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Патент USA US3033603

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May 8, 1962
C._A. v. POLGAR
3,033,598
sET OF MECHANICAL MULTIPLE USE INDIVIDUAL PARTS ADAPTED
TO BE DIRECTLY ASSEMBLED ONE WITH ANOTHER
Filed April 29, 1958
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
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United States Patent O??ce
3,033,598
Patented May 8,. 1962
1
2
3,033,598
Said series is constituted by juxtaposing a number of
series of the p><2n form, and is constituted, for exam
ple, by juxtaposing the series
SET OF MECHANICAL MULTIPLE USE INDIVID
UAL PARTS ADAPTED T0 BE DIRECTLY AS
SEMBLED ONE WITH ANOTHER
Claude Adolphe Victor Polgar, 15 Rue Daru,
Paris, France
Filed Apr. 29, 1958, Ser. No. 731,762
Claims priority, application France May 2, 1957
7 Claims. (Cl. 287—54)
Usually it may suffice to juxtapose three series, and
particularly the following ones, which will be recognized
as (p+2) X2“, (p+3) ><2n and (p+4) ><2u respectively,
taking p as equal to one:
10
24
12
32
16
The present invention has for its object to provide
a set of mechanical individual parts having each a mul
This gives the compound series 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16,
tiple use, said parts being adapted to be assembled one
with another in varying fashions, vwithout being necessary
20, 24, 32, 40 etc. . . ., but contingently it is possible
to carry out any machining, said parts being recoverable 15 to use more compound series formed by two or even
more of three series of the p><2n form.
_
after using the same, and assembly thereof being carried
out with an accuracy comparable with that of mechanisms
presently in use.
Such sets of parts have yet been realized in several
Thus, the numbers In and n of plate chess patterns
are determined by selecting a number from one of the
realized up to this day, as for example the construction
lus M. In the speci?c case illustrated in FIGURE 1,
the number of squares measured vertically=m=8 and
the number measured horizontally=n=6, both 6 and 8
being terms taken from the above compound series. If
the selected modulus is 1" then this plate will be 6" x 8";
if the modulus is 1h" the plate will be 3" x 4", etc.
compound series as above de?ned, and the actual length
and width of the plates in conventional units of distance
?elds, particularly for children’s construction toys, frames 20 is
obtained by multiplying m and n by the selected modu
for electronic units etc., but in the case of toy units
toy commercially so-called “Meccano,” the dimensions
of all the elements are standard ones, i.e. that there has
been contemplated therein only a single shaft diameter
and a single spacing between the several identical holes.
The fact that only a single standard dimension is pro
vided, while insuring a construction simplicity, exhibits
In order to determine the dimenstion of a plate, i.e.
in fact the relative dimensions of the plates comprised
however very severe drawbacks as soon as one attempts
to realize a mechanism using‘ correctly the mechanical 30 in the component sets, it suffices to determine the modu
lus. The modulus in is determined by selecting the same
strength of the several parts.
from the terms of a 2 ratio geometrical series. Thus
The complete set of individual parts according to my
a base modulus having been selected, it can be seen that
invention is such that simultaneous interengagement and
it is an easy matter to determine the moduli of the plates
us of a plurality of component sets become possible, al
lowing for example to use transmission shafts having 35 comprised in the other ranges.
The actual dimensions of the plates do not always cor
geometrical characteristics appropriate to their function.
respond to the boundaries of a chess pattern having a
The complete set of parts according to the present in
given modulus, but said dimensions may be positioned
vention comprises a plurality of component sets the mod
inwardly of the contour of said chess pattern by a dis
uli of which are determined in such a manner that said
parts mate readily one with another, and particularly in 40 tance equal to the half of the plate thickness, in order
that the plates may be disposed at right angles with two
such a manner that when assembling plates comprised
plates assembled in a common plane and to take into
in different ranges there is obtained a maximum number
consideration the thickness of the intermediate plate.
of holes provided in the different plates and aligned one
At the intersection of the axes forming the chess pattern
with another, whereby the greatest possible number of
locations where a shaft or another member may be placed 45 of a plate are drilled holes so-called shaft holes, the
diameter of which vary and depend upon the type of
is achieved.
parts
to be constructed, but said diameters are selected
In order to obtain the different component sets of
from those of the standarized commercially available ele
parts, one could turn from one of said component sets
ments and are as close as possible to the Renard’s R5
to another by changing scales according to arithmetical
series, but the plates constructed as a function of varia
tions from some arithmetical series have no ?exibility
in use, since the size variations do not remain of the
same order.
50
series. Thus, the shaft diameters may be 2.5, 4, 6, 1O,
15, 25, mm.
Thus, the elements of the different component sets,
the dimensions of which are determined as a function
of the above-mentioned criteria, give a great ?exibility
On the other hand, it is not possible to extend said
series by constructing elments having a dimension cor 55 in use, i.e. that there may be mounted in the same
mechanism shafts having diameters very different, and
responding to a ?gure lower than the base ?gure of the
wheels the dimensions of which vary largely. Such
series.
shafts may be mounted either in plain or in ball and/ or
One could determine the dimensions of the different
component sets from geometrical series, but in sucha
roller bearings, and the greatest possible number of shaft
case dif?culties are encountered which make practically 60 holes of said support plates are aligned whatever are the
different ranges to which belong the support plates of a
impossible to juxtapose with a third plate two plates dis
same mechanism, which obtains an important readiness
posed in side by side relationship.
1n use.
The plates used as base elements for the set of parts
By having determined the moduli of the elements by
according to my invention are mainly determined by
means of a chess pattern of squares the side of which 65 means of a 2 ratio geometrical series, it is possible to
extend the set towards the small elements as well as
corresponds to a selected uniform distance or modulus
towards the large ones in a very easy manner. The
M. Each plate bears a chess pattern comprising m mod
uli along its length and n moduli along its width, the
numbers represented by m and n being chosen in any
dimension discrepancies between the different compo
nent sets of elements remain however sufficiently constant
used for characterizing the parts according to the pres
templated uses.
manner from a particular series of numbers which is 70 so that the parts may lend themselves to all_the con
ent invention.
_
The character of the series used for determining the
3,033,598
d
dimensions of the different elements according to the
present invention makes it possible to carry out com
pound chess patterns on a given support plate, i.e. chess
patterns drawn with different moduli.
Finally, since the compound series used as a base
in constructing ‘the parts according to the present inven
will be equal to an exact multiple of the modulus and
will not depart therefrom by the thickness of the in
serted plate, as would be the case if the plate were not
offset inwardly by half that thickness.
The plate as shown in FIG. '1 comprises three types
of holes, of which the holes having a uniform diameter,
tion is very close to the Renard’s R10 series, the parts
such as holes 3, are located at the intersection of the
of the set according to my invention permit to use to a
chess pattern lines.
maximum the elements corresponding to the present
French standardization.
Independently of the shaft support plates, the part set
In said plate there has been provided a number of holes,
10 such as 4, for receiving shafts having a greater diameter,
and around said holes there are provided, at the intersec
according to my invention makes it possible to form
frameworks comprising square section tubes being tele
scoped exteriorly onto angle or connecting parts having
tion of the axes of a half modulus chess pattern, holes
which have a smaller diameter, such as 5, and which may
be used for ?xing the bearing corresponding to the holes 4.
a corresponding section.
Blind holes are drilled edgewise of the plates such as
15
The linear dimensions of said tubes are determined by
that shown in FIG. 1 in alignment with the chess pat
means of the compound series in the same manner as
tern lines. Said holes are threaded so that the plates
those of the plates.
may be attached to each other by means of headless
The set of parts comprises also shafts constituted on
screws seated therein.
the one hand by cylindrical elements and on the other 20
It can be seen in FIG. 3 a part 6 constituted by a
‘hand by cylindrical elements provided with one or more
cube-shaped body 7 and parallelepiped extensions such
?ats aligned along a common axis.
as 8.
By combining such shafts and intermediate parts com
Said parallelepiped extensions telescope into a square
prising cylindrical bearing surfaces and contingently cy
section tube such as 9. Said tube 9 is provided with
lindrical bearing surfaces provided with a ?at corre 25 holes, such as 10, located one relative to another at dis
sponding to the shafts, it is possible to mount any rotary
tances determined in the same manner as the distances
part either idling on any one of said shafts or on the
between the holes 3 of the plate shown in FIG. 1.
contrary rotatively integral with such shaft.
Said holes 10 may be smooth or threaded. They pro
vide for a connection by keying or threading into corre
In order that the object of the present invention may
sponding holes 11 of parallelepiped parts such as '8, so
be completely understood, there will be now described
that the tubes such as 9 are connected one with another
by means of parts such as 6.
in which:
It is clear that parts such as 6 may be used in various
assemblies and may connect a plurality of tubes such
FIG. 1 is an elevation view of a plate according to
the present invention;
35 as 9 one with another in any possible combination and
direction, depending upon the number of parallelepiped
FIG. 2 is an edge view of the same plate;
extensions 8 which are carried by the part 6. In order
FIG. 3 is a perspective view of an assembly of square
to illustrate a possible variation in the dimensions of
section tubes for forming a frame constituted by dis
the tubes, one of the tubes 9 has been shown in FIG
tance-pieces;
FIG. 4 is a section taken from IV—IV in FIG. 3, 40 URE 3 as having a rectangular rather than a square
cross-section, whereas all of the mating parallelepipeds
showing how to ?x a part to a square section tube;
8 are square in cross-section. It will, however, be ap
FIG. 5 is a perspective view of a shaft according to
as an illustrative and by no way limitative example a
form thereof, with reference to the annexed drawings,
the invention;
preciated that the exterior section of the elements 8 will
be shaped to mate with the interior sections of the co
FIG. 6 is a perspective view of a toothed wheel which
is adapted to be mounted on the shaft represented in 45 operating members 9, regardless of whether this be
square or rectangular.
FIG. 5;
FIG. 4 shows how any part 12 may be ?xed by means
FIG. 7 is a perspective view of an intermediate part
of a U-shaped rod 13 externally threaded at both ends
thereof.
Said rod is introduced, as shown in 13a, in a hole of
tatably mounted on a shaft;
the square section tube by one of its ends, and then, as
FIG. 8 is a perspective view of an intermediate part
shown in 13b, the same end is passed through a second
by means of which a toothed wheel, such as that shown
hole in the tube, and afterwards a part 12 may be thus
in FIG. 6, may be mounted on a shaft having a smaller
?xed by means of two nuts 14 and 15.
diameter.
There is shown in FIG. 5 a shaft '16 comprising a cylin
In FIG. 1, there is shown in dash-and-dot line the chess
drical section 17 extended by a part cylindrical section
pattern of which the side of each square has a length
18 provided with two ?ats l9 and 26‘ separated by a dis
represented by the selected uniform distance or modu
tance equal to the diameter of said cylindrical section 17.
lus M.
From said part cylindrical section 18 extends in turn
In the case of FIG. 1, the chess pattern length is
represented by a number in equal to 8 squares, and the 60 a cylindrical section 21 which terminates in a part cylin
drical section 22 provided with two ?ats 2.3 and 24,
width of said chess pattern is represented by a number 11
whereby different wheels, such as the wheel 25 shown
equal to 6 squares, which, as it can be seen, are se
II]; FIG. 6, may be mounted on the above-mentioned
lected from the above-mentioned compound series, con
used for mounting two toothed wheels in side by side
relationship, integral one with the other and freely ro
s a t.
stituted by juxtaposing the series 3 X2“, 4><2n and 5X2“.
Such wheels may be mounted either idling on said
It appears also that the edge 2 of the plate is inwardly 65
shaft or rotatively ?xed thereon.
offset, relatively to the chess pattern line 1, by a dis
In FIG. 7 there is shown an intermediate part through
which two Wheels, such as that illustrated in FIG. 6,
comprised in different part ranges, may be mounted
represented in FIG. 1, while maintaining accurately 70 idling and integral one with the other on a shaft having
a chess pattern. In other Iwords, when one plate is
a small diameter.
inserted edgewise between two inwardly offset plates
FIG. 8 shows an intermediate part through which a
lying in the same plane, the distance from one of the
toothed wheel such as that illustrated in FIG. 6 may be
holes 3 in one of the plates lying in the same plane to
mounted on a smaller diameter shaft, said toothed wheel
the nearest hole 3 in the other plate lying in that plane 75 being rotatively ?xed on said shaft.
tance corresponding to the half of the plate thickness e
shown in FIG. 2. This is such so as to permit to in
sert a plate edgewise between two plates, such as that
3,033,698
5
6
Parts like those shown in FIGS. 7 and 8 may also be
used as bearings for the shafts.
It is to be understood that the form of the present
invention as described hereinbefore and particularly in
the appended claims is by no Way limitative and that
length and breadth of each plate being equal to said
various desirable changes and modi?cations may be
brought out by those skilled in the art without depart
to said thickness, the edges of each plate being equi
uniform distance multiplied by a term taken from a
group of successive geometric series of the form p><2n,
(p+1)><2“, (p+2)><2n - - - (p+r)><2“, Where p and
n are integers, but then diminished by a distance equal
distant from the nearest of said lines to which they are
parallel, and each individual series in said group of suc
ing of the scope of this invention.
cessive geometric series being represented in said set by
What I claim is:
l. A set of multiple use detachable parts adapted to 10 a plurality of plates having a dimension equal to said
uniform distance multiplied by a term taken from that
be manually assembled together, said set comprising a
individual series.
plurality of rectilinear plates of different sizes, the prin
5. A set of parts according to claim 4 in which the
cipal surfaces of each plate being pierced by a plurality
group of successive geometric series consists of the three
of holes located at the intersections of two sets of paral
lel lines running parallel to the edges of said plates and 15 series 3x211, 4x2‘, 5x2“.
forming a pattern of squares, said lines being spaced a
uniform distance apart and the length and breadth of
each plate ‘being equal to said uniform distance multiplied
by a term taken from a group of successive geometric
series of the form 12x2“, (p+1)><2“, (p-i—2)><2n . . . 20
(p-l-r) X2“, Where p and n are integers, the edges of each
plate being equidistant from the nearest of said lines to
Which they are parallel, and each individual series in
said group of successive geometric series being represented
in said set by a plurality of plates having a dimension
equal to said uniform distance multiplied by a term taken
from that individual series.
2. A set of parts according to claim 1 in which the
group of successive geometric series consists of the three
series 3X2“, 4x2“, 5X2“.
3. A set of parts as claimed in claim 1 in which each
plate is provided with holes in its lateral edges adapted
to receive connecting pins and spaced from each other by
said uniform distance.
4. A set of multiple use detachable parts adapted to
be manually assembled together, said set comprising a
plurality of recti?er plates of different sizes but uni
form thickness, the principal surfaces of each plate being
pierced by a plurality of holes located at the intersections
of two sets of parallel lines running parallel to the edges
of said plates and forming a pattern of squares, said
lines being spaced a uniform distance apart, and the
6. A set of parts as claimed in claim 4 in which each
plate is provided with holes in its lateral edges adapted
to receive connecting pins and spaced from each other by
said uniform distance.
7. A set of parts as claimed in claim 6 comprising
also a plurality of elongated members which are square
in cross-section, the thickness of said elongated members
being equal to that of said plates, and the sides of said
elongated members being provided with holes of the same
diameter and spaced at the same intervals as those in the
edges of said plates, so that said elongated members
may be fastened to said edges to ‘form connections be
tween adjacent plates.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
306,874
Thatcher ____________ __ Oct. 21, 1884
332,201
1,166,688
1,562,419
1,648,706
Hurley ______________ __ Dec. 8, 1885
Homby ______________ __ Jan. 4, 1916
2,063,895
2,294,795
2,512,725
Bowen ______________ __ Nov. 17,
Walker ______________ __ Nov. 8,
Mack ______________ __ Dec. 15,
Moses ______________ __ Sept. 1,
Mock ______________ __ June 27,
1925
1927
1936
1942
1950
FOREIGN PATENTS
422,645
Great Britain _________ __ Jan. 16, 1935
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