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Патент USA US3035212

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May 15, 1962
o. F. HAMANN
3,035,202
COUNTING TUBE SYSTEM
Filed April 21. 1959
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INVENTOR.
OMEIZ E HAMANN
BY
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ATTORNEY: _
r1 ‘:ited States atent
lice
Patented May 15, 1962
2
1
3,035,202
CQUNTING TUBE SYSTEM
Gmer F. Harnann, La .lolla, Cali?, assignor to General
Dynamics Corporation, Rochester, N.Y., a corporation
of Delaware
Filed Apr. 21, 195% Ser. No. 807,839
14 Claims. (Cl. 315-—8.5)
?ected to contact an individual one of the target elec-'
trodes, the beam is caused to impinge upon the upper
edge of the target electrode as will more clearly be ‘de
scribed later in the speci?cation. This creates a con
. dition that stabilizes the electron beam at the degree of
de?ection required to hold the beam on the particularly
designated target electrode.
The exact nature of this invention as well as other
objects and advantages therefor will ‘be readily apparent
This invention relates to a counting tube system and
more particularly is directed to cathode ray counting 10 from consideration of the following speci?cation relat
ing to the drawings in which:
tube apparatus wherein a series of pulses may be count
FIGURE 1 is a schematic view of an embodiment of
ed through the de?ection of an electron beam within an
evacuated envelope ‘by each of the electrical pulses to
the invention illustrating the counting tube and connect
ducing and simplifying the circuit complexity of count
ing systems. However, known cathode ray counting
tubes have been plagued with the problem of not being
trode by the electron beam;
ing circuitry;
be counted.
FIGURE 2 is a graph of the input voltage waveform
Cathode ray tubes have been used in the past to count 15
and the voltage waveform generated on the target elec
electrical pulses. Such tubes have the ‘advantage of re
_
FIGURE 3 is an illustration of the manner in which
the electron ‘beam contacts an individual one of the tar
able to hold the electron beam at any particular num 20 get electrodes; and
'
FIGURE 4 is a modi?cation of the present invention.
ber or count for any period of time, or being able to
Referring more particularly to the drawings, where
maintain a stabilized condition at any particular count
in like reference‘ numerals refer to the same parts
when the electron beam is held at a particular position
throughout the several views,'in FIGURE 1 a speci?c»
or count. The ability of known cathode ray counting
tubes to hold their electron beams at a particular posi 25 embodiment of the invention is shown comprising an
evacuated envelope 10 that may be constructed of glass
tion or count is further complicated when it is desired
or other suitable material. Positioned at one end of the
to provide a continuous output energy level that re?ects
envelope 10 is a cathode 12 that is capable of generating
the count at which the counting tube ceased to receive
electrons in response to an energizing current from a
input pulses.
Accordingly, it is an object of this invention to pro 30 high voltage source 31 through resistor 38. Control
grid 13, positioned in close proximity to the cathode 12,
vide cathode ray counting tube apparatus having a sim
is capable of controlling the emission of electrons there
from and is biased through line 40 by potentiometer 39
connected across biasing voltage source 32. Accelerat
35 ing and lensing electrodes 14 form the plate for the cath
in a stabilized condition for a desired period of time.
ode grid arrangement of the electron gun'll and also
It is another object of this invention to provide a
focus the electron beam to a desired cross sectional area
cathode ray tube counting system that will stabilize the
at the targets. The plate of unit 14 is energized from.
de?ection of the electron beam at each of its de?ected
the high voltage source 31 through line 37. The lensing
positions.
In accordance with this invention, a cathode ray tube 40 electrodes are supplied with a potential through line 34
and line 37. The electron gun 11 is thereby capable of,
is provided that is capable of receiving electrical pulses
projecting an electron beam toward the target end 0fv
and through an electrostatic de?ection system, de?ecting
the cathode ray envelope 10 .with a speed, magnitude and
an electron beam to predetermined target electrodes at
beam shape corresponding to the potentials supplied to.
the end of the tube in accordance with the number of
e .
electrical pulses received. The target electrodes consist 45 the cathode 12, grid 13, and lensing unit 14.
The de?ection means 15 comprises plate 16 and the‘
of at least one individual electrode for each count in
group of plates 17. These plates function in the man
dicia desired with each electrode being electrically con
ner of electrostatic de?ection plates with plate 16 hav-.
nected to an output circuit. When the electron beam
ing a potential at one point in the de?ection of the elec-I
impinges on one of the target electrodes, at secondary
emission condition occurs creating a positive voltage con 50 tron ‘beam and one of the plurality of plates 17 subse-v
quently having another potential as is required in a two
dition on the target electrode. The de?ection system
plate electrostatic de?ection arrangement. ‘The poten
comprises generally an electrostatic plate on one side of
tial existing at any interval of time on plate 16 or on
the electron beam and a plurality of electrostatic plates
one of the plates 17 determines the degree to which
positioned on the opposite side of the electron beam.
the electron beam 21 will be de?ected in its passage to
The input pulses to be counted are received ‘by the sin
the targets 19. Initially electrostatic plate 16 receives a
gle electrostatic plate which de?ects the electron beam
negative input pulse 28 of amagnitude determined by:
to a particular target electrode. The plurality of elec
the negative potential of the incoming pulse 28 to be
trostatic de?ection plates are each electrically connected
counted. Capacitor 29 and variable resistor '30 diifer~
to a particular one of said target electrodes. The posi
pli?ed construction and circuit arrangement capable of
counting electrical pulses at high speeds, stopping at any
particular count and re?ecting the output of the count
tive condition generated on the target electrodes is re 60 entiate the square wave pulse 28 providing an input pulse _
to plate 16 having a waveform shape 60 as shown in'
?etced as a positive condition to its electrically connect
2A of FIGURE 2. The negative condition on plate 16
ed de?ection plate. This positive condition on the one
causes the electron beam to be de?ected in a direction
of the plurality of electrostatic de?ection plates causes
away from plate 16. Positive voltages having a waver‘v
an electrostatic de?ection ?eld su?icient to de?ect the
form 61, shown in 213 of FIGURE 2, are separately im- ‘
electron beam to the corresponding target electrode after
the subsidence of the counted input pulse. Since the
electrostatic de?ection plates have a rapid response time,
the ability of the counting system to count electrical
pulses is normally limited only by the length of the in
pressed upon individual ones of the plurality of de?ec
tion plates 17 in a manner that will be more clear here
inafter in the description.
These positive voltages on
separate ones of the plates 17 cause the electron beam
to be de?ected in the same direction as it is de?ected
coming pulse and the timing necessary ‘between pulses. 70
by plate 16. The negative charge on plate 16 and the
Thus, the system is capable of counting electrical pulses
positive charge on any of plates 17‘ coact in time to de: l
at a very high speed. When the electron beam is de
3,035,202
3
?eet the electron beam 21 in a direction toward the
plates 17 and away from plate 16.
As shown in FIGURE 1, each of the electrostatic
electrodes whose magnitude is dependent upon the num
ber of electrons in the electron beam 21, the degree to
which the electron beam 21 actually contacts the elec
trodes 19, and the speed of the electrons within the
de?ection plates 17 has a surface area smaller than the
surface area of electrostatic de?ection plate 16. In op 5 electron beam. Collector ring 20 may take the form
of a conductor having a positive charge thereon as shown
eration, plate 16 is required to de?ect the electron beam
in FIGURE 1, or it may comprise a positive charged
21 in connection with plates 17 from one of the target
screen that overlays but is spaced from the target elec
electrodes 19 to the next succeeding one. Accordingly,
trodes 19. An electrical connection exists between each
the size of plate 16 and the magnitude of the incoming
pulse 23 may be adjusted to provide the amount of de 10 of the target electrodes 19 and a corresponding one of
the electrostatic de?ection plates 17 with the exception
?ection to accomplish this purpose. Each of the elec
trostatic de?ection plates of the plurality of plates 17
has identical surface areas as shown in FIGURE 1.
However, this is not a requirement of the invention since
the potential impressed on any of plates 17 may be
selectively varied by variable resistor 27, in a manner
that will be more clear hereinafter, to equalize the de
?ective force of plates that vary in size. Since each of
the plates 17 is displaced a different distance from the
path of the unde?ected electron beam, each plate with a
of target electrodes 43 and 46. When a positive voltage
is created on the target electrodes 19, this positive volt
age is re?ected through its corresponding electrical con
nections 22 and 23 to its corresponding electrostatic de
?ection plate in the plurality of electrostatic de?ection
plates 17. Further, electrical conductors
nected to output lines 24 that re?ect the
dition on the individual target electrodes
put terminals 25. Variable resistors 27
22 are
positive
through
connect
con
con
out
each
similar potential magnitude impressed thereon will be
of the output lines 24 to ground to thereby provide a
return circuit for the ?ow of current resulting from the
:apable of de?ecting the electron beam a different
voltage condition created on target electrodes 19 in re
amount. The magnitude of the potentials supplied to
sponse to the contact of the electron beam 21. ‘The
plates 17 and their individual areas and displacement
from the unde?ected path of the electron beam is gov 2 potential magnitude that exists on de?ection plates 17
and the output circuit 25 is that voltage drop which ex
srned by that electrostatic ?eld intensity necessary from
:ach of the plates to maintain the electron beam in a
lesired de?ected condition after the de?ecting potential
ists across variable resistors 27. The output terminals
25 would normally be expected to be connected to a
high impedance load, thus reducing the current draw
on plate 16 has discharged. In staggering the de?ec
ion plates 17 as shown in FIGURE 1, identical potential 30 ‘from the voltage condition on target electrodes 19.
nagnitudes applied sequentially to the plates will, for ex
The speci?c embodiment illustrated in FIGURE 1 uses
a negative input pulse 28 in conjunction with the crea
tmple, cause plate 58 to de?ect the electron beam an
tion of a positive voltage condition on the target elec
tmount greater than plates 55, 56 or 57. Thus, plate
trode through secondary emission. This generally re~
57 will be used to hold the de?ected electron beam 21
quires a high velocity electron beam 21 for impinge
0 target electrode 44 and each of the succeeding plates
l7 through 56, 55 to plate 58 will be capable of holding
ment on target electrodes 19.
he de?ected beam 21 on a corresponding one of the
arget electrodes as the distance of each electrode from
:lectrode 43 increases.
In FIGURE 1 when a positive potential exists on
also operate, and it is deemed to be within the invention
to so operate, where the input pulse 28 is positive and
the electron beam 21 is reduced in velocity su??ciently
However, the system can
to not create a secondary emission condition on target
electrodes 19, but rather a negative condition. In this
)late 58 and no negative potential is present on plate 16,
manner of operation, the voltages on the plurality of
he electron beam 21 will be de?ected at its point of
deflection plates 17 would be negative while the poten
massing plate 58 and will contact electrode 46. Ac
tial on plate 16 would be positive. The system would
:ordingly, when a positive potential exists on plate 57
.nd no negative potential exists on plate 16, electron 45 operate in substantially the same manner as that stated
with respect to FIGURE 1, except the electron beams 21
:eam 21 will then be de?ected at its point of passing
would be de?ected toward plate 16 rather than as shown.
llate 57 and will contact electrode 44. This same con
The electron counting tube apparatus, as disclosed in
lition exists with each of the plates in the plurality of
b18165 17 in that when a positive potential is impressed
FIGURE 1, operates in the manner as follows. The
cathode 12 is biased by the negative potential of high
>n each of the plates, the electron beam will be de
lected at the point of passing that particular electro
voltage source 31 through resistor 38 and in response
tatic plate. Accordingly, there is shown in FIGURE 1
thereto is capable of emitting electrons to electron beam
. plurality of electron beams 21 that is representative of
21. The other end of the high voltage source 31 is con
he de?ection of each of the electron beams by the in
nected by line 37 to the plate 14 of the electron gun 11.
lividual ones of the de?ection plates 17. However, it 55 Accordingly, depending upon the control potential on the
s to be understood, and it will be readily apparent later,
control grid 13, an electron beam is generated and pro
hat at one time only one of the plurality of beams 21
jected toward the target electrodes 19. The magnitude
s being de?ected. The plurality of beams 21 merely
of the electrons in the electron beam is determined by
epresent or illustrate the operation of the entire system
the bias potential on the control grid 13 which may be
nd are not re?ective of the operation at any one time. 60 adjusted through potentiometer 39. Potentiometer
may take any form such as the output voltage of
Each of the target electrodes 19 is insulated from the
electron tube or any other means for controlling
>ther and is connected to electrical conductors 22 which
switching a biasing potential to the control grid 13.
.‘he showing is merely for explanatory purposes.
39
an
or
In‘
lass through the envelope end 18 to an output circuit.
operation the control grid 13 is biased through potentiBach of the electrodes 19 is constructed of material 65 ometer 39 to the point that the magnitude of the po-‘
,apable of electron emission greater than one when sub
tential on grid 13 gives the desired number of electrons‘
:cted to the impact of the electron beam 21. Thus,
to the electron beam that will provide the desired po
(hen the electron beam 21 is impinged on one of the
tential on target electrodes 19. The acceleration applied
arget electrodes 19, the target electrode in response to
to the electron beam 21 by the gun 11 is that required
npact of the electrons in the electron beam 21 emits 70 to provide desired secondary emission. Initially the elec
greater number of secondary emission electrons than
he number of impinging electrons. These secondary
mission electrons are collected by a positive biased col
:ctor ring 20. The emission of electrons by the target
lectrodes 19 creates a positive voltage on the respective
'tron beam 21 is projected along the longitudinal axis of
the tube or in the. unde?ected path of the electron beam
21 to target electrode 43. This is indicative of a zero
count inasmuch as no potentials 28 have been received
by the de?ection means 15. When an initial pulse 28 is
3,035,202
received at the input, it passes through a differentiating
circuit comprising condenser 29 and variable resistor 30
to the de?ection plate 16. A square wave pulse 28, after
being differentiated by the differentiating circuit provides
an input pulse to de?ection plate 16 having a waveform
60 as shown in FIGURE 2. This negative pulse causes
G
be be supplied to output line .74. This pulse may be
utilized by output circuitry to register decades in con
nection with the beam being returned each time to Zero
count thereby permitting the unit to function as a decade
counter. Thus the counter arrangement shown in FIG
URE 1 is capable of counting in decades. Should the
count be stopped at any particular number within the
decade, the beam will be held in this condition while the
ing target electrode 44. The electron beam impinging
count is being continuously re?ected to output circuit 25.
upon target electrode 44 causes a positive potential to be
created thereon in the manner aforesaid. This positive 10 The counter‘may be started again at the last preceding
number or it may be reset to zero through a positive re
voltage on target electrode 44 re?ects through electrical
setting pulse supplied to line 41 through the reset pulse
connection 48, through line 51 to electrostatic de?ection
input. The reset pulse provided at line 41 will operate to
plate 57 and creates a positive condition on plate 57.
bias the cathode to a cut o?c condition, blanking the gun
The rise in the positive potential condition on electrostatic
de?ection plate 57 ‘follows the waveform con?guration 15 1-1 and returning the beam 21 to its point of impact onto
target electrode v43.
61 as shown in FIGURE 2. Accordingly, during the
Since the electron gun is normally operated under a
time interval that the spiked waveform 60 is decreasing
grid control bias through line 40, but at the time of
on plate 16, the positive potential of the waveform 61
cut off it is operated under a constant grid bias with a
on plate 57 is increasing. Thus, it is readily apparent that
cathode control bias through line 41, a bypass con
the control over the electron beam in its de?ected posi
denser 33 is provided. This bypass condenser 33 by
tion to target electrode 44 is transferred from the de?ec
passes to ground any positive input pulses supplied to
tion plate 16 to the de?ection plate 57. Following the
the cathode 12 that would also re?ect through resis
passing of the input pulse the electron beam is now
tors 38 and potentiometer 39 to the grid 13. Accord
held in its position of contacting electrode 44 solely by
the positive potential that exists on de?ection plate 57 25 ingly, the bypass condenser 33 holds the grid 13 at the
potential established by potentiometer 39 regardless of
in response to the impingement of the electron beam 21
the momentary positive pulses that may be supplied to
on target electrode 44.
’
the cathode 12 through the reset pulse circuit or through
The next succeeding input pulse 28 to be counted'causes
condenser 42.
the electron beam 21 to be de?ected to the next target
the electron beam 21 to be de?ected to the next succeed
electrode 45. Normally the magnitude of the input pulse
To provide stability in holding the electron beam in its
de?ected condition at any particular count by one of the
28 on electrostatic de?ection plate 16 is insuf?cient by
positively charged electrostatic de?ection plates 17, a con
itself to de?ect the electron beam to any degree greater
stant ?ow of current through resistors 27 to ground in~
than that required to de?ect the beam to target electrode
sures that a positive potential of a predetermined mag
44. However, at the time of receiving the next succeed
ing pulse 28, a positive voltage condition still exists on 35 nitude will normally be held on the target electrodes
19. The ?ow of electrons to the target electrodes is of
electrostatic de?ection plate 57. The force of this posi
substantially a constant magnitude through static control
tive voltage condition combines with the force of the
by the control grid 13. However, to insure complete
negative voltage condition on de?ection plate 16, as a
stability, the electron beam 21 is de?ected in a manner:
result of the input pulse, to de?ect the electron beam to
that the beam contacts the upper edge of the individual
the next succeeding target electrode 45. When the elec
target electrodes 19. Thus, only a portion of the elec
tron beam 21 leaves the target electrode 44 to traverse
tron beam 21 contacts the edge of the electrodes 19.
the space between target electrode 44- and target elec
As shown in FIGURE 3, the electron beam 21 is controde 45, the voltage condition existing on target elec
tacting the upper edge of the target electrode and the
trode 44 and on plate 57 will dissipate through normal
circuit losses in a manner that it will aid plate 16 to 45 remaining portion of the beam is dissipated on the end
of the cathode ray envelope 18. The de?ection of the
de?ect the beam to the next target electrode, but will not
electron beam in this manner is accomplished as follows.
remain to interfere with the de?ection caused by the
When the beam is initially de?ected to contact one of
potential on plate 56. To maintain the voltage condi
the target electrodes 19, it causes thereon a positive
tion on de?ection plate 57 for the interval of time re
quired for the electron beam to bridge this gap, a con 50 voltage of the Waveform shown as 61 in FIGURE 2.v
This increase in the voltage waveform being re?ected
denser 26 is placed across the resistor 27 to ground. In
the manner just described the electron beam 21 is suc
to a corresponding one of the plurality of de?ection
plates 17v holds the electron beam in'its de?ected con-'
dition as stated before. However, the voltage level 61
55 that may be generated by the full effect of all of the elec
25.
trons in electron beam 21 impinging target electrode 19,
When the tenth input pulse is received by the counting
will cause a positive potential to exist on target elec
circuit, the electron beam will be impinged upon target
trode 19 that when re?ected to the individual de?ecting
electrode 46. This target electrode is electrically con
plates 17 causes a de?ection of the beam 21 that is greater
nected to condenser 42, which re?ects its positive condi
tion and thereby raises the potential on cathode 12 caus 60 than that required to hold the beam on the particular
target electrode of which it is directed. Accordingly,
ing the electron gun 11 to be biased to a momentary cut
the de?ection force incurred by the individual de?ection
oil condition since the grid bias remains the same. An
plates 17 causes the electron beam to pass from the’
electron‘ tube circuit may be inserted between condenser
bottom edge of the target electrode 19 to the upper edge
42 and line 41, if desired, for supplying cuto? potentials,
to cathode 12 with the tube’s control grid being controlled 65 of target electrode 19’and off the edge of the target elec
trode as shown in FIGURE 3. At the point the electron
by the positive potential through condenser 42. With
beam passes off the edge of target electrode 19, the
the electron beam at the cut o? condition, all charges exist
secondary electrons that are emitted as a result of the
ing on any of the target electrodes 19 will then be dis
electrons contacting electrode 19 decrease, thereby de
sipated. This blanking of the electron beam will result
in a re-energization of the electron beam after the dissi 70 creasing the positive potential on the target electrode and
accordingly its corresponding de?ection plate. Thus, it
pation of the positive charge on target electrodes 19. The
is readily seen that the electron beam will reach a point
electron beam will now again be projected toward target
cessively de?ected to each of the target elements 19 pro
viding successive counting levels to the output circuit
electrode 43 and can then again be run through a ten
of equilibrium at which point the de?ection‘potential
required to de?ect the electron beam will equalize with
count. During the interval the electron beam is directed
onto target electrode 46, a positive carry over pulse will 75 the voltage potential that is generated on target electrode.
3,035,2o2
7
it", as a result of its impingement by the electron bearm
of said target electrodes until a subsequent electrical pulse
51. Accordingly, the beam may be held on any desig
lated one of the target electrodes for any predetermined
means for returning said system to a zero count after a
ength of time. Further, variable current drain through
)utput 25 will not cause instability of the electron beam:
said reset means providing an output pulse to a carry
aince it automatically compensates for such variations
The illustration shown in FIGURE 4 is a modi?cation
to be counted is received by said de?ection means, reset
certain count of said electrical pulses has been received,
over output line re?ecting a predetermined number of
said electrical pulses received by said system and said
reset means being responsive to a separate reset pulse for
)f the arrangement of the plurality of electrostatic de?ec
de-energizing said beam generating means and returning
ion plates. As shown in FIGURE 1, the plurality of
:lectrostatic de?ection plates 17 is placed in a varying 10 said system to a zero count at any point in the count of
said electrical pulses.
:paced relationship relative to de?ection plate 16 and the.
3. A counting tube system capable of counting elec
:lectron beam 21. In the modi?cation shown in FIGtrical pulses comprising in combination, an evacuated
JRE 4, the plurality of electrostatic de?ection plates
envelope having at one end means for generating and
53 is positioned in an inline arrangement. The exterior
:ontrol circuitry of the showing in FIGURE 1 operates: 15 projecting an electron beam, a plurality of target elec
11 the same manner with respect to the modi?cation
‘.hown in FIGURE 4.
In FIGURE 4, each of the elec
rostatic plates of the plurality of plates 63 de?ects the
:lectron beam the same amount.
However, as stated
trodes positioned at the other end of said envelope in a
manner to be individually contacted by said electron
beam, electrostatic de?ection means positioned between
said beam generating means and said target electrodes for
:arlier, the electron beam is subject to de?ection at its.
successively de?ecting said electron beam to each of said
)oint of passing the particular electrostatic de?ection
target electrodes in response to said pulses, said de?ection
)late that is energized at the time. Accordingly, as each
.ucceeding one of the electrostatic de?ection plates 63 is
:nergized, the electron beam is thereby de?ected at a
means including an electrostatic de?ection plate and a
plurality of oppositely positioned de?ection plates, said
plurality of de?ection plates being individually electrically
li?erent point along its path to the end of the tube. 25 connected to said plurality of target electrodes, said de
3y arranging the target electrodes 19 in a manner that
hey will be contacted by the electron beam as they are
le?ected in the manner shown, the unit can then operate
?ection plate in response to one of said electrical pulses
to be counted causing said electron beam to be succes
sively de?ected to the next of said target electrodes, a
n the same manner as disclosed in FIGURE 1.
voltage being capable of being generated by each of said
ished through the control of potentiometer 39. Thus,
he magnitude of the potential required for each of the
?ected through said electrical connections energizing a
corresponding one of said plurality of de?ection plates,
When the counter is initially set up for operation, the 30 target electrodes in response to contact by said electron
beam energizing said electrode, said voltage being re
nagnitude of the electrons in the electron beam is estab
arget electrodes is thus established.
However, many
said energized electrode being capable of causing said
imes it is desirable to have an added means of control
electron beam to be de?ected to contact said energized
:electively varied.
trodes positioned at the other end of said envelope in a
manner to be individually contacted by said electron
target electrode after the discontinuance of said electrical
)f the potential magnitude on each of the target elec
pulse, and output lines connected to each of said target
rodes. This is of advantage in adjusting the potential
electrodes.
hat is later impressed upon the plurality of de?ection
4. A counting tube system capable of counting elec
>lates 17, or that output potential that is re?ected to the
>utput circuit 25. Accordingly, individual potentiometer 40 trical pulses comprising in combination, an evacuated
envelope having at one end means for generating and
:ontrol is present on each of the resistors 27 that permit
projecting an electron beam, a plurality of target elec
he potential on each of the target electrodes 19 to be
I claim:
1. A counting tube system capable of counting elec
rical pulses comprising in combination, an evacuated en
relope having at one end means for generating and pro
ecting an electron beam, a plurality of target electrodes
For responding to Contact by said electron beam and for
>roviding output pulses re?ecting the number of times
laid electron beam is de?ected, said output pulses having
;ubstantially the same voltage levels, beam de?ection
beam, electrostatic de?ection means positioned between
said beam generating means and said target electrodes for
successively de?ecting said electron beam to each of said
‘target electrodes in response to said electrical pulses, said
de?ection means including an electrostatic de?ection plate
and a plurality of de?ection plates positioned consecutively
along the path of said electron beam and oppositely of
said de?ection plate, each of said plurality of de?ection
-' plates being electrically connected to an individual one
neans for successively de?ecting said electron beam to
of said plurality of target electrodes, said electron beam
arch of said target electrodes in response to said electrical
>ulses to be counted, each of said target electrodes being 55 in contacting each of said ‘target electrodes being capable
of generating a voltage condition thereon, said voltage
:onn'ected directly to a different portion of said beam
condition on each of said target electrodes energizing a
le?ection means, and reset means for de-energizing said
>eam generating means after a certain count of electrical
aulses have been received by said de?ection means.
corresponding one of said plurality of de?ection plates
through said electrical connections, said de?ection plate
2. A counting tube system capable of counting elec 60 in response to one of said electrical pulses to be counted
being capable in conjunction with Ian energized one of
rical pulses comprising in combination, an evacuated
said de?ection plates of causing said electron beam to be
:nvel‘ope having at one end means for generating and
arojecting an electron beam, a plurality of target elec
rodes for responding to contact by said electron beam
and for providing output pulses re?ecting the number of
imes said electron beam is de?ected, each of said target
nectrodes having a voltage condition generated thereon
de?ected to the next succeeding one of said target elec
trodes, and output lines connected to each of said target
electrodes.
5. A counting tube system capable of counting elec
trical pulses comprising in combination, an evacuated
envelope having at one end means for generating and
11 response to contact by said electron beam, individual
projecting an electron beam, a plurality of target elec
>eam de?ection means for successively de?ecting said
:lectron beam to each of said target electrodes in response 70 trodes positioned at the other end of said envelope in a
manner to be individually contacted by said electron
0 said electrical pulses to be counted, each of said beam
beam, electrostatic de?ection means positioned between
ie?ection means in response to said voltage condition of
said beam generating means and said target electrodes for
)ne of said target electrodes being connected directly to
successively de?ecting said electron beam to each of said
1 corresponding target electrode for stabilizing said elec
target electrodes in response to said electrical pulses, said
tron beam in the de?ected condition to contact said one
3,035,202
10
de?ection means including an electrostatic de?ection plate
tacting each of said target electrodes being capable of
and a plurality of de?ection plates positioned consecutively
along the path of said electron beam and oppositely of
said de?ection plate, each of said plurality of de?ection
generating a voltage condition thereon, said voltage con~
dition on each of said target electrodes being capable of
energizing a corresponding one of said plurality of de?ec
tion plates through said electrical connections, said de
?ection plate in response to one of said ‘electrical pulses
being capable in conjunction with an energized one of
plates being electrically connected to an individual one
of said plurality of target electrodes, said elec-trontbeam
in contacting each of said target electrodes being capable
of generating a voltage condition thereon, said voltage
said plurality of de?ection plates of causing said electron
condition on each of said target electrodes energizing a
beam to be de?ected to the next succeeding one of said
corresponding one of said plurality of de?ection plates 10 target electrodes, said energized one of said plurality of
through said electrical connections, said de?ection plate
de?ection plates being capable of holding said electron
in response to one of said electrical pulses to be counted
beam in its de?ected position to contact said correspond
ing target electrode after the discontinuance of said elec
being capable in conjunction with an energized one of
said de?ection plates of causing said electron beam to be
de?ected to the next succeeding one of said target elec
trodes, said voltage condition ‘on individual ones of said
plurality of de?ection plates causing de?ection of said
electron beam in a manner that only a portion of said
electron beam contacts a corresponding ‘one of said target
electrodes, said individual ones of said plurality of de?ec 20
tion plates in response to said voltage condition on said
target electrodes being capable of causing a greater por
trical pulse supplied to said de?ection plate, capacitance
means electrically connected to each of said target elec—
trodes for momentarily retaining said voltage condition on
said corresponding one of said de?ection plates after said
electron beam ‘has been de?ected from said target elec
trode, and output lines electrically connected to each of
said target electrodes.
~
8. A counting tube system capable of counting elec
trical pulses comprising in combination, an evacuated
tion of said electron beam to contact said electrodes in
envelope having at one end means for generating and
response to a decrease in the magnitude of voltage on
projecting an electron beam, a plurality of target elec
said target electrodes, and output lines connected to each 25 trodes arranged at the other end of said envelope in
of said target electrodes.
spaced relationship in a manner to be individually con
6. A counting tube system capable of counting elec
trical pulses comprising in combination, an evacuated
tacted by said electron beam, electrostatic de?ection
means positioned between said beam generating means
envelope having at one end means for generating and
and said target electrodes ‘for successively de?ecting said
projecting an electron beam, a plurality of target elec 30 electron beam to each of ‘said target electrodes in re
trodes arranged at the other end of said envelope in
sponse to said electrical pulses, said de?ection means
spaced relationship in a manner to be individually con
including an electrostatic de?ection plate. and a plurality
tacted by said electron beam, electrostatic de?ection
of de?ection plates positioned consecutively along the
means positioned between said beam generating means
path of said electron beam and oppositely of said de?ec
and said target electrodes for successively de?ecting said 35 tion plate, each of said plurality of de?ection plates being
electron beam to each of said target electrodes in response
individually electrically connected to an individual one
to said electrical pulses, said de?ection means including
of said plurality of target electrodes, said electron beam
an electrostatic de?ection plate and a plurality of de?ec
in contacting each of said target electrodes being capable
tion plates positioned consecutively along the path of said
of generating a voltage condition thereon, said voltage
electron beam and oppositely of said de?ection plate, each 40 condition on each of said target electrodes being capable
of said plurality of de?ection plates being electrically con
of energizing a corresponding one of said plurality of
nected to an individual one of said plurality of target
de?ection plates through said electrical connections, said
electrodes, said electron beam in contacting each of said
de?ection plate in response to one of said electrical pulses
target electrode-s being capable of generating a voltage
being capable in conjunction with an energized one of
condition thereon, said voltage condition on each of
said plurality of de?ection plates of causing said electron
said target electrodes being capable of energizing a cor
beam to be de?ected to the next succeeding one of said
responding one of said plurality of de?ection plates
target electrodes, said energized one of said plurality of
through said electrical connections, said de?ection plate
de?ection plates being capable of holding said electron
in response to one of said electrical pulses being capable
beam
in its de?ected position to contact said correspond~
in conjunction with an energized one of said plurality
ing target electrode after the discontinuance of said elec
of de?ection plates of causing said electron beam to be
trical pulse supplied to said de?ection plate, each of said
de?ected to the next succeeding one of said target elec
electrical connections between said target electrodes and
trodes, said energized one of said plurality of de?ection
said upper de?ection plates being connected to an output
plates being capable of holding said electron beam in its
circuit, and each of said electrical connections being
de?ected position to contact said corresponding target
connected to ground through a variable resistance and
electrode after the discontinuance of said electrical pulse
supplied to said de?ection plate, and output lines elec
trically connected to each of said target electrodes.
capacitance circuit connected in parallel.
'
9. A counting tube system capable of counting elec
trical pulses comprising in combination, an evacuated
7. A counting tube system capable of counting elec
trical pulses comprising in combination, an evacuated 60 envelope having at one end means for generating and
projecting an electron beam, a plurality of target elec
envelope having at one end means for generating and
trodes arranged at the other end of said envelope in
projecting an electron beam, a plurality of target elec—
spaced relationship in a manner to be individually con
trodes arranged at the other end of said envelope in
tacted by said electron beam, electrostatic de?ection
spaced relationship in a manner to be individually con
tacted by said electron beam, electrostatic de?ection 65 means positioned between said beam generating'means
and said target electrodes for successively de?ecting said
means positioned between said beam generating means
electron beam to each of said target electrodes in re
and said target electrodes for successively de?ecting said
sponse to said electrical pulses, said de?ection means
electron beam to each of said target electrodes in response
including an electrostatic de?ection plate and a plurality
to said electrical pulses, said de?ection means including
an electrostatic de?ection plate and a plurality of de?ec 70 of de?ection plates positioned consecutively along the
path of said electron beam and oppositely of said de?ec
tion plates positioned consecutively along the path of
tion plate, each of said plurality of de?ection plates being
said electron beam and oppositely of said de?ection plate,
each of said plurality of de?ection plates being individu
individually electrically connected to an individual one
ally electrically connected to an individual one of said
plurality of target electrodes, said electron beam in con
of said plurality of tar-get electrodes, said electron beam
in contacting each of said target electrodes being capable
3,035,202
1l
“i2
of generating a voltage condition thereon, said voltage
condition on each of said target electrodes being capable
condition thereon, said voltage condition on each of said
target electrodes being capable of energizing a correspond
being capable in conjunction with an energized one of
said plurality of de?ection plates of causing said electron
ing one of said plurality of de?ection plates through said
electrical connections, said de?ection plate in response
to one of said electrical pulses being capable in conjunc
tion with an energized one of said plurality of de?ection
plates of causing said electron beam to be de?ected to the
beam to be de?ected to the next succeeding one of said
next succeeding one of said target electrodes, each of said
of energizing a corresponding one of said plurality of
de?ection plates through said electrical connections, said
de?ection plate in response to one of said electrical pulses
plurality of de?ection plates having a di?erent spacing
de?ection plates being capable of holding said electron 10 from said lower de?ection plate, said spacing for each
one of said plurality of de?ection plates determining the
beam in its de?ected position to contact said correspond
sensitivity of said plate in de?ecting said electron beam,
ing target electrode after the discontinuance of said elec
said ones of said plurality of de?ection plates being spaced
trical pulse supplied to said de?ection plate, capacitor
the greatest distance from said de?ection plate being elec
means electrically connected to each of said target elec
trically connected with said target electrodes positioned
trodes for providing a predetermined waveform to the
nearest said longitudinal axis, said energized one of said
voltage rise on individual ones of said target electrodes
target electrodes, said energized one of said plurality of
in response to contact by said electron beam, means for
plurality of de?ection plates being capable of holding
said electron beam in its de?ected position to contact
said corresponding target electrode ‘after the discontinu
edge of said electrical pulses substantially corresponds in 20 ance of said electrical pulse supplied to said de?ection
plate, and output lines electrically connected to each of
time and shape with the leading edge of said waveform
said target electrodes.
on said target electrodes, and output lines electrically
12. A counting tube system capable of counting elec
connected to each of said target electrodes.
trical pulses comprising in combination, an evacuated
10. A counting tube system capable of counting elec
trical pulses comprising in combination, an evacuated 25 envelope having at one end means for generating and
projecting an electron beam, a plurality of target elec
envelope having at one end means ‘for generating and
trodes arranged at the other end of said envelope in
projecting an electron beam, a plurality of target elec
spaced relationship in a manner to be individually con
trodes arranged ‘at the other end of said envelope in
tacted by said electron beam, electrostatic de?ection
spaced relationship in a manner to be individually con
tacted by said electron beam, electrostatic de?ection 30 means positioned between said beam generating means
and said target electrodes for successively de?ecting said
means positioned between said beam generating means
electron beam to each of said target electrodes in re
and said target electrodes for successively de?ecting said
sponse to said electrical pulses, said de?ection means in
electron beam to each of said target electrodes in response
cluding an electrostatic de?ection plate and a plurality
to said electrical pulses, said de?ection means including
of de?ection plates, each of said plurality of de?ection
an electrostatic de?ection plate and a plurality of de?ec
shaping the waveform of said electrical pulses to be
counted in a manner that the waveform of the trailing
tion plates, each of said plurality of de?ection plates
being positioned consecutively along the path of said
plates being positioned consecutively along the path of
said electron beam and being spaced substantially equal
electron beam and being spaced in successively increasing
distances from said de?ection plate, each of said plurality
of de?ection plates being electrically connected to an
individual one of said plurality of target electrodes, said
electron beam in contacting each of said target electrodes
being capable of generating a voltage condition thereon,
distances from said de?ection plate, each of said plurality
of de?ection plates being electrically connected to an in
dividual one of said plurality of target electrodes, said
electron beam in contacting each of said target electrodes
said voltage condition on each of said target electrodes
being capable of energizing a corresponding one of said
plurality of de?ection plates through said electrical con
nections, said de?ection plate in response to one of said
eing capable of energizing a corresponding one of said
plurality of de?ection plates through said electrical con
electrical pulses being capable in conjunction with an
energized one of said plurality of de?ection plates of
causing said electron beam to be de?ected to the next '
succeeding one of said target electrodes, said energized
one of said plurality of de?ection plates being capable of
holding said electron beam in its de?ected position to
contact said corresponding target electrode after the dis
continuance of said electrical pulse supplied to said de
?ection plate, and output lines electrically connected to
each of said target electrodes.
11. A counting tube system capable of counting elec
trical pulses comprising in combination, an evacuated
being capable of generating a voltage condition thereon,
said voltage condition on each of said target electrodes
nections, said de?ection plate in response to one of said
electrical pulses being capable in conjunction with an
energized one of said plurality of de?ection plates of
causing said electron beam to be de?ected to the next
succeeding one of said target electrodes, said energized
one of said plurality of de?ection plates being capable
of holding said electron beam in its de?ected position to
contact said corresponding target electrode after the dis
continuance of said electrical pulse supplied to said de
?ection plate, and output lines electrically connected to
each of said target electrodes.
13. An electronic counting tube system capable of
counting electrical pulses comprising in combination, an
evacuated envelope having at one end means for gen
envelope having a longitudinal axis and at one end means 60 erating and projecting an electron beam toward a plurality
for generating and projecting an electron beam, a plurality
of target electrodes arranged at ‘the other end of said
envelope in spaced relationship in a manner to be indi
vidually contacted by said electron beam, electrostatic
de?ection means positioned between said beam generating
means and said target electrodes for successively de?ecting
said electron beam to each of said target electrodes in
of target electrodes positioned at the other end, said elec
trodes being arranged in spaced relationship in a manner
to be individually contacted by said electron beam, elec
trostatic de?ection means positioned between said beam
generating means and said target electrodes for succes
sively de?ecting said electron beam to each of said target
electrodes, said de?ection means having an electrostatic
response to said electrical pulses, said de?ection means
including an electrostatic de?ection plate and a plurality
de?ection plate and a plurality of oppositely positioned
de?ection plates, said electron beam being capable of
passing between said electrostatic de?ection plate and
said plurality of electrostatic de?ection plates, said plural
of de?ection plates positioned consecutively along said
longitudinal axis and oppositely of said de?ection plate,
each of said plurality of de?ection plates being electrically
connected to an individual one of said plurality of target
ity of de?ection plates including an individual one of
said plates for each of predetermined ones of said target
electrodes, said predetermined ones of said target elec
electrodes, said electron beam in contacting each of said
target electrodes being capable of generating a voltage 75 trodes being electrically connected 'to a corresponding one
3,035,202
14
of said plurality of de?ection plates, each of said plurality
projecting an electron beam, a plurality of target elec
trodes for responding to contact by said electron beam
and for providing output pulses re?ecting the number of
times said electron beam is de?ected, each of said target
electrodes having a voltage generated thereon in response
of de?ection plates being positioned consecutively along
the path of said electron beam [and being spaced in suc
cessively increasing distances from said lower de?ection
plate, differentiating means for receiving a series of elec
trical pulses to be counted and for supplying pulses to
said de?ection plate in response thereto, said de?ection
plate in response to said pulses causing said electron beam
to be successively de?ected to each of said target elec—
trodes, electron collecting means positioned in close
proximity to said target electrodes, said target electrodes
releasing electrons to said electron collecting means in
response to the impact of said electron beam, said elec
tron beam in contacting each of said target electrodes
to contact by said electron beam, individual beam de?ec
tion means for successively de?ecting said electron'beam
to each of said target electrodes in response to said elec
trical pulses to be counted, means for supplying said
10 voltage present at the one of said target electrodes con
tacted by said beam to a corresponding target electrode
for stabilizing said electron beam in the de?ected condi
tion to contact said one of said target electrodes until a
subsequent electrical pulse to be counted is received by
creating a voltage condition thereon, said voltage condi 15 said de?ection means.
tion on said target electrode causing a voltage condition
to exist on its corresponding one of said plurality of de
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
?ection plates through said electrical connection, said
energized one of said plurality of de?ection plates causing
said electron beam to be held in its de?ected position to
contact said corresponding target electrode after the dis
continuance of said electrical pulse supplied to said de
?ection plate.
14. A counting tube system capable of counting elec
trical pulses comprising in combination, an evacuated 25
envelope having at one end means ‘for generating and
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,224,677
2,394,196
2,599,949
Hanscan _____________ _._ Dec. 10, 1940
Morgan ______________ __ Feb. 5, ‘1946
Skellett ______________ __ June 10, 1952
2,641,699
2,719,248
Gloess _______________ __ June 9, 1953
. Josephson ___________ .__ Sept. 27, 1955
2,781,171
2,896,112
Hagen _______________ __ Feb. 12, 1957
Allen ________________ .._ July 21, 1959
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