means for "overriding said automatic ’pilot means.v
when the airspeed preferably exceeds thirtyv knots. More
'are connected to the mixing point 135 via line 143.
_
In order for the helicopter to execute “ball-center”
f 2. In an aircraft having a control surface, the combina
particularly, a roll synchronizing servo mechanism 151
is adapted to move switch 13-3 to contact 152 when the 50 tion comprising'm-anual control means including push~
pull means for _operating and controlling said control
surface, gyro means> adapted to generate an electrinal
helicopter fuselage roll exceeds four degrees in eitherV di
rection. An airspeed servo mechanism 153 moves a
switch 154 from contact i155 to Contact 156 when the
error signal that is a function `of the displacement of the
aircraft from ‘an established reference condition, ampli~l
the Ítail rotor is controlled by the dynamic vertical gyro 55 fier mean-s, circuit means electrically connecting said am
airspeed exceeds thirty knots.
150.
'
Accordingly, the pitch of `
pliiier'means to said gyro means," synchro motor means
`
driven by the output of «said ampliñerjmean-s and having a
Operation of rudder pedals `159 schematically shown in
crank arm“ operating said push-'pull means, force link .
FIG. 4, causes the extension or contraction of the force
means connected in said push-pullv means for transmitting
link 1t) via a crank arm 160. The signal picked olf at
the'force link 10' is fed to an integrator ‘161 via line 162. 60 the mechanical motion initiated by s_aid synchro motor
means, said circuit means having a mixing junction, feed
The output of the integrator 161 feeds to the mixing point
13‘5 via a line 163. The integrator ‘161, the feedback
mechanism ‘140 and the followup follower mechanism
41‘4-'1 of FIG. 4 are respectively similar to the integrator
back means connected from said synchro motor means to
said mixing junction forl picking off "a null signal and
nulling the output of sai-d amplifier means, fol-loiwupf
ßp80, thefeedback mechanism 100 and the followuplfol 65 follower means connected in parallel with said feedback
means for preventingoverrun and hunting of said synchro
lower mechanism 101 of FIG. 2.
’ ‘
.
_
motor means, said force »link means having a housing with
' Aglimift'switch 17d is located Within the housing `11,
a' spring loaded plunger therein for permitting said force
link means 'to be contracted and elongated by saidoverf>
of the switch ,174) _can be used to signal the operation of 70 4ride _command movement of said manual control means,
differential transformer means in saidvhousing havin-g a
the manualcontrolsM Also the signal can be used to put
.core ladapted to be axially ldisplaced when the length of
_certain equipment, such as a command valtitude control
said force link means is'changed for picking olf an elec
system, out of circuit which might interfere with the
trical command signal representative of _change of force
p_ilot’s override of the automatic con-trol systems or parts
>"'FlGffLand_adapted to :be actuated by >axial movement
lofthe ilan'ge 19 of the actuating shaft 1'8. The actuation
thereof.
'
75
>link length andthe duration the length of' said ‘force link
3,033,495
7,
nneans. is Changed, integrator. means. eonneeted. to inte
able therein, an. adjustable. andature. rody threaded-into
grate said. engeland-signal', said integrator means liaying
an. output eleetrieally eenneeted; te said; mixing junction
said; aetuatingfeliaft with the inner end thereof being.
linedgto said transionner eore, _ a, third; ledsr nut threaded
Onto tlie outer end: of said. annature red. and; bea ng l
iuopnosition. to saidÍeleetrieal error. signal oi said gyro
means, saidl integrator means. supplying said eleetrieal
against said actuating shaft for locking said amature
command signal to said mixing junction` aty a` predeter
fed. in glade, said helieal springbiasingl said aetuating
mined. rate, aneleetrieal eoruniandsignal of one-Plrase
izeing Pielsedofi from saidtr'ansfernier nueans and.' ded to
Shaft and,l transformer core tok aA centered-zero position
and resisting movement thereof »axially in either.. dires:
tion’. and stud bolt means forming aneye threaded into
said' integrator. when said foro_e link ineens is eontraeted
and.. en eleetriealîooulnrand sign-al of an opposite phase
10 rod
the bottom,
end member.
of saidphousingwcoaxijal
l ' with the
'
eye
'
of?
being picked’oifI Whensaid force linl;1 means is extended
uponthe manipulation of said manual control means for
6- A foree linlt eeninrising, ,a.’eiinfsliapedlhousing> hay.
-ing a oylindrioal` opening, formed. therein extending- in
Wardly. from one outer, end, thereota tubular adjusting
overriding said gyroirneans
3.- A. force link: for. anushfnull. linkage, in an aircraft
lCtëlitrol. systeniandfeenipiîising, a eup=shaped elongated
he ingplunger ineansslidably disposed in said housing.,
ñ'rstmeans. connected to one external end tof said housing
for.. eonneeting. said housing into
push-Pull linkage,
second' means connected tovv the outer end of' saidiplunge;means forl eonneeting «the seme into the .Push-null.. linke
age', resiliently> eornnressible means eonneeted tol said
plunger means, and to said-housing internallyv ofthe latter
for.. resisting and limiting, the rnoyernentv of' said plunger
means into vand out.' of Vsaid honsing,_ variable impedance
15
«and second spring-retainers «apant a sleeve disposed about
said actuating shaft'land having au> inner endr bearing
transtornrer rneansdi-snesed in said lhousing and. having
anasially-nrovable eoreearried. by said plunger means
lfor signallingthepmovement of“ said plunger meansrinto
and out of said housing from aeentral Zero signal'nosie
tionin. said housing, '
25
'
30
pulilinlrage, resilientlyieonnpressible means. eonneeted to .
_. ,. plunger means. and to. said'. housing internally` 'of
d
.
.
Core oarried . by.- said.. plunger,A means for signalling, the
movement of, saidnlunger means., into- audi out oi said
I höusing'frornçaeentral zero signal y.position insaid hous
saidrod endmember :being threaded Qntothe outer` end
of' said actuating shaft, said housing haviug‘anannular
shoulder formed therein lforming the innerV end of said
Cylilldl‘vïcttlopeniilg andacting as -a4 seat.v for saidñrst
spring retainer, au annular stopgflange formed. on the
>inrierend of said actuating shaft for retainingásaidañrst
'spring retainer thereon, _azvariable impedance transformer
tixedin'the bottom_of said housing «andhaving a movable
35 core coaxially slidable, thereim, an adjustable. armature
rod threaded into said 4actuating_shaft withftheinner end
' thereofheingñxed yto said transfornjlerl core, saidlspring
.
the. latter foi-_ re’sistingfand >limiting the lmovement of said
plunger.. means into andout of said ¿housing Command
signal’ piekotf meansî including .~ transformer "means dis.:
posed insaid housing `and havingv an axiallyV movable
lagainst said second spring retainer, anadjusting andpreloadingnut threaded ontotheouter end of, saidiactuating
shaft `andv bearing against the outenendof saidsleeva. a
rodlend >member havingv -an eye on the outer endfthereof,
4; A,f,ofr_ee link. fora nusliepulllinlsage in an aircraft
controlasystenr'andy comprisi1~1g,_av cup-shaped elongated
housing, plunger rneans slidably disposed in. said housing?
first rneanseonneeted to one esterna-l endïojfsaid nous:
ingïfor connecting said-housinginto the push-pullslinlg
agee` seeondmeans eonneotedto the outer.. endzuiî. Said
plunger, nieansïfor. connecting thesanre inte the push
.
and preloading screw, threadedinto saidouter en__d ofsaid
oylindrioal> opening, atnbular aetuating shaft eoaxially
disposed in said cylindgjicalopeninggand extending-` out of
said housing, lirst and, seeondvspring retainers slidably
disposed on the inner end ofsaid actuating shaft,- aspring
disposed about said> actuating sllattiand between said Yñrs,t
40
biasing saidtactuating shaftlandtransformer core toa
centered-zero position ‘andv resisting1 movement` thereof
axially> inY either7 direction ¿and studQbolt means.y forming
anv eye threadedv intothe -‘bottom of said housingcoaxial
with the eye of said rod eudfmember.
7. >Ajorce
‘
comprising, a ,cupef-shapedshousinghav;
ing `acylindrioal openingj formed therein,l extending'?'om
45
5- ’ A ytorte linlsv Comprising, a ,sup-shaped `housing hay:
one end thereof, a tubularadjusting andîpreloadingscrew
threaded into. the :outer endjof y said cylindricaL opening,
aîtubularÈ «actuating shaft ,coiaxiyally disposed in said cylin'f
ing. a cylindrical Opening formed thereinyegrtfendirigm
drical . opening , and extending. out »of said.î housing,l first
war'dly from one outer end thereof, aetubular adìusting
and vsecond „spring retainers. slidably Ydisposed `on thefinner
erlld. ofsaid actuatingshaft, aspx-ing disposed aboutK said
and preloading screwA threaded ` intolsaid> outerv endA o¿_f_ .
said cylindrical opening, a. tubular actuating shaft> eo;
actuating shaft and between said ñrst `and secondspring
slidablydisposed on the> innerend of said actuatingshaft,
having .an inner end `bearing. against saidsecond vspring
retainer, al1-adjusting and nreloadingnut threaded.. onto
:axially disposedin saidlcylindrical opening »and extend
ing out of saidv housing, ñrsL and second spring.` retainers
an helioalîspring:disposedabout said aetuatingshaft and
retainers, a, sleeve disposed-¿about said ac_tuatinggshaft and ,
55
biais-ing said «first and{second-> spring retainers, apart, a
sleeve disposed aboutsa‘id actuating shaft and‘hayirlg .an
inner end bearing «against said secondlïspring retainer,
the outer end of said‘actuating shaft and bearing against
theouter endY of said sleeve, a rod, end A.member-threaded
onto the. outer. end of said actuating shaft, said housing
halvinggan ‘annular shoulder formed therein, forming the
an adjustingfand preloading nuty threaded onto the outer
inner,V éndof saidcylindrical opening and forming a. seat
end` of said actuating shaft and bearing. againstthe outer 60 for saidfirst spring: retainer, la stop. formed on theinner
end of said sleeve, a `iirst loclcnut threaded outQthe
end'ofsaid lactuatingshaft for retaining said first-spring
outer end of said>laotuating shaft »and hearingagainst
retaineron said actuating shaft, transformer meansßxed
said preloading; «nut :for locking the -same in place, a rod
inthe bottomof said housing audhaving a movable core
end-memberv` having an eye von theouter.' end_thereof,
slidable therein, anadjustable >«armattire rodicarried by
said `rod Vend member being ¿threaded >onto the >outer Áend
of said actuating shaft, ’la second flock nut, threaded onto
said‘vpreloading screw. Iand bearing against theouter end
of>` saîd- housing; for. locking said preloading:,screvizr in
place, said. Vhousing having »annular shoulderl formed
therein form-ingthe inner end_of said cylindrical opening
andA acting as'eatñfor saidiirst spring retainer, >,an
annulal; s_topjîlangey formed en_.the inner' end of said actu;v
ating shaftfortretainingsaid _íir'st'spxingretainer thereon,
a vari-,able impedance _transformer ñxed in; therbottom Vof
said housing and having »a movable core-coaxially slid
65
said actuating shaft -with the, inner.endthereofY Ybeing fixed
to said 4transformer,core, andsaid spring¿biasingY said ac
tuating lshafty and transformer coretoa een.teredì-zeroy
position "andyresisting movement thereof axially ineither
Y direction.
8. A: force link.- fora. push~pul1 linkageïin- any-,aircraft
control system andy comprising,j a cup-shaped;l clou,
70 Y.
.g‘alted housing, plunger means,»slidabbf` disposed ingsaid
housing, firs@means,4 connected to one`~`externa1§eudfolf
said'housing for connecting said housing into vthe„pus„l;1,<-
75 pull linkage, second means connected to the outer'e?d of _
3,033,495
9
nected to said plunger means and to said housing in
ternally of the latter for resisting -and limiting the move
-gated housing having a closed end and an open end,
plunger means slidably disposed in said housing, íirst
means connected to the closed end of said housing for
connecting said housing Yto said'manual control means,
ment of said plunger means into and out of said housing,
command signal pickoi'f ' means including transformer
necting the Asame to vsaid crank arm„resiliently compressi
said plunger means for connecting the same into -the
pushpull-pull linkage, resiliently compressible means con
second means connected to said plunger means for con
means disposed in said housing and having an axially
movable core carried by said plunger means forlsignalling
ble means connected to said plunger means and to said
the movement of said plunger' means into and out of said
movement of said plunger means into and out of said
housing‘internally of the latter for resisting and limiting
housing, command signal pickoif means including vari
able impedance transformer means disposed in saidhous
ing and having an axially movable core carried by said
housing from a central zero signal position in said hous
ing, adjustable means for limiting the length of travel of
said plunger means into and out of said housing.
plunger means for signalling the movement of said
plunger means into and out of said housing from a
9. In an aircraft having a control surface, the com
bination comprising: manual control means including
push-pull means for operating and controlling said con
trol surface, automatic pilot means including displace
central position in said housing whereby said force link
means can be contracted and elongated by override com
mand movement of said manual control means, said
force link means including means` for adjusting said com
ment gyro means adapted to generate an electrical error
signal proportional to the displacement of the aircraft
pressible means to prevent change in length of said force
from an established reference attitude, amplifier means,
circuit means electrically connecting said amplifier means 20 link means when the tensile or compressional force in
said linkage means is `below a predetermined value, in
to said gyro means, synchro motor means electrically
tegrator means connected to integrate said command
connected to the output of said amplifier means and hav
signal, said integrator means having an output electrically
ing a crank arm operating _said push-pull means, force
connected to said mixing> junction in opposition to said
link means connected in said push-pull means for trans
mitting mechanical motion initiated by said synchro 25 electrical error signal of said’lgyro means, said integrator
means supplying said electrical command signal to said
motor means, said circuit means having a mixing junc
j mixing junction at a predetermined rate, an electrical
tion, feedback means connected from said synchro motor
command signal of one phase being picked off from said
means to said mixing junction for picking off a null signal
transformer means and fed to said integrator When said
and nulling the output of said ampliñer means, follow-up
follower means connected in parallel with said feedback 30 force link means is contracted and an electrical command
signal of an opposite phase being picked oif when said
means for preventing overrun and hunting of said synchro
force link means is extended upon the manipulation of
motor means, said force link means including a cup
said manual control means for overriding said automatic
shaped elongated housing, plunger means slidably dis
pilot means.
' l
posable in said housing, first means connected to one
external end of said housing for connecting said housing 35 _ 11. In an aircraft having ya control surface, the com
bmation comprising: manual control means including
into the push-pull linkage, second means connected to the
linkage means for operating and controllingv said con
other end of said plunger means for connecting the same
trol surface, gyro means adapted to generate an electrical
into the push-pull linkage, resiliently compressible means
error> signal that is a function of the displacement of the
connected to said plunger means and to said housing in
ternally of the latter for resisting and limiting movement 40 aircraft l‘from an established reference condition, ampli
lier means, circuit means connecting said ampliiier means
of said plunger means into and out of said housing, com
to said gyro means, synchro motor means driven by the
mand signal pickoiî means including variable impedance
output of said amplifier means and operating said link
transformer means disposed in said housing and having
age means, force link means connected in said linkage
an axially movable core carried by said plunger means
means for transmitting lthe motion’ initiated by said
for signalling the movement of said plunger means into
and of said housing from a central position in said hous 45 _synchro motor means, mechanical bias means included
1n said force link means preventing change in length
ing whereby said force link means can be contracted and
0f said force link means when the tensile or compres
sional yforce in said linkage means is below a predeter
elongated by override command movement of saidmanu
al control means, integrator means connected to integrate
said command signal, said integrator means having an
mined value, said circuit means having a mixing junction,
output electrically connected to said mixing junction in 50 feedback means connected yfrom said synchro motor
means to said mixing junction for picking oif a null
opposition to said electrical error signal of said gyro
means, said integrator means supplying said electrical
signal for nulling the output of said amplifier means, elec
trical command signal pickoft means in said force link
command signal to said mixing junction at a predeter
means adapted to pick off a command signal when the
mined rate, an electrical command signallof one phase
being picked off from said transformer means and fed to 55 length of said force link means is changed by said manual
control means, said electrical command signal being rep
said integrator When said force link means is contracted
resentative of change of length and the duration of the
and an electrical command signal of an opposite phase
vchange of length of said force link means, integrator
being picked ofIr when said force link means is extended
means connected to integrate said electrical command
upon the manipulation of said manual control means for
overriding said automatic pilot means.
i
60 signal to provide a signal proportional to the product of
10. In an aircraft having a control surface, the com
bination comprising: manual control means including
push-pull means for operating and controlling saidV con
magnitude and duration'of the change of length of said
force link, said integrator means having an output elec
trically connected to said mixing junction in opposition
to said electrical error signal of said gyro means, said
ment gyro means adapted to generate an electrical error 65 integrator means supplying said electrical command sig
trol surface, automatic pilot means including displace
signal proportional kto the displacement of the aircraft
from an established reference altitude, amplifier means,
circuit means electrically connecting said amplifier means
nal to said mixing junction at a predetermined rate, an
‘ electrical command signal of one phase being picked oiî
lfrom said command signal pickotf means and fed to said
integrator when said force link means is contracted and
to said gyro means, synchro motor means electrically
connected to the output of said amplifier means and hav 70 an electrical command signal of an opposite phase be
ing a crank arm operating said push-pull means, force
link means connected in said push-pull meansfor trans
mitting mechanical motion initiated by said synchro
motor means, said circuit means having a mixing junc
tion, saidA force link means including a cup-shaped elon 75
ing picked off when said force link means is extended upon
the manipulation of _said manual control means for over
riding said gyro means.
(References on following page)
3,033,495
11,
Referencßs Citefdjn the ñleoi this. patent.
2,590,626
2,133,168- UNIIED;
Gwinn _______________
STATES. PATENTS
__ ocr. 11, 1938
¿895085
22.765843Y
Hathaway ____________ _... MBI; 17, 1942 5
2,896,883
2,451,263
Webb ____ __1 ________ __ Oct.- 12, 194s
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