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May 8, 1962 l. ROSIN 3,033,540 MIXING APPARATUS Filed Sept. 25, 1959 E 45» ll/ / 34 3635 40 43 I8 , 37 34 INVENTOR. IRA ROSIN WM» m ATTORN EYS , nite 3,033,540 Patented May 8, 1962 1 2 24 trained over a sheave 25 which is powered by an elec~_ 3,033,540 MIXING APPARATUS Ira Rosin, 3333 Berkley Road, Cleveland Heights, Ohio Filed Sept. 23, 1959, Ser. No. 841,831} 5 Claims. (Cl. 259-»132) tric motor 26. The sizes of the sheaves 23 and 25 are so selected as to produce the desired speed of the shaft 19 and impeller 11, which normally may be within the range of 300 to 1100 r.p.m. depending upon the characteristics of the batch of material to be mixed. The paddle assembly 10 is secured, at the hub 17, as by This invention relates in general to machines or ap pin 27, to the low-speed output shaft 28 of the speed paratus for intermixing, dispersing or emulsifying com reducer 22 which is driven by an electric motor 29 through binations of solids; liquids; gases and liquids; solids and liquids; solids and gases; and liquids, solids and gases in 10 a sheave 30, a belt 31 and a sheave 32 secured to the input shaft 33 of the speed reduced. The shaft 28 is hollow to industrial processes. By the term “liquids” I also intend provide clearance for the coaxial shaft 19 which passes to include ?owable or plastic semi-solids. More partic therethrough. The motor 29, through the speed reducer ularly, the present invention is directed to improvements 22, drives the paddle assembly at a low speed which in rotary power-driven mixing machines of the impeller type in which the intermixing of the phases of the process 15 normally may be within the range of 15 to 30 r.p.m., de pending upon the characteristics of the material to be materials is accomplished, predominantly, although not mixed as well as the relative width or diameter of the exclusively, by a distribution phenomenon known to the paddle assembly. I have found that for most mixing art as “shear.” applications, the paddle assembly should be rotated at a Heretofore, in mixing apparatus or mixers, much em speed which will be equivalent to about 230-270 feet per phasis has been placed upon using large power input to minute at the periphery of the blades 14. Thus, as the create high velocity movement of a batch of process mate paddle assembly is increased in size, it is desirable that rials for the purpose of dispersing the materials into a its rate of rotation be reduced to maintain a peripheral However, I have found that much speed approximating 250 feet per minute. I also prefer of this power is consumed in circulatory movement of the mass of the material without effective dispersion. A par 25 that the rotation of the paddle assembly 10 be opposite to the direction of rotation of the impeller 11, so as to in ticular mixing job can be accomplished more quickly, more . homogeneous mass. effectively and with far less power requirement if, the power is utilized principally in the desired function of inter-dispersion rather than being misdirected into waste crease the number of shearing strokes or shears, as will appear more fully hereinafter. acteristics for effecting the inter-mixing and dispersion of 19 for rotation therewith, the direction of rotation being The impeller 11 includes a plurality of curved blades 30 or vanes 34 which are removably secured, as by fasteners ful circulatory movement of the mass at high velocities. 35 to radially extending stubs 36 which are uniformly It is a primary object of my invention to provide a spaced on a hub 37. The hub 37 is secured to the shaft form of mixing apparatus which has improved shear char such that the concave faces of the blades 34 lead the batches of process materials. Another object of my invention is to provide a mixer 35 movement. By removably fastening the blades 34 to the stubs 36, a blade which becomes broken or bent can be of the character described in which means are provided readily replaced without the necessity of replacing .the for continuously directing the process materials toward entire impeller. Furthermore, all of the blades may easily the area of greatest mixing e?iciency. be replaced with a set of blades of different length or A further object of my invention is to provide a power~ operated mixer so arranged that a relatively low power 40 curvature, when such is necessary or desirable. The impeller 11 rotates within a U-shaped cut-out or input can be utilized for effective mixing procedures. recess 38 which is provided on the paddle assembly 10 Still another object of my invention is to provide a by the upper edge 39 of the cross-bar 16 and the op mixer of the character described in which the functional positely disposed vertical edges 40 of a pair of imping components can be adjusted to accommodate a variety of ment or shear blades 41 which are mounted on the cross— types and characteristics of process materials. 45 bar 16. The blades 41 are provided with laterally-elon Other objects and advantages of my invention will be gated slots 42 which are traversed by fasteners 43 for apparent during the course of the following description. removably securing the blades 41 to the frame 13 of the FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a power-driven mixer paddle assembly. The slots permit the position of the embodying the features of my invention. FIG. 2 is a vertical cross-sectional view taken as indi 50 blades to be adjusted to provide the desired clearance be tween their edges 40' and the impeller blades 34. This cated on line 2-2 of FIG. 1. clearance dimension is generally in the range of ‘A; to 16 FIG. 3 is a fragmentary side elevation, partially in inch and depends upon the characteristics of the mate section, taken as indicated on line 3—~3 of FIG. 1. rials to be mixed. Referring more particularly to the drawings, I have A pair of ba?le plates 12 are secured to the frame 13 shown a powered dual-rotation mixer having a rotatable 55 in angularly inclined positions with the leading edge 44 paddle assembly 10, an impeller or turbine 11 and direc of each plate elevated so as to provide an inclined down tional pressure baffles 12. .Wardly directed pressure face 46 above the impeller area. z The paddle assembly is in the form of a rectangular The lower portion of each plate 12 is provided with an frame 13 including two' vertically-extending sides 14, which provide paddle blades, and upper and lower, cross 60 adjustable lip or extension 47 which is slotted as at 48 and secured to the plate 12 by removable fasteners 49. bars 15 and 16, respectively, which are joined with the sides 14. The upper cross-bar 15 has provided, centrally The position of the extension 47 can be‘ adjusted to es thereof, a collar or hub 17 which is in axial alignment tablish the desired clearance between the bafile plates and with a collar or hub 18 provided on the lower cross-bar the impeller 11.v As shown in the drawings, the ba?le 16. 65 plate face 46 has an angle of about 45° to the hori Iournalled for rotation in the hub 18 is one end of a zontal plane of the impeller 11. However, this angle may shaft 19 on which is secured the impeller 11. The shaft be varied to suit speci?c mixing applications. 19 projects upwardly through a bearing 20, which is mounted in the hub 17, and extends through a casing 21 The plates 12 are subject to large pressure forces and therefore they are supported both by the sides 14 of the which houses a speed reducer 22, for a purpose to be 70 frame 13 and by reinforcing members or plates 50 which described. The upper end or extension of the shaft 19 are secured to the upper cross-bar 15 of the frame 13. has a sheave 23 secured thereto which is driven by a belt 3,033,640 4 3 The plates 53 also serve to some extent as agitator blades during the mixing process. . in operation, the materials to be mixed are placed in a It is to be understood that the form, of my invention, herewith shown and described, are to be taken as pre ferred examples of the same, and that various changes in the shape, size and arrangement of parts may be re sorted to, without departing from the spirit of my inven suitably ?tted vat or container (not shown) on which the apparatus is mounted. The slowly revolving ba?le plate assembly 10 rotates in one direction (counter tion, or the scope of the subjoined claims. clockwise in FIG. 1) While the high speed impeller 11 is Having thus described my invention, I claim: rotated in the opposite direction. The sides 14 and bottom cross-bar 16 or" the frame 13 are preferably disposed close 1. In a mixing apparatus for process materials, the combination of a rotatable impeller assembly, said im ly adjacent the Walls and bottom of the container and 10 peller assembly having a plurality of radial vanes terminat serve to displace the materials and prevent static accumu ing in circumferential shearing edges, a paddle assembly lations adjacent to the interior surfaces of the container. mounted for rotation coaxially with said impeller assem The crossbar 16 prevents the settling of the material at bly, shearing edges carried by said paddle assembly, said the bottom and the sides 14 direct the material toward the second-named shearing edges being complementary to central portion of the container. To this end, the sides 14 15 said circumferential shearing edges and radially adjacent may be angled slightly to have an inward sweeping the latter to create a material shearing zone therebetween, effect. and means carried by said paddle assembly for directing The pressure face 46 of the ba?le plates 12 displaces the materials toward said shearing zone in response to rotation of said paddle assembly. the process‘ materials downwardly into the impeller area, as the paddle assembly 10 rotates. Additionally, the 20 2. A combination as de?ned in claim 1, in which said vanes are provided with radially extending shearing edges, materials are pressed and crushed in the throat between and said means comprises overlying angularly inclined the lower edge 45 of the baffle plate extension 47 and pressure plates presenting shearing edges. adjacent to the the upper edges of the impeller blades 34 and impinge radially extending shearing edges of. said vanes. ment blades 41 so that large lumps, or the like, are rapid 3. In a mixing apparatus for processv materials‘, the ly disintegrated. Thus the pressure ba?le plates act not combination of an impeller assembly mounted for rota only to direct the material downwardly into the impeller tion at one speed about a vertical axis, said impeller as but also effect a preliminary shear on the coarser aggre gates which may exist or be formed during the initial sembly having‘ a plurality of radially-extending vanes,‘ each stages of the mixing process. The ba?les 12 create pres sure areas which have a magnitude in excess of one atmos 30 vane presenting peripheral shearing edges circumferential~ ly and radially thereon, a paddle assembly mounted for phere and thus exert a positive directional influence on counter-rotation at a speed substantially lower than said the movement of the process materials instead of rely; ing solely upon gravitational or circulatory in?uences to feed the material steadily to the impeller area. The process material ?ows into the impeller area where one speed on'said vertical axis, said paddle assembly pro~ vidmg a recess accommodating said impeller assembly during‘ rotation thereof, said recess being de?ned by shear it is caught up by the blades 34 and pressed and sheared between the blades 34 and the edges 40 of the shear blades to said peripheral shearing edges on said. vanes, and an angularly-inclined pressure plate carried by said paddle as ing blades presenting shearing edges operatively adjacent sembly in overlying relationship to said impeller assembly 41. Although the predominant number of shears occur and forcing said materialidownwardly into said shearing at the edges 40, there‘ is also a shearing effect between the upper edges of the impeller blades 34 and the edge 40 recess in response to‘ counter-rotative movement of said paddle assembly. diet the ba?le, and‘ between the lower edges of the 4. Acombination as de?ned in claim 3, wherein the blades 34 and upper edge .39 of the cross-bar 16‘. 'The lower edge of said pressure plate presents one of said rapidly rotating impeller throws the material outwardly shearing edges complementary to a radial shearing edge where it is again caught up in the circulatory ?ow'lead ing back to the impeller 11. 7 By using a six-bladed impeller, as shown in the draw ings, rotating at 1000 rpm, y12,\00 shears per minute are effected on the edges 40‘ of the pair of impingment blades 41. With the paddle assembly 10 counter-rotating on said vanes, another of said shearing blades presents a shearing edge complementary to the‘ circumferential shear ing edge on said vanes, and said pressure plate‘ con verges toward said other shearing blade and said radial shearing edges to de?ne a throat therebetween for the at, for example, 30 rpm. an additional 360 shears per 50 restricted passage of material therethrough. 5. A combination as de?ned in claim 4, wherein said minute are obtained on the edges 40. This combination shearing edge of said pressure plate is mounted for ad— of a high rate of shear with pressure feed to the im justable movement relatively to the‘ radial shearing edges peller and rapid circulatory turn-over of the process mate on said vanes, and said other shearing blade is mounted rial is highly el?cient and effective to mix and disperse on said paddle assembly for adjustable movement rela the batch with low energy input. As heretofore men tively to the circumferential shearing edges on said vanes. tioned, this is the result of utilizing the energy principally in the actual dispersion and distribution operation rather References'Cited in the ?le of this patent than in violent and random movement of large masses of UNITED STATES PATENTS‘ materials to create impressive but ineffective turbulence. The adjustable positioning of the impingement blades 60 81,589 Branch ______________ __ Sept. 1, 1868 41 and the battle extensions 47 permits the shear effect 343,771 Lines et al. ____V__._Y______ June 15, 1886 to be controlled for a wide. range of process materials of varying characteristics and phase combinations so that optimum results can be obtained with the same miiring 737,241 741,946 Hudson _____________ __ Aug'. 25, 1903 Truelsen _________ __r_r___ Oct. 20, 19.03 1,116,001 Anderson ___________ __~_ Nov. 3, 1914 apparatus in different mixing applications. 1,997,035 Arbuckle ___-_ _________ __ Apr. 9, 1935 By the term “process materials” I intend to include 2,496,919 Schwarz-Kast _________ __ Feb. 7, 1950 broadly any combinations of solids, liquids and gases 2,963,281 Reiiten ___-. ____ __-_____'___ Dec. 6, 1960 which are required to be intermixed and which are amen able to mechanical dispersion processes.