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Патент USA US3033550

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May 8, 1962
Filed Sept. 25, 1959
WM» m
Patented May 8, 1962
24 trained over a sheave 25 which is powered by an elec~_
Ira Rosin, 3333 Berkley Road, Cleveland Heights, Ohio
Filed Sept. 23, 1959, Ser. No. 841,831}
5 Claims. (Cl. 259-»132)
tric motor 26. The sizes of the sheaves 23 and 25 are so
selected as to produce the desired speed of the shaft 19
and impeller 11, which normally may be within the range
of 300 to 1100 r.p.m. depending upon the characteristics
of the batch of material to be mixed.
The paddle assembly 10 is secured, at the hub 17, as by
This invention relates in general to machines or ap
pin 27, to the low-speed output shaft 28 of the speed
paratus for intermixing, dispersing or emulsifying com
reducer 22 which is driven by an electric motor 29 through
binations of solids; liquids; gases and liquids; solids and
liquids; solids and gases; and liquids, solids and gases in 10 a sheave 30, a belt 31 and a sheave 32 secured to the input
shaft 33 of the speed reduced. The shaft 28 is hollow to
industrial processes. By the term “liquids” I also intend
provide clearance for the coaxial shaft 19 which passes
to include ?owable or plastic semi-solids. More partic
therethrough. The motor 29, through the speed reducer
ularly, the present invention is directed to improvements
22, drives the paddle assembly at a low speed which
in rotary power-driven mixing machines of the impeller
type in which the intermixing of the phases of the process 15 normally may be within the range of 15 to 30 r.p.m., de
pending upon the characteristics of the material to be
materials is accomplished, predominantly, although not
mixed as well as the relative width or diameter of the
exclusively, by a distribution phenomenon known to the
paddle assembly. I have found that for most mixing
art as “shear.”
applications, the paddle assembly should be rotated at a
Heretofore, in mixing apparatus or mixers, much em
speed which will be equivalent to about 230-270 feet per
phasis has been placed upon using large power input to
minute at the periphery of the blades 14. Thus, as the
create high velocity movement of a batch of process mate
paddle assembly is increased in size, it is desirable that
rials for the purpose of dispersing the materials into a
its rate of rotation be reduced to maintain a peripheral
However, I have found that much
speed approximating 250 feet per minute. I also prefer
of this power is consumed in circulatory movement of the
mass of the material without effective dispersion. A par 25 that the rotation of the paddle assembly 10 be opposite to
the direction of rotation of the impeller 11, so as to in
ticular mixing job can be accomplished more quickly, more
. homogeneous mass.
effectively and with far less power requirement if, the
power is utilized principally in the desired function of
inter-dispersion rather than being misdirected into waste
crease the number of shearing strokes or shears, as will
appear more fully hereinafter.
acteristics for effecting the inter-mixing and dispersion of
19 for rotation therewith, the direction of rotation being
The impeller 11 includes a plurality of curved blades
30 or vanes 34 which are removably secured, as by fasteners
ful circulatory movement of the mass at high velocities.
35 to radially extending stubs 36 which are uniformly
It is a primary object of my invention to provide a
spaced on a hub 37. The hub 37 is secured to the shaft
form of mixing apparatus which has improved shear char
such that the concave faces of the blades 34 lead the
batches of process materials.
Another object of my invention is to provide a mixer 35 movement. By removably fastening the blades 34 to the
stubs 36, a blade which becomes broken or bent can be
of the character described in which means are provided
readily replaced without the necessity of replacing .the
for continuously directing the process materials toward
entire impeller. Furthermore, all of the blades may easily
the area of greatest mixing e?iciency.
be replaced with a set of blades of different length or
A further object of my invention is to provide a power~
operated mixer so arranged that a relatively low power 40 curvature, when such is necessary or desirable.
The impeller 11 rotates within a U-shaped cut-out or
input can be utilized for effective mixing procedures.
recess 38 which is provided on the paddle assembly 10
Still another object of my invention is to provide a
by the upper edge 39 of the cross-bar 16 and the op
mixer of the character described in which the functional
positely disposed vertical edges 40 of a pair of imping
components can be adjusted to accommodate a variety of
ment or shear blades 41 which are mounted on the cross—
types and characteristics of process materials.
bar 16. The blades 41 are provided with laterally-elon
Other objects and advantages of my invention will be
gated slots 42 which are traversed by fasteners 43 for
apparent during the course of the following description.
removably securing the blades 41 to the frame 13 of the
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a power-driven mixer
paddle assembly. The slots permit the position of the
embodying the features of my invention.
FIG. 2 is a vertical cross-sectional view taken as indi 50 blades to be adjusted to provide the desired clearance be
tween their edges 40' and the impeller blades 34. This
cated on line 2-2 of FIG. 1.
clearance dimension is generally in the range of ‘A; to 16
FIG. 3 is a fragmentary side elevation, partially in
inch and depends upon the characteristics of the mate
section, taken as indicated on line 3—~3 of FIG. 1.
rials to be mixed.
Referring more particularly to the drawings, I have
A pair of ba?le plates 12 are secured to the frame 13
shown a powered dual-rotation mixer having a rotatable 55
in angularly inclined positions with the leading edge 44
paddle assembly 10, an impeller or turbine 11 and direc
of each plate elevated so as to provide an inclined down
tional pressure baffles 12.
.Wardly directed pressure face 46 above the impeller area.
z The paddle assembly is in the form of a rectangular
The lower portion of each plate 12 is provided with an
frame 13 including two' vertically-extending sides 14,
which provide paddle blades, and upper and lower, cross 60 adjustable lip or extension 47 which is slotted as at 48
and secured to the plate 12 by removable fasteners 49.
bars 15 and 16, respectively, which are joined with the
sides 14. The upper cross-bar 15 has provided, centrally
The position of the extension 47 can be‘ adjusted to es
thereof, a collar or hub 17 which is in axial alignment
tablish the desired clearance between the bafile plates and
with a collar or hub 18 provided on the lower cross-bar
the impeller 11.v As shown in the drawings, the ba?le
65 plate face 46 has an angle of about 45° to the hori
Iournalled for rotation in the hub 18 is one end of a
zontal plane of the impeller 11. However, this angle may
shaft 19 on which is secured the impeller 11. The shaft
be varied to suit speci?c mixing applications.
19 projects upwardly through a bearing 20, which is
mounted in the hub 17, and extends through a casing 21
The plates 12 are subject to large pressure forces and
therefore they are supported both by the sides 14 of the
which houses a speed reducer 22, for a purpose to be 70
frame 13 and by reinforcing members or plates 50 which
described. The upper end or extension of the shaft 19
are secured to the upper cross-bar 15 of the frame 13.
has a sheave 23 secured thereto which is driven by a belt
The plates 53 also serve to some extent as agitator blades
during the mixing process.
in operation, the materials to be mixed are placed in a
It is to be understood that the form, of my invention,
herewith shown and described, are to be taken as pre
ferred examples of the same, and that various changes in
the shape, size and arrangement of parts may be re
sorted to, without departing from the spirit of my inven
suitably ?tted vat or container (not shown) on which the
apparatus is mounted. The slowly revolving
ba?le plate assembly 10 rotates in one direction (counter
tion, or the scope of the subjoined claims.
clockwise in FIG. 1) While the high speed impeller 11 is
Having thus described my invention, I claim:
rotated in the opposite direction. The sides 14 and bottom
cross-bar 16 or" the frame 13 are preferably disposed close
1. In a mixing apparatus for process materials, the
combination of a rotatable impeller assembly, said im
ly adjacent the Walls and bottom of the container and 10 peller assembly having a plurality of radial vanes terminat
serve to displace the materials and prevent static accumu
ing in circumferential shearing edges, a paddle assembly
lations adjacent to the interior surfaces of the container.
mounted for rotation coaxially with said impeller assem
The crossbar 16 prevents the settling of the material at
bly, shearing edges carried by said paddle assembly, said
the bottom and the sides 14 direct the material toward the
second-named shearing edges being complementary to
central portion of the container. To this end, the sides 14 15 said circumferential shearing edges and radially adjacent
may be angled slightly to have an inward sweeping
the latter to create a material shearing zone therebetween,
and means carried by said paddle assembly for directing
The pressure face 46 of the ba?le plates 12 displaces
the materials toward said shearing zone in response to
rotation of said paddle assembly.
the process‘ materials downwardly into the impeller area,
as the paddle assembly 10 rotates. Additionally, the 20
2. A combination as de?ned in claim 1, in which said
vanes are provided with radially extending shearing edges,
materials are pressed and crushed in the throat between
and said means comprises overlying angularly inclined
the lower edge 45 of the baffle plate extension 47 and
pressure plates presenting shearing edges. adjacent to the
the upper edges of the impeller blades 34 and impinge
radially extending shearing edges of. said vanes.
ment blades 41 so that large lumps, or the like, are rapid
3. In a mixing apparatus for processv materials‘, the
ly disintegrated. Thus the pressure ba?le plates act not
combination of an impeller assembly mounted for rota
only to direct the material downwardly into the impeller
tion at one speed about a vertical axis, said impeller as
but also effect a preliminary shear on the coarser aggre
gates which may exist or be formed during the initial
sembly having‘ a plurality of radially-extending vanes,‘ each
stages of the mixing process. The ba?les 12 create pres
sure areas which have a magnitude in excess of one atmos
vane presenting peripheral shearing edges circumferential~
ly and radially thereon, a paddle assembly mounted for
phere and thus exert a positive directional influence on
counter-rotation at a speed substantially lower than said
the movement of the process materials instead of rely;
ing solely upon gravitational or circulatory in?uences to
feed the material steadily to the impeller area.
The process material ?ows into the impeller area where
one speed on'said vertical axis, said paddle assembly pro~
vidmg a recess accommodating said impeller assembly
during‘ rotation thereof, said recess being de?ned by shear
it is caught up by the blades 34 and pressed and sheared
between the blades 34 and the edges 40 of the shear blades
to said peripheral shearing edges on said. vanes, and an
angularly-inclined pressure plate carried by said paddle as
ing blades presenting shearing edges operatively adjacent
sembly in overlying relationship to said impeller assembly
41. Although the predominant number of shears occur
and forcing said materialidownwardly into said shearing
at the edges 40, there‘ is also a shearing effect between
the upper edges of the impeller blades 34 and the edge 40 recess in response to‘ counter-rotative movement of said
paddle assembly.
diet the ba?le, and‘ between the lower edges of the
4. Acombination as de?ned in claim 3, wherein the
blades 34 and upper edge .39 of the cross-bar 16‘. 'The
lower edge of said pressure plate presents one of said
rapidly rotating impeller throws the material outwardly
shearing edges complementary to a radial shearing edge
where it is again caught up in the circulatory ?ow'lead
ing back to the impeller 11.
By using a six-bladed impeller, as shown in the draw
ings, rotating at 1000 rpm, y12,\00 shears per minute
are effected on the edges 40‘ of the pair of impingment
blades 41. With the paddle assembly 10 counter-rotating
on said vanes, another of said shearing blades presents a
shearing edge complementary to the‘ circumferential shear
ing edge on said vanes, and said pressure plate‘ con
verges toward said other shearing blade and said radial
shearing edges to de?ne a throat therebetween for the
at, for example, 30 rpm. an additional 360 shears per 50 restricted passage of material therethrough.
5. A combination as de?ned in claim 4, wherein said
minute are obtained on the edges 40. This combination
shearing edge of said pressure plate is mounted for ad—
of a high rate of shear with pressure feed to the im
justable movement relatively to the‘ radial shearing edges
peller and rapid circulatory turn-over of the process mate
on said vanes, and said other shearing blade is mounted
rial is highly el?cient and effective to mix and disperse
said paddle assembly for adjustable movement rela
the batch with low energy input. As heretofore men
tively to the circumferential shearing edges on said vanes.
tioned, this is the result of utilizing the energy principally
in the actual dispersion and distribution operation rather
References'Cited in the ?le of this patent
than in violent and random movement of large masses of
materials to create impressive but ineffective turbulence.
The adjustable positioning of the impingement blades 60
Branch ______________ __ Sept. 1, 1868
41 and the battle extensions 47 permits the shear effect
Lines et al. ____V__._Y______ June 15, 1886
to be controlled for a wide. range of process materials of
varying characteristics and phase combinations so that
optimum results can be obtained with the same miiring
Hudson _____________ __ Aug'. 25, 1903
Truelsen _________ __r_r___ Oct. 20, 19.03
Anderson ___________ __~_ Nov. 3, 1914
apparatus in different mixing applications.
Arbuckle ___-_ _________ __ Apr. 9, 1935
By the term “process materials” I intend to include
Schwarz-Kast _________ __ Feb. 7, 1950
broadly any combinations of solids, liquids and gases
Reiiten ___-. ____ __-_____'___ Dec. 6, 1960
which are required to be intermixed and which are amen
able to mechanical dispersion processes.
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