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Патент USA US3034734

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May 15, 1962
E. s. PERKINS
3,034,724
NAVIGATIONAI POSITION INDICATOR SYSTEM
Filed June 12, 1957
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I United States Patent Office
1
3,034,724
Patented May l5, 1952
2
3,034,724
the skyscrapers of the destination are beyond the hori
Earl S. Perkins, Hinsdale, lll., assigner to Butler Com
northwest “direction” remains a vector regardless of how
NAVIGATIONAL POSITION INDECATOR SYSTEM
pany, Chicago, Ill., a corporation of Illinois
Filed June 12, 1957, Ser. No. 665,351
2S Claims. (Cl. 23S-187)
This invention relates to navigational systems. This
application is a continuation-in-part of application Serial
No. 439,504, filed June 28, 1954, now Patent No. 2,801,
501, issued July 30, 1957,
'Classical navigation has been handed down from
ancient times and, although refined, the basic concept
zon and out of sight directly to the northwest.
This
positive one is' of the progress of the ship toward 315
degrees and until one has raised the railroad track and
skyscrapers and can completely disregard any specific azi
muth index in reaching them. `One no longer needs a
compass when the azimuth vector is solved.
Broadly stated then, the crab angle is an accounting
of the wind vector of the azimuth vector, the latter being
the identifying feature of a course containing magnetic
remains unchanged. In order to go in an aircraft from
variation and convergence errors. With these polar co
ordinates as factors, one must solve for time of arrival
at a destination which is identified in R-theta or Cartesian
a point to a destination on or over the horizon the ship
is headed toward a compass point on the horizon over
coordinates.
As a further indication of the value of the skyscraper
which the desired landfall is most likely to be found.
The past means of going `from the point to the destina
tion on or over the horizon predicated the existence not
only of an indexed horizon but that the dirigibility of the 20
craft was fixed in a direction along a lubber line or
toward a prow.
This fixed line of dirigibility and the
azimuth scale fixed by the north magnetic pole or by
railroad analogy assume two aircraft are approaching the
metropolitan area, each assigned to a different railroad
track and each assigned to a destination only a short dis
tance apart. Perfect separation will be maintained when
each craft follows its railroad track whereas no degree
of perfection in magnetic compass systems, inertial sys
tems, Doppler systems nor single beam radio beam-guid
a star is a navigation instrument in itself. Without this
ance systems known today would render certain this sepa
seemingly hypothetical instrument it is not possible to 25 ration.
navigate by present day systems nor by ancient concepts,
It is suggested that the skyscraper-railroad analogy ap
This mental implement, with the systems grown up
proaches the Utopia in navigation, at least for terminal
around it, is not readily abandoned. However, if one
areas. A system which approaches or duplicates the
is on a flying platform or in a helicopter and one cannot
effects of this approaches the ultimate in navigation
see the ground or a reference point it is hardly possible 30 means. Here then is a list of criteria for an airborne
to determine direction of ilight by its use.
navigational computer analogous with visual reference
Analyses of most navigation show that, when landfall
which are among the objects of this invention:
occurs, one abandons all navigation Systems for the more
(l) It should show a columnar path to any assigned
expedient one of directing the craft to the object in sight
destination.
and using what might be called a kinetomatic sense to 35
(2) It should show the progress of the craft along this
maneuver the craft to and around this destination. It
path, however narrow the path, however far the destina
might be said then that, in our s'earch for a navigation
tion, however fast or slow the craft.
system, no better one will be found for any or all types
(3) It should work without magnetic information.
of aircraft than the one which is visible when the sky
The use of any magnetic information should be (a) to
scrapers of the destination are on the horizon, a railroad 40 fix the relationship of the lubber line or any reference
track leading to the destination lies below, and a section
line of the craft to the line of progress; and (b) to ini
line crosses this railroad track at each mile. As one
tially identify a course after which it should be incidental
follows the railroad track in such a system, all vectors
to the problem.
are automatically solved including the azimuth vector and
(4) The solution should be in real numbers of mag
the wind vector. lt is interesting to note now that, in a 45 nitude and rate of speed; hence it should read-out dis
craft without a lubber line or a prow, there is no crab
tance and ground speed to the destination.
angle. In a ship with a lubber line or prow, if one con
(5) fIt should show conformity with any projected
siders the crab angle as a factor in the navigation prob
orbital path around the destination.
lem, the wind vector has not been properly solved. It
A navigation computer system embodying these fea
is being carried in an account much the same as in busi 50 tures divorces navigation from the earlier classical meth
ness, such as when one takes' an item from the inventory
ods described above and provides a system akin to the,
account and places it in receivables. The complete solu
skyscraper-railroad system that is sometimes available for
tion is in hand when this account is converted into cash
contact navigation.
and the complete solution of a vector is in mind when it
For a :more complete understanding of the nature and
is converted to magnitude.
55 scope of this invention reference can be had to the fol
When one solves a vector it is no longer a vector. If
lowing detailed description, taken together with the ac
one is conscious of a vector one does not have the solu
tion. The solution of a vector is expressable in real
companying drawing, in which:
FIGURE l is a perspective view, somewhat diagram
matic in character, illustrating a navigation system in
rate of approach which is a variable dependent upon how 80 which the present invention is embodied;
numbers. Such a real number could, for instance, be
one turns the steering mechanism of an aircraft but in
dependent of the vector of Wind, azimuth or convergence.
Vectors, other than the wind which are usually carried
in account rather than solved, are the azimuth vector
FIGURE 2 shows a typical map on which the posi
tion of an aircraft is represented with respect to a radio
station and a waypoint;
FIGURE 3 is a view, in front elevation, of a cross
and a small angle such as the one along a course to omni 65 pointer meter showing the relative positions of the face
station, which seems to narrow down as one approaches
and horizontal and vertical pointers at the instant that
the station or widen out as one leaves; the convergence
a reading is taken employing a compass data receiver
angle.
The azimuth vector remains unsolved as long as a di
synchro with the intersection of the pointers correspond
ing to the position of the aircraft with respect to a way
rection must be carried in mind or continuously fed into 70 point; and
FIGURE 4 is a view, similar to FIGURE 3, but show~
trate by means of the previous examples, assume that
ing the azimuth scale rotated to a position correspond
a computer while one is maintaining a course. To illus
3,034,724
A
D’Arsonval type and have a zero center.
3
ing to the line of Hight to a destination and with the
vertical pointer located in a position corresponding to the
line of ilight while the horizontal pointer is positioned
at a distance from the center corresponding to the dis
tance that the aircraft is from the destination.
The pointer
moving means 38 is controlled, wholly or in part, by
the voltage which appears between the contact arms
26-26’ while the pointer moving means 39 is controlled,
Ul wholly or in part, by the voltage appearing between the
Referring now particularly to FIGURE 1, it will be
observed that the reference character 10 designates dis
tance measuring equipment which is carried by the air
craft and forms a part of a radio distance indicating
system that is controlled by a radio transmitter at a ref
erence point on the earth. For example, as shown in
FIGURE 2, the radio station can be located at a point
11 and, under assumed conditions, the aircraft is indi
cated at a point 12 which is 25 miles due west of the radio
station and thus has a bearing of 270° in relation thereto.
The distance measuring equipment 10 includes a shaft
13 which carries a contact arm 14 that makes contact
engagement with a variable resistance device 15 in the
form of a potentiometer which isgrounded at 16. The
contact arms 27-27’.
At the center of the face 33 is a reference position 40
which is indicated by a dot. As will appear hereinafter
this reference position 40 may represent the location of
the radio station 11, FIGURE 2, or it may represent the
location of a waypoint 41 which, under assumed condi
tions, is positioned 25 miles due north of the radio sta
tion 11. The line of flight between the aircraft 12 and
the waypoint 41 is indicated by the broken line 42 and
it will be assumed that the aircraft at 12 is following
this line of flight 42 to the destination at the waypoint
41 where it may land or continue on to another waypoint.
It is desirable that it be possible to vary the effects of
contact arm 14 is connected by a conductor 17 to a direct 20
the voltages applied to the operating windings of the
pointer moving means 38 and 39 in order that, under
voltage source indicated as a DME voltage the magni
tude of which as applied between ground 16 and con
certain circumstances, there be a maximum movement
of the pointers 34 and 35 for a minimum change in the
ductor 18, is controlled by the position of the arm 14
applied voltage. For this purpose a range multiplier,
shown generally at 44, is employed. It includes an op
erating knob 45 that is movable with respect to a scale
and is a function of the distance between the aircraft and
the transmitting radio station. The distance measuring
equipment 10 is described in more detail in the patent
above referred to. The angular position of the shaft 13
shifts as a function of the distance to the controlling radio
station 11 to effect a corresponding shift of the Contact
(not shown) which shows the particular degree of multi
plication. The associated instruments then carry appro
priate scales or an appropriate multiplier is used in order
to determine the actual reading. The knob 45 is fast on
arm 14 along the potentiometer 15, thereby providing a 30 the shaft 46 which carries at its' opposite end a notched
cam 47 that cooperates with a click spring 48 to hold
voltage between ground 16 and conductor 18 which is a
the shaft 46 in any position to which it may be moved.
»measure of the distance.
The range multiplier 44 can be arranged to operate in
The voltage corresponding to the distance that the
any one of four or five positions as may be desired.
aircraft is away from the radio station is applied by the
conductor 18 to a sine-cosine resolver that is indicated,
generally, at 19. This device includes a pair of sine
cosine impedance devices 20 and 21 each of which com
prises a potentiometer that is closed on itself. The con
The shaft 46 of the range multiplier 44 carries four
pairs of contact arms Sil-51, 52--53, 54-55 and 56
57. These pairs of contact arms cooperate respectively
with pairs of semi-circular resistors 69-61, 62-63,
64h65 and 66-*67 It will be observed that each con
ductor 18 is commonly connected to the impedance de
vices 20 and 21 at 22 and 23 and they are grounded as 40 tact arm of each pair moves with respect to and makes
contact with a corresponding semi-circular resistor of
indicated at 24 and 25 at diametrically opposite points.
Contact arms 26-26’ and 27-27’ are mounted on a
each pair.
shaft 28 for contact engagement, respectively, with the
impedance devices 20 and 21. It will be observed that the
The sine-cosine resolver 19 is connected to the range
multiplier 44. For this purpose conductors 70 and 71
interconnect the contact arms 26-26’ and the semi
45 circular resistors 6ft-61. Conductors 72 and 73 inter
right angles to the position of the contact arms 27-27'.
connect the contact arms Sil-*51V and the pointer moving
The shaft 28 is controlled by an omni bearing indica
means 38. Conductors 74 and 75 interconnect the con
tor that is indicated, generally, at 29. It is located on
the aircraft and not only shows the bearing of the course
tact arms 27-27’ and the semi-circular resistors 64-65.
that the craft should follow to reach the point of origin
The contact arms 54¢55 associated therewith are con
of the signals but also it is employed, as will be described 50 nected by conductors 76 and 77 to the pointer moving
hereinafter, to control the resolution of the voltage de
means 39. Using the apparatus thus far described, the
rived from the distance measuring equipment 10 into
positions of the horizontal and vertical pointers 34 and
rectangular coordinates which are measured in such man
35 are controlled in accordance with the position of the
ner as to indicate on the craft its position with respect
aircraft with reference to the transmitting radio station
to the reference point or its position with respect to a 55 and their intersection indicates with respect to the refer
waypoint as the case may be. In addition it is employed
ence position 40 on the face 33 the location of the aircraft
in maintaining the aircraft on a desired line of flight and
with respect to the radio station. By changing the posi
indicating the distance that the aircraft is from its desti
tion of the range multiplier 44 the scale at which the
position of the aircraft is shown with respect to the face
nation.
60
The omni bearing indicator 29 indicates a bearing of
33 can be varied as desired. Under the assumed condi
90° which is the bearing of the aircraft 12, which was
tions with the aircraft 25 miles due west of the radio
previously assumed to be located due west of the radio
station, as illustrated in FIGURE 2, the horizontal pointer
station 11 as shown in FIGURE 2.
34 would be positioned so as to extend through the refer
The distance measuring equipment 10 in conjunction
ence position 40 while the vertical pointer 35 would be
with the omni bearing indicator 29 are employed for 65 located to the left at a position corresponding to 25 miles
controlling wholly or in part the operation of a cross
from the reference position 4€).
pointer meter that is indicated, generally, at 32. The
Since it is desirable to employ a waypoint, such as the
meter 32 includes a face 33 which is movable about an
waypoint 41 in FIGURE 2, for navigation purposes a
axis through its center in a manner to be described herein
waypoint selector, shown generally at 78, is employed.
after. Movable with respect to the face 33 is a horizon 70
contact arms 26-26’ are positioned on the shaft 28 at
tal or distance indicating pointer 34 and at right angles
thereto there is a vertical or course indicator pointer 35.
It will be understood that the geographical position of
the waypoint is known to the aircraft navigator and its
coordinates with respect to the radio station are wel] es
The pointers 34 and 35 are carried, respectively, by
tablished. When it is desired to navigate with respect to
hands 36 and 37 the positions of which are controlled
by pointer moving means 38 and 39. They are of the 75 a waypoint while using signals from a radio station dis,
5
3,034,724
tant therefrom, the waypoint selector 78 is adjusted in
order to modify the operation of the cross pointer meter
32. When so modified the reference position 40 then cor
responds to the geographical position of the waypoint
rather than to the geographical position of the transmit
ting radio station.
The waypoint selector 73 includes means for providing
a direct voltage which is a function of the distance be
6
trally of the face 33 and 4through the reference position
40 while the horizontal pointer 34 will be positioned
below the reference position 40 a distance corresponding
to the distance that the aircraft is away from either the
radio station 11 or the waypoint 41 as the case may be.
When so adjusted the vertical pointer 35 then becomes
a course indicating pointer while the horizontal pointer
34 becomes a distance indicating pointer. Depending
upon the setting of the range multiplier 414, the position
tween the radio station being employed and the waypoint
rto which it is desired to navigate. This voltage is varied 10 of the horizontal pointer 34 may or may not accurately
by a variable resistance device 79 in the form of a poten
tiometer which has in engagement therewith a contact
arm 80 that is connected by a conductor 81 to a voltage
reflect the distance that the aircraft is away from either
the radio station 11 or the Waypoint 41. Provision is
made, as will appear hereinafter, for accurately indicat
source. The contact arm 80 is mounted on a shaft 82
ing by separate means the distance that the aircraft is
which carries a knob 83 which moves with respect to a 15 away from either the radio station or the waypoint.
scale in miles (not shown). For illustrative purposes,
In accordance with this invention `the simultaneous ad
when the waypoint 41 is located 25 miles away from the
justment of the several elements is effected solely by rne
radio station 11, the knob 83 is turned to a correspond
chanical means. It will be understood that the illustra
ing position so that a direct voltage is provided between
tion is diagrammatic and `that various servo mechanisms
ground 84 and a conductor 85 which is a function of the 20 can be employed.
distance and in this particular case corresponds to the 25
The manner in which these simultaneous movements
miles between the radio station and the waypoint.
are effected now will be described. The azimuth scale
In order to resolve the voltage corresponding to the
106 is rotatably mounted and around its periphery gear
distance between the radio station and the waypoint into
rectangular coordinates a sine-cosine resolver, shown
generally at 86, is employed. It is identical in construc
tion to the sine-cosine resolver 19 and includes sine
teeth 107 are provided which mesh with the teeth of a
pinion 108 that is fast on a shaft 109. A knob 110 is
mounted on the shaft `109 to permit manual rotation
thereof. Also mounted on the shaft 109 is a second pin
ion 111 which meshes with the teeth of a gear wheel
cosine impedance devices 88 and 89 to which the conduc
tor 85 is connected at 940 and 91. They are grounded at
112 that rotates the rotor of the dilferential synchro 104
92 and 93 at diametrically opposite locations. Contact 30 for the purpose of Shifting the face 33. At its other
arms 94-94’ and 95-95’ engage the impedance devices
end a bevel gear 113 is mounted on the shaft l109 and
88 and 89. They are fast on a shaft 96 at positions which
are `at right angles to each other. The shaft 96 carries
a knob 97 which is movable with respect to a scale
marked in degrees (not shown). For the particular loca
tion of the waypoint 41 due north of the radio station 11,
it drives through a bevel gear 113’ to a shaft 11d on
which a bevel gear 115 is mounted that drives another
bevel gear 115’ which is carried by a transverse shaft
The latter drives Ithrough bevel gears 117 and 117’
to a shaft 118 which carries a pinion 119. The pinion
119 drives -a ring gear 120 which is mechanically con
nected by insulation arms 121 to the impedance devices
35 116.
the knob 97 would be turned to the zero degree position.
The sine-cosine resolver 86 is connected through the
range multiplier 44 to the cross pointer meter 32. For
20 and 21 for rotating them conjointly about the axis
this purpose conductors 98 and 99 interconnect the con 40 of rotation of the shaft 28. Since any suitable means
tact arms 94-94’ and the semi-circular resistors 62--63.
can be provided for rotatably mounting the impedance
Likewise conductors 101 and 102 interconnect the contact
devices 20‘ and 21, the mounting is illustrated diagram
arms 95-95’ and the semi-circular resistors 66-67. It
matically only. It will be understood that the connec
will be observed that the conductors 72 and 73 commonly
tions at 22 and 23 and to ground at 24 and 25 will be
connect the respective contact arms 50-51 and 52-53 45 effected by suitable brushes and collector rings. The
and that the conductors 76 and 77 commonly intercon
transverse shaft -116 also drives through bevel gears 122
nect the respective contact arms 54--55 and 56-‘57.
and 122’ to a shaft 123 which carries a pinion 124. The
These interconnections permit the modification of the
pinion 124 drives a ring gear 125 to which the imped
operating voltages applied -to the pointer moving means
ance devices 88 and 89 are connected by insulation arms
38 and 39 from the sine-cosine resolver 19 in accordanœ 50 126. The mounting of the impedance devices 88 and 89
with the location of the waypoint as selected by the way
for rotation about the aXis of rotation of the shaft 96 is
point selector 78. Also the common adjustment of the
the same as described for the impedance devices 20 and
range or scale at which the pointers 34 and 35 operate is.
21. Now it will be apparent that, when the knob 110 is
controlled by the range multiplier 44. It will be recalled
rotated to rotate the shaft 109, the azimuth scale 106
that the face 30 of the cross pointer meter 32 was de
is rotated together with a similar rotation of the face 33
scribed as being movable. Specifically it is movable about
and corresponding rotation of the impedance devices
an axis through the reference position 40 at right angles
2li-21 and 855-89.
The manner in which use is made
to the face 33. For this purpose a compass data receiver
of such simultaneous adjustments will be set forth pres
synchro 103 is employed. It is driven through a differ
ently.
ential synchro 104 through conductors X-Y-Z from a 60
As shown more clearly in FIGURE, 3 of the drawing
mechanism which operates in accordance with the direc
a scale 127 is provided on the face 33. This scale 127
tion of magnetic north. It may be a magnetic direction
comprises two sets of iive dots along a line extending
indicator compass. Thus the position of a pointer 105
`through
the reference position 40 at the center of the
carried by the face 33 near its periphery indicates with
face 33. This line is at right angles to a line extending
respect to an azimuth scale 106 the heading of the aircraft
' from `the pointer 105 through the reference position 40.
with respect -to magnetic` north. Under the assumed con
Along the latter line nine dots are provided to form a
ditions with the aircraft located at 12 in FIGURE 2, the
scale 128 which, of course, is at right angles to the scale
pointer 105 on the face 33 will be located in the position
127. The dots making up the scales 127 and 128 are
shown in FIGURE 3 and thus indicates that the aircraft
uniformly
spaced and are employed in conjunction with
is proceeding in a northeasterly direction.
the pointers 34 and 35 to provide indications of distance.
In accordance with this invention provision is made
Under certain conditions when the range multiplier 44
for simultaneously shifting the positions of the face 33,
sine-cosine resolver 19 and the sine-cosine resolver 86
together with the- position of the azimuth scale 106 to the
end that the vertical pointer 35 will be positioned cen
is set to operate the pointers 34 and 35 at a relatively
large scale, and the navigation system is adjusted to posi
tion the pointer 35 in the center of the face 33 and
through the reference position 40, the pointer 34 would
3,034,724
7
tend to be moved off scale.
To limit its movement a
stop 129 is employed. Under such conditions when the
pointer 34 is against the stop 129, it no longer provides
a true indication. However, provision is made for tak
ing care of this situation in a manner to be described.
With a view to providing an indication of the distance
that the aircraft is away from either the radio station or
the waypoint, as the case may be, when the range multi
S
Next the pilot operates the range multiplier 44 to the
position of maximum sensitivity. In this position the
distance from one end to the other of the scale 127 indi
cates a distance of l mile so that the fifth dot from the ref
erence position 40 on either side represents a distance of
1/2 mile from the reference position. Thus the pilot has a
path indicated on the face 33 one mile in width which he
can follow because of the scale used with the same degree
of accuracy that `he could follow a railroad track extending
plier 44 is adjusted such that the horizontal pointer 34
is against the stop 129, a volt meter 130 is provided. 10 directly toward the destination.
However, with this range of maximum sensitivity, the
It will be observed that it is connected across conductor
pointer 34 is against the stop 129 and no longer indi
'70 and a conductor 131 which is connected to the con
cates the true distance to waypoint or ultimate destina
ductor 71 previously referred to. The voltage appear
ing between conductors 70 and `131 is a linear function
of the distance that the aircraft is away from either the
radio station or the waypoint when the system is ad
justed to position the pointer 35 in the center of the face
33 and through the reference position 40.
The volt
meter 130 employs a pointer 133 that moves with respect
to a scale 134 which is calibrated in mites.
Advantage is taken of the fact that the voltage between
the conductors 7d and 131 changes in accordance with
the speed of the aircraft relative to the ground to show
such ground speed.
For this purpose a capacitor 135 is
connected in series with a microammeter 136 and between
the conductors 70 and 131. The microamrneter 135
measures the discharge of the capacitor 135 and reflects
it in the movement of a pointer 137 with respect to a
Scale 138 which is calibrated in miles per hour.
When the aircraft passes over the destination, the volt
age applied between conductors 76 and 131 changes
tion. Instead, the indication on the volt meter 130
shows the distance to the destination while the ammeter
136 shows the ground speed.
When the aircraft reaches the destinatiion represented
by the waypoint 41 operating under the conditions set
forth hereinbefore, the pointers 34 and 35 cross over the
reference position 40, the volt meter 130 reads zero, the
microammeter 136 continues to read the ground speed
of the aircraft and the omni bearing indicator 29 shows
180° which is the bearing to the station.
The pilot then can select another waypoint and employ
the same or different radio station and repeat the fore
going operations to continue the navigation of the air
craft. As the aircraft passes over the waypoint 41 under
the assumed conditions, the polarized relay 139 is oper
ated from one position to the other and advantage can be
30 taken of the movement of contact 146 from one position
to the other to effect any desired control function.
Since certain changes in the foregoing system and dif
polarity. Advantage is taken of this characteristic by
employing a polarized relay, shown generally at 139, the
ferent embodiments of the invention can be made with
synchro 104 to provide the magnetic bearing of the air
a reference position corresponding to said reference point,
out departing from the spirit and scope thereof it is in
winding of which is connected to the conductors 70 and
tended that all matter shown in the accompanying draw
131 as shown. The relay 139 is provided with a mov
ing and described hereinbefore shall be interpreted as
able contact 146 which is arranged to engage either sta
illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
tionary contact 141 or stationary contact 142 depending
What is claimed as new is:
upon the direction of polarity change, Thus, as the air
l. In a navigational system for a dirigible craft, the
craft passes over the destination, the polarized relay 139
combination of distance measuring means thereon pro
40
is operated from one position to the other position. Ad
viding a voltage the magnitude of which represents the
vantage can be taken of this operation of the polarized
distance the craft is from a reference point on the earth,
relay 139 to effect any desired operation.
a pair of sine-cosine impedance devices each closed upon
In describing the use of the navigation system illus
itself and having said voltage applied across diametrically
trated in FIGURE l and described hereinbefore, it will
opposite points thereof, a pair of contacts for each impe
be assumed that the aircraft is located at 12, as shown
dance device for engaging the same at diametrically op
in FIGURE 2, 25 miles directly west of the radio station
posite points, means commonly mounting said pairs of
11 and that the waypoint 41 has been selected as the
contacts to engage the respective impedance device in 90°
destination which is 25 miles due north of the radio sta
spaced relation, means operatively connected to said
tion 11. Assuming that the azimuth scale 166 is posi
mounting means to position said pairs of contacts ac
tioned as shown in FIGURE 3 and that the compass data
cording to the bearing of the craft with respect to said
receiver synchro 103 is energized through the differential
reference point; a cross pointer meter having a face with
craft, the relationship is illustrated in FIGURE 3. Here
the intersection of the pointers 34 and 35 indicates that
the aircraft is 35 miles southwest of the waypoint 41 since
they intersect over dot 7 on the scale 12S. The pointer
105 is in the 45° or northeast position.
Next the pilot rotates the knob 110 through such
an extent that the pointer `105 on the face 3‘3 is rotated
a vertical pointer movable to the right and left of said
reference position, means for moving said vertical pointer
connected to one of said pairs of contacts, a horizontal
pointer movable above and below said reference posi
tion, and means for moving said horizontal pointer con
nected to the other of said pairs of contacts; said pair of
impedance devices being conjointly shiftable about a com
to the position shown in FIGURE 4 where the pointer 60 mon axis relative to said pairs of contacts, and means for
105 points vertically upwardly. The azimuth scale 106
shifting said impedance devices through an extent suf
is rotated correspondingly as shown. Actually what
ficient to cause said vertical pointer to shift to said ref
the pilot does is to rotate the knob 110 until the pointer
erence position and said horizontal pointer to shift to a
35 is in the centel` of the face 33 where it passes through
position away from said reference position correspond
the reference position 40. Then the pointer 34 is posi
ing to the distance the craft is away from said reference
tioned below and parallel to the scale 127 and through
point.
the seventh dot from the reference position 40 along the
2. In a naviagational system for a dirigible craft, the
scale 128. It will be apparent now that the pointer 35 then
combination of distance measuring means thereon pro
indicates the course that the craft is to follow to reach the
viding a voltage the magnitude of which represents the
waypoint 40 while the position of the pointer 34 with ref
distance the craft is from a reference point on the earth,
erence to the scale 128 indicates that the aircraft is 35
a pair of sine-cosine impedance devices each closed upon
miles from the destination. This condition exists only
itself and having said voltage applied across diametrical
as long as the pilot guides the aircraft to maintain the
ly opposite points thereof, a pair of contacts for each im
pedance device for engaging the same at diametrically
pointer 35 in a position through the reference position
opposite points, means commonly mounting said pairs of
40.
3,034,724
contacts to engage the respective impedance device in
90° spaced relation, means operatively connected to said
mounting means to position said pairs of contacts ac
cording to the bearing of the craft with respect to said
reference point; a cross pointer meter having -a face with
a reference position corresponding to said reference point,
a vertical pointer movable to the right and left of said
reference position, means for moving said vertical pointer
vertical pointer movable to the right and left of said
reference position, means for moving said vertical pointer
connected to one of said pairs of contacts, a horizontal
pointer movable above and below said reference position,
and means for moving said horizontal pointer connected
to the other of said pairs of contacts; said pair of imped
ance devices `being conjointly shiftable about a common
axis relative to said pairs of contacts, means yfor shifting
connected to one of said pairs of contacts, a horizontal
said impedance devices through an extent suñicient to
pointer movable above and below said reference posi 10 cause said vertical pointer to shift to said reference posi
tion, and means for moving said horizontal pointer con
tion and said horizontal pointer to shift to a position away
nected to the other of said pairs of contacts; said pair of
from said reference position corresponding to the distance
impedance devices being conjointly shiftable about a
the craft is away from said reference point, and means
common axis relative to said pairs of contacts, means
responsive to the change in the voltage between said other
for shifting said impedance devices through an extent 15 pair of contacts resulting from the craft passing said ref
suñìcient to cause said vertical pointer to shift to said
reference position and said horizontal pointer to shift
to a position away from said reference position corre
sponding to the distance the craft is away from said ref
erence point for operating a device from one position to
another.
6. The invention as set forth in claim 5 wherein the
voltage between the other pair of contacts is a unidirec
erence point, and voltage responsive means connected 20 tional voltage and the change therein is a change from one
across said other pair of contacts for indicating inde
polarity to the other.
pendently of said cross pointer meter the distance be
7. In a navigational system for a dirigible craft, the
tween the craft and said reference point.
combination of distance measuring means thereon pro
3. In a navigational system for a dirigible craft, the
viding a voltage the magnitude of which represents the
combination of distance measuring means thereon pro 25 distance the craft is from a reference point on the earth,
viding a voltage the magnitude of which represents the
a pair of sine-cosine impedance devices each closed upon
distance the craft is from a reference point on the earth,
itself and having said voltage applied across diametrically
a pair of sine-cosine impedance devices each closed upon
opposite points thereof, a pair of contacts for each irn
itself and having said voltage applied across diametrically
pedance device for engaging the same at diametrically op
if
opposite points thereof, a pair of contacts for each imped 30 posite points, means commonly mounting said pairs of
contacts to engage the respective impedance device in 90°
posite points, means commonly mounting said pairs of con
spaced relation, means operatively connected to said
tacts to engage the respective impedance device in 90°
mounting means to position said pairs of contacts accord
spaced relation, means operatively connected to said
ing to the bearing of the craft with respect to said refer
mounting means to position said pairs of contacts accord 35 ence point; a cross pointer meter having a face with a
ing to the bearing of the craft with respect to said refer
reference position corresponding to said reference point,
ance device for engaging the same at diametrically op
ence point; a cross pointer meter having a lface with a ref
a horizontal scale on said face to the right and left of
erence position corresponding to said reference point, a
said reference position, a vertical scale below said refer
vertical pointer movable to the right and left of said refer
ence position, a vertical pointer movable to the right and
ence position, means for moving said vertical pointer con 40 left of said reference position, means `for moving said ver
nected to one of said pairs of contacts, a horizontal pointer
tical pointer connected to one of said pairs of contacts,
movable above and below said reference position, and
a horizontal pointer Amovable above and below said
means for moving said horizontal pointer connected to
reference position, and means for moving said hori
the other of said pairs of contacts; said pair of impedance
zontal pointer connected to the other of said pairs of con
devices being conjointly shiftable about a common axis
45 tacts, said pair of impedance devices being conjointly shift
relative to said pairs of contacts, means for shifting said
able about a common axis relative to said pairs of con
impedance devices through _an extent suiiicient to cause
tacts, means for shifting said impedance devices through
said vertical pointer to shift to said reference position and
an extent suñ‘icient to cause said vertical pointer to shift
said horizontal pointer to shift to a position away from
to said reference position and said horizontal pointer to
said reference position corresponding to the distance the
shift to a position away from said reference position cor
craft is away from said reference point, and means con
responding to the distance the craft is away from said
nected across said other pair of contacts and responsive to
reference point, means for increasing the effects of said
the change in the voltage therebetween as the craft moves
voltage as applied to said pointer moving means whereby
with respect to said reference point for indicating the
said horizontal pointer tends to move off of said vertical
speed at which the craft is moving.
scale, and means responsive to the magnitude of the volt
4. The invention as set forth in claim 3 wherein the
age between said other pair of contacts and independent
voltage is a unidirectional voltage, a capacitor is charged
of said horizontal pointer for indicating the distance be
to a potential corresponding to the voltage between the
tween the craft and said reference point.
other pair of contacts, and an ammeter measures the dis
S. In a navigational system for a dirigible craft, the
charge of said capacitor to provide the speed indication.
60 combination of distance measuring means thereon pro
5. In a naviagational system for a dirigible craft, the
viding a voltage the magnitude of which represents the
combination of distance measuring means thereon provid
distance the craft is from a reference point on the earth,
ing a voltage the magnitude of which represents the dis
a pair of sine-cosine impedance devices each closed upon
tance the craft is from a reference point on the earth, a
itself and having said voltage applied across diametrically
pair of sine-cosine impedance devices each closed upon it
points thereof, a pair of contacts for each im
self and having said voltage applied across diametrically 65 opposite
pedance device for engaging the same at diametrically
opposite points thereof, a pair of contacts lfor each im
opposite points, means commonly mounting said pairs of
pedance device for engaging the same at diametrically op
contacts to engage the respective impedance device in 90°
posite points, means commonly mounting said pairs of
spaced relation, means operatively connected to said
contacts to engage the respective impedance device in 70 mounting means to position said pairs of contacts accord
90° spaced relation, means operatively connected to said
ing to the bearing of the craft with respect to said refer
mounting means to position said pairs of contacts accord
ence point, a pair of waypoint sine-cosine impedance de
ing to the bearing of the craft with respect to said refer
vices each closed upon itself, means for applying a Voltage
ence point; a cross pointer meter having a face with a ref
across diametrically opposite points of said waypoint im
erence position corresponding to said reference point, a 75 pedance devices the magnitude of which represents the
3,034,724
distance a waypoint is from said reference point, a pair of
contacts for each waypoint impedance device for engag
ing the same at diametrically opposite points, means com
monly mounting said pairs of waypoint contacts to en
gage the respective waypoint impedance device in 90N’
spaced relation and adjustable in accordance with the
bearing of said waypoint with respect to said reference
point; a cross pointer meter having a face with a refer
ence position corresponding to said waypoint, a vertical
pointer movable to the right and left of said reference
position, means for moving said vertical pointer con
nected to be responsive to the voltages between corre
sponding pairs of contacts of the first and second men
tioned impedance devices, a horizontal pointer movable
above and below said reference position, and means for
moving said horizontal pointer connected to be respon
12
-10. In a navigational system for a dirigible craft, the
combination of distance measuring means thereon pro
viding a voltage the magnitude of which represents the
distance the craft is from a reference point on the earth,
a pair of sine-cosine impedance devices cach closed upon
itself and having said voltage applied across diametri
cally opposite points thereof, a pair of contacts for each
impedance device for engaging the same at diametrically
opposite points, means commonly mounting said pairs of
contacts to engage the respective impedance device in
90° spaced relation, means operatively connected to said
mounting means to position said pairs of contacts ac
cording to the bearing of the craft with respect to said
reference point, a pair of waypoint sine-cosine impedance
devices each closed upon itself, means for applying a volt
age across diametrically opposite points of said waypoint
impedance devices the magnitude of which represents the
sive to the voltages between the other corresponding pairs
distance a waypoint is from said reference point, a pair
of contacts of said first and second mentioned imped
of contacts for each waypoint impedance device for en
ance devices; each pair of impedance devices being indi
vidually conjointly shiftable relative to said pairs of con 20 gaging the same at diametrically opposite points, means
commonly mounting said pairs of waypoint contacts to
tacts about a common axis, and means for simulta
engage the respective waypoint impedance device in 90°
neously shifting said pairs of impedance devices through
spaced relation and adjustable in accordance with the
an extent sufficient to cause said vertical pointer to shift
bearing of said waypoint with respect to said reference
to said reference position and said horizontal pointer to
shift to a position away from said reference position 25 point; a cross pointer meter having a face with a refer
ence position corresponding to said waypoint, a vertical
corresponding to the distance the craft is away from said
pointer movable to the right and left of said reference
waypoint.
position, means for moving said vertical pointer connected
9. In a navigational system for a dirigible craft, the
to be responsive to the voltages between corresponding
combination of distance measuring means thereon provid
ing a voltage the magnitude of which represents the dis 30 pairs of contacts of the first and second mentioned imped
ance devices, a horizontal pointer movable above and
tance the craft is from a reference point on the earth,
below said reference position, and means for moving said
a pair of sine-cosine impedance devices each closed upon
horizontal pointer connected to be responsive to the volt
itself and having said voltage applied across diametrically
ages between the other corresponding pairs of contacts
opposite points thereof, a pair of contacts for each im
pedance device for engaging the same at diametrically ' of said first and second mentioned impedance devices;
opposite points, means commonly mounting said pairs of
each pair of impedance devices being individually con
contacts to engage the respective impedance device in
90° spaced relation, means operatively connected to said
mounting means to position said pairs of contacts accord
ing to the bearing of t'ne craft with respect to said refer
ence point, a pair of waypoint sine-cosine impedance de
vices each closed upon itself, means for applying a volt
jointly shiftable relative to said pairs of contacts about a
common axis, means for simultaneously shifting said pairs
of impedance devices through an extent sufhcient to cause
said vertical pointer to shift to said reference position
and said horizontal pointer to shift to a position away
from said reference position corresponding to the distance
the craft is away from said waypoint, and means con
age across diametrically opposite points of said waypoint
nected across said other corresponding pairs of contacts
impedance devices the magnitude of which represents the
distance a waypoint is from said reference point, a pair qs Ut of said ñrst and second mentioned impedance devices
and responsive to the change in the voltage therebetween
of contacts for each waypoint impedance device for cn
as the craft moves with respect to said reference point
gaging the same at diametrically opposite points, means
for indicating the speed at which the craft is moving.
commonly muonting said pairs of waypoint contacts to
ll. The invention as set forth in claim 10 wherein the
engage the respective waypoint impedance device in 90°
voltages are unidirectional voltages, a capacitor is charged
spaced relation and adjustable in accordance with the
to a potential corresponding to the voltage between the
bearing of said waypoint with respect to said reference
other corresponding pairs of contacts of the first and sec
ond mentioned impedance devices, and an ammeter meas
ence position corresponding to said waypoint, a vertical
ures the discharge of said capacitor to provide the speed
pointer movable to the right and left of said reference
position, means for moving said vertical pointerA con CA Cm indication.
l2. In a navigational system for a dirigible craft, the
nected to be responsive to the voltages between corre
combination of distance measuring means thereon pro
sponding pairs of contacts of the first and second menF
viding a voltage the magnitude of which represents the
tioned impedance devices, a horizontal pointer movable
distance the craft is from a reference point on the earth,
above and below said reference position, and means for
a pair of sine-cosine impedance devices each closed upon
moving said horizontal pointer connected to be responsive
itself and having said voltage applied across diametrically
to the voltages between the other corresponding pairs of
opposite points thereof, a pair of contacts for each im
contacts of said first and second mentioned impedance
pedance device for engaging the same at diametricall‘,l
devices; each pair of impedance devices being individually
opposite points, means commonly mounting said pairs of
conjointly shiftable relative to said pairs of contacts about
a common axis, means for simultaneously shifting said 65 contacts to engage the respective impedance device in 90°
spaced relation, means operatively connected to said
pairs of impedance devices through an extent sutiicient to
mounting means to position said pairs of contacts accord
cause said vertical pointer to shift to said reference posi
ing to the bearing of the craft with respect t0 said refer
tion and said horizontal pointer to shift to a position away
ence point, a pair of waypoint impedance sine-cosine de
from said reference position corresponding to the distance
the craft is away from said waypoint, and voltage re 70 vices each closed upon itself, means for applying a Voltage
across diametrically opposite points of said waypoint im
sponsive means connected across said other correspond
pedance devices the magnitude of which represents the
ing pairs of contacts of said ñrst and second mentioned
distance a waypoint is from said reference point, a pair
impedance devices for indicating independently of said
of contacts for each Waypoint impedance device for en
cross pointer meter the distance between the craft and
75 gaging the same at diametrically opposite points, means
said waypoint.
point; a cross pointer meter having a face with a refer
3,034,724
,
13
Y
commonly mounting said pairs of waypoint contacts to
engage the respective waypoint impedance device in 90°
spaced relation and adjustable in accordance with the
bearing of said waypoint with respect to said reference
point; a cross pointer meter having a face with a refer
ence positioncorresponding to said waypoint, a vertical
pointer movable to the right and left of said reference
position, means for moving said vertical pointer con
nected to be responsive to the voltages between corre
sponding pairs of contacts of the first and second men
tioned impedance devices, a horizontal pointer movable
above and below said reference position, and means for
moving said horizontal pointer connected to be respon
14
to said reference position and said horizontal pointer to
shift to a position away from said refer-ence position cor
responding to the distance the craft is away from said
waypoint, means for increasing the effects of said volt
ages as applied to said pointer moving means whereby
said horizontal pointer tends to move off of said vertical
scale, and means responsive tothe magnitude of the volt
age between said other pairs of contacts of said first
and second impedance devices and independent of said
horizontal pointer for indicating the distance between
the craft and said waypoint.
l5. In a navigational system for a dirigible craft, the
combination of means for providing thereon two volt
sive to the voltages between the other corresponding pairs
ages the magnitudes of which represent, respectively, the
of contacts of said first and second mentioned impedance
distance the craft is north or south and the distance the
devices; each pair of impedance devices being individually
conjointly shiftable relative to said pairs of contacts about
a common axis, means for simultaneously shifting said
pairs of impedance devices through an extent sufficient to
cause said vertical pointer to shift to said reference posi 20
craft is east or west of a reference point on the earth; a
cross pointer meter having a reference position corres
ponding to said reference point, a rotatable face on which
said reference point can be located, a surrounding ro
tion and said horizontal pointer to shift to a position away
tatable azimuth scale, a vertical pointer movable to the
right and left of said reference position, and a horizontal
from said reference position corresponding to the distance
pointer movable above and below said reference posi
the craft is away from Said waypoint, and means con
tion; means responsive to one of said voltages for mov
nected across said other corresponding pairs of contacts
ing said vertical pointer away from said reference po
of said first and second mentioned impedance devices 25 sition, means responsive to the other voltage for moving
and responsive to the change in the voltage therebetween
resulting from the craft passing said waypoint for oper
said horizontal pointer away from said reference posi
tion, means for controlling the energization of said means
responsive to said one voltage whereby said vertical
pointer is shiftable from its position away from said refer
ating a device from one position to another.
13. The invention as set forth in claim 12 wherein the
voltages are unidirectional voltages and the net change 30 ence position to said reference position, means for con
in the voltage between the other corresponding pairs of
trolling the energization of said means responsive to
contacts 0f the first and second mentioned impedance
said other voltage whereby said horizontal pointer is shift
devices is from one polarity to the other.
able from its position away from said reference position
14. In a navigational system for a dirigible craft, the
to a position away therefrom corresponding to the
combination of distance measuring means thereon pro 35 distance the craft is away from said reference point,
viding a voltage the magnitude of which represents the
distance the craft is from a reference point on the earth,
a pair of sine-cosine impedance devices each closed upon
and means for rotating said face and said azimuth scale
to position the same relative to said vertical pointer in
said reference position.
itself and having said voltage applied across diametrically
16. In a navigational system for a dirigible craft, the
opposite points thereof, a pair of contacts for each im 40 combination of means for providing thereon two volt
pedance device for engaging the same at diametrically
ages the magnitudes of which represent, respectively, the
opposite points, means commonly mounting said pairs of
distance the craft is north or south and the distance the
contacts to engage the respective impedance device in 90°
craft is east or west of a reference point on the earth;
spaced relation, means operatively connected to said
a cross pointer meter having a reference position cor
mounting means to position said pairs of contacts accord
ing to the bearing of the craft with respect to said refer
ence point, a pair of waypoint sine-cosine impedance‘de
vices each closed upon itself, means for applying a volt
to the right and left of said reference position, and a
age across diametrically opposite points of said waypoint
impedance devices the magnitude of which represents the
ence position; means responsive to one of said voltages
distance a waypoint is from said reference point, a pair
of contacts for each waypoint impedance device for en
gaging the same at diametrically opposite points, means
commonly mounting said pairs of lwaypoint contacts to
engage the respective waypoint impedance device in 90°
spaced relation and adjustable in accordance with the
bearing of said waypoint with respect to said reference
responding to said reference point, a rotatable face on
which said reference point can be located, a surround
ing rotatable azimuth scale, a vertical pointer movable
horizontal pointer movable above and below said refer
for moving said vertical pointer away from said refer
ence position, means responsive to the other voltage for
moving said horizontal pointer away from said reference
position, means for controlling the energization of said
means responsive to said one voltage whereby said ver
tical pointer is shiftable from its positoin away from said
reference position to said reference position, means for
controlling the energization of said means responsive to
point; a cross pointer meter having a face with a refer
ence position corresponding to said waypoint, a horizon
said other voltage whereby said horizontal pointer is
tal scale on said face to the right and left of said refer 60 shiftable from its position to a position away therefrom
corresponding to the distance the craft is away from
ence position, a vertical scale below said reference posi
said reference point, means for rotating said face and
tion, a vertical pointer movable to the right and left of
said azimuth scale to position the same relative to said
said reference position, means for moving said vertical
vertical pointer in said reference position, and means
pointer connected to be responsive to the voltages be
tween corresponding pairs of contacts of the first and 65 responsive to the magnitude of said other voltage and
second mentioned impedance devices, a horizontal pointer
movable above and below said reference position, and
independent of said cross pointer meter for indicating
the distance between the craft and said reference point.
means for moving said horizontal pointer connected to
be responsive to the voltages between the other corre
sponding pairs of contacts of said first and second men
17. In a navigational system for a dirigible craft, the
combination of means for providing thereon two volt
tioned impedance devices; each pair of impedance devices
being individually conjointly shiftable relative to said
distance the craft is north or south and the distance the
craft is east or west of a reference point on the earth;
a cross pointer meter having a reference position cor
responding to said reference point, a rotatable face on
pairs of contacts about a common axis, means for simul
taneously shifting said pairs of impedance devices through
ages the magnitudes of which represent, respectively, the
an 4extent suñicient to cause said vertical pointer to shift 75 which said reference point can be located, a surrounding
8,0 34,724
i5
rotatable azimuth scale, a vertical pointer movable to
the right and left of said reference position, and a hori
zontal pointer movable above and below said reference
position; means responsive to one of said voltages for
moving said vertical pointer away from said reference
position, means responsive to the other voltage for mov
ing said horizontal pointer away from said reference po
sition, means for controlling the energization of said
said reference position, means responsive to the other
voltage for moving said horizontal pointer away from
said reference position, means for controlling the ener
gization of said means responsive to said one voltage
whereby said vertical pointer is shiftable from its posi
tion away from said reference position to said reference
position, means for controlling the energization of said
means responsive to said other voltage whereby said
horizontal pointer is shiftable from its position away from
tical pointer is shiftable from its position away from said 10 said reference position to a position away therefrom
means responsive to said one voltage whereby said ver
reference position to said reference position, means for
controlling the energization of said means responsive to
said other voltage whereby said horizontal pointer is shift
corresponding to the distance the craft is away from said
reference point, means for rotating said face and said
azimuth scale to position the same relative to said ver
tical pointer in said reference position, means for increas
able from its position away from said reference posi
ing the sensitivity of said pointer moving means where
tion to a position away therefrom corresponding to the
by said horizontal pointer tends to move off of said ver
distance the craft is away from said reference point,
tical scale, and means responsive to the magnitude of
means for rotating said face and said azimuth scale to
said other voltage and independent of said horizontal
position the same relative to said vertical pointer in said
pointer moving means for indicating the distance be
reference position, and means responsive to the change
in the magnitude of said other voltage as the craft moves 20 tween the craft and said reference point.
22. In a navigational system for a dirigible craft, the
with respect to said reference point for indicating the
combination of means for providing thereon two volt
speed at which the craft is moving.
ages the magnitudes of which represent, respectively,
18. The invention as set forth in claim 17 wherein
the distance the craft is north or south and the distance
the voltages are unidirectional voltages, a capacitor is
the craft is east or west of a reference point on the earth,
charged to a potential corresponding to the other volt
means providing on the craft two additional voltages
age, and an ammeter measures the discharge of said ca
pacitor to provide the speed indication.
the magnitudes of which represent, respectively, the
distance a waypoint on the earth is north or south and
the distance the waypoint is east or west of said refer
ages the magnitudes of which represent, respectively, the 30 ence point; a cross pointer meter having a reference po
sition corresponding to said waypoint, a vertical pointer
distance the craft is north or south and the distance the
movable to the right and left of said reference position,
craft is east or west of a reference point on the earth; a
and a horizontal pointer movable above and below said
cross pointer meter having a reference position correspond
reference position; means responsive to said voltages rep
ing to said- reference point, a rotatable face on which
said reference point can be located, a surrounding ro CG Gl resenting the east and west distances for moving said
vertical pointer away from said reference position, means
tatable azimuth scale, a vertical pointer movable to the
19. in a navigational system for a dirigible craft, the
combination of means for providing thereon two volt
responsive to said voltages representing the north and
right and left of said reference position, and ‘a hori
south distances for moving said horizontal pointer away
zontal pointer movable above and below said reference
from said reference position, and means for simulta
position; means responsive to one of said voltages for
moving said vertical pointer away from said reference 40 neously controlling the energization of said pointer mov
ing means whereby said vertical pointer is shiftable from
position, means responsive to the other voltage for mov
its position away from said reference position to said
ing said horizontal pointer away from said reference po
reference position and said horizontal pointer is shift
sition, means for controlling the energization of said
able away from its position away from said reference po
means responsive to said one voltage whereby said ver
sition to a position away therefrom corresponding to
tical pointer is shiftable from its position away from
said reference position to said reference position, means 45 the distance the craft is away from said waypoint.
23. In a navigational system for a dirigible craft, the
for controlling the energization of said means responsive
combination of means for providing thereon two volt
to said other voltage whereby said horizontal pointer is
ages the magnitudes of which represent, respectively, the
shiftable from its position away from said reference po
distance the craft is north or south andI the distance the
sition to a position away therefrom corresponding to the
distance the craft is away from said reference point, 50 craft is east or west of a reference point on the earth,
means providing on the craft two additional voltages
means for rotating said face and said azimuth scale to
the magnitudes of which represent, respectively, the
posiiton the same relative to said vertical pointer in said
distance a waypoint on the earth is north or south and
reference position, and means responsive to the change
the distance the waypoint is east or west of said refer
in said other voltage resulting from the craft passing
said reference point for operating a device from one po 55 ence point; a cross pointer meter having a reference
position corresponding to said waypoint, a vertical point
sition to another.
er movable to the right and left of said reference po
20. The invention as set forth in claim 19 wherein
sition, and a horizontal pointer movable above andy below
the voltages are unidirectional voltages and the change
said reference position; means responsive to said volt
in the other voltage is a change from one polarity to the
60 ages representing the east and West distances for mov
other.
ing said vertical pointer away from said reference posi
21, In a navigational system for a dirigible craft, the
tion, means responsive to said voltages representing the
combination of means for providing thereon two volt
north and south distances for moving said. horizontal
ages the magnitudes of which represent, respectively,
pointer away from said reference position, means for
the distance the craft is north or south and the distance
the craft is east or west of a reference point on the 65
earth; a cross pointer meter having a reference position
corresponding to said reference point, a rotatable face
on which said reference point can be located, a sur
simultaneously controlling the energization of said point
er moving means whereby said vertical pointer is shift
able from its position away from said reference posi
tion to said reference position and said horizontal point
er is shiftable away from its position away from said
rounding rotatable azimuth scale, a horizontal scale to
the right and left of said reference position, a vertical 70 reference position to a position away therefrom and cor
responding to the distance the craft is `away from said
scale below said reference position, a vertical pointer
waypoint, and means responsive to the magnitude of
movable to the right and left of said reference posi
said voltage representing said north and south distances
tion, and a horizontal pointer movable above and be
and independent of said cross pointer meter for indicat
low said reference position; means responsive to one of
said voltages for moving said vertical pointer away from 75 ing the distance between the craft and said waypoint.
3,034,724
i8
24. In a navigational system for a dirigible craft, the
combination of means for providing thereon two volt
ages the magnitudes of which represent, respectively,
the distance the craft is north or south and the distance
the craft is east or west of a reference point on the
earth, means providing on the craft two additional volt
ages the magnitudes of which represent, respectively,
27. The invention as set forth in claim 26 wherein the
voltages are unidirectional voltages and the net change
in the voltage representing the distance the craft is north
or south of the waypoint is from one polarity to the
other.
28. In a navigational system for 'a dirigilble cra-ft, the
combination of means for providing thereon two voltages
the magntiudes of which represent, respectively, the dis
tance the craft is north or south and the distance the craft
the distance a waypoint on the earth is north or south
and the distance the waypoint is east or west of said
reference point; a cross pointer meter having a refer 10 is east or west of a reference point on the earth, means
ence position corresponding to said waypoint, a vertical
providing on the craft two additional voltages the magni
pointer movable to the right and left of said reference
tudes of which represent, respectively, the distance a way
position, and a horizontal pointer movable above and
'- point on the earth is north or south and the distance the
below said reference position; means responsive to said
’ waypoint is east or west of said reference point, «a cross
voltages representing the east and west distances for mov 15 pointer meter having a reference position corresponding
ing said Vertical pointer away from said reference posi
to said waypoint, a horizontal scale to the right `and left of
tion, means for simultaneously controlling the energiza
tion of said pointer moving means whereby said vertical
pointer is shiftable from its position away from said ref
erence position to said reference position and said hori
zontal pointer is shiftable away from its position away
from said reference position to a position away there
from corresponding to the distance the craft is away
from said waypoint, and means responsive to the change
in the magnitude of the voltage representing the distance
the craft is north or south of said reference point for in
dicating the speed at which the craft is moving.
25. The invention las set forth in claim 24 wherein the
said reference position, a vertical scale below said refer
ence position, a vertical pointer movable to the right and
left of said reference position, and :a horizontal pointer
movable above and below said reference position; means
responsive to said voltages representing the east and west
distances for moving said vertical pointer away from said
reference position, means responsive to said voltages rep
resenting the north and south distances for moving said
25 horizontal pointer away from reference position, means
for simultaneously controlling the energization of said
pointer moving means whereby said vertical pointer is
shiftable from its position away from said reference posi
voltages are unidirectional voltages, `a capacitor is charged
tion to said reference position and said horizontal pointer
to a potential corresponding to the voltage representing 30 is shiftable away from its position »away from said refer
said north 'and south distances, and ian ammeter measures
ence position to a position yaway therefrom corresponding
the discharge of said capacitor to provide the speed indi
cation.
26. In fa navigational system for a dirigi‘ble craft, the
combination of means for providing thereon two voltages
the magnitudes of which represent, respectively, the dis
tance the craft is north or south and the distance the craft
to the distance the craft is -away from said waypoint, means
for increasing the sensitivity of said pointer moving means
r whereby said horizontal pointer tends to move oíî of said
0 vertical scale, and means responsive to the magnitude of
',said voltages representing said north and south distances
and independent of said horizontal pointer moving means
for indicating the distance between the craft and said
providing on the craft two additional voltages the magni
tudes of which represent, respectively, the distance a way 40 waypoint.
point on the earth is north or south and the distance the
References Cited in the file of this patent
Waypoint is east or west of said reference point; a cross
UNITED STATES PATENTS
pointer meter having a reference position corresponding to
2,385,334
Davey _______________ _- Sept. 25, 1945
said waypoint, a vertical pointer movable to the right and
Sanders ______________ __ Dec. 16, 1947
left of said reference position, and a horizontal pointer 45 2,432,939
2,532,158
Ewing _______________ __ Nov. 28, 1950
movable above and below said reference position; means
lresponsive to said voltages representing the east and west
2,560,527
Dehmel ______________ __ July 10, 1951
I‘distances for moving said vertical pointer Kaway from said
2,801,051
Perkins ______________ __ July 30, 1957
reference position, means responsive to said voltages rep
2,936,950
Parsons ______________ __ May 17, 1960
resenting the north and south distances for moving said 50
FOREIGN PATENTS
horizontal pointer away from said reference position,
means for simultaneously controlling the energizzation of
746,732
Great Britain _________ __ Mar. 21, 1956
is east or west of a reference point on the earth, means
said pointer moving means whereby said vertical pointer
is shiftable from its position away from said reference 5
OTHER REFERENCES
position to said reference position and said horizontal 5 Aviation Week (“New Picture Aid for ILS-_Omni
pointer is shiftable away from its position away from said
range,” by S. H. Reiniger), July 2, 1951, pp. 43, 44, 47, 48.
reference position to a position away therefrom corre
IRE Transactions on Aeronautical and Navigational
sponding to the distance the craft is `away from said way
Electronics (“Engineering Techniques in the Simulator
point, land means responsive to the change in the voltage
Evaluation of Flight Information Displays,” by Frank
representing the distance the craft is north or south of said 60 Klimowski, JL), september 1956, pp. 128435.
waypoint resulting from the craft passing the same for
operating a device from one position to another.
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