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Патент USA US3035295

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May 22, 1962
w. G. SQUIRES, JR
3,035,285
EXPLOSIVELY ANCHORED BUOY
Filed Sept. 18, 1961
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
FIG.2.
INVENTOR
WALTER e. SQUIRES, JR.
FIG. la.
>7
ATTORNEYS
May 22, 1962
w. G. SQUiRES, JR
3,035,285
EXPLOSIVELY ANCHORED BUOY
Filed Sept. 18, 1961
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
44
FIGJD.
[37
INVENTOR
WALTER G. SQUIRES, JR.
BY
ATTORNEY
3,035,285
Patented May 22, 1962
1
3,035,285
EXPLOSIVELY ANCHORED BUOY
Walter G. Squires, Jr., Jacksonville, Fla, assignor to the
United States‘of America as represented by the Secre
tary of the Navy
Filed Sept. 18, 1961, Ser. No. 139,008
5 Claims. (Cl. 9-9)
(Granted under Title 35, U8. Code (1952), see. 266)
2
FIG. 2 is an elevational view of the buoy in extended,
operative position.
An anchor buoy incorporating the invention is shown in
FIGS. la and 1b as comprising a buoy and reel housing
10 and an anchor mechanism housing 11. The anchor
housing 11 is closed at its lower end by a barrel-containing
member 12 land at its upper end by a mounting plate 13.
The barrel in the end member 12 is adapted to receive an
anchor member 14 provided with an explosive cartridge
The invention described herein may be manufactured
15 and retained in the barrel by a shear pin 16. A length
and used by or for the Government of the United States
of anchor cable 17 of sui?cient length to accommodate
of America for governmental purposes Without the pay
the depth at which the anchor 14 is driven when the ex
ment of any royalties thereon or therefor.
plosive cartridge 15 is ?red is suitably secured to the barrel
The present invention relates to buoys and, more par
containing member 12 and to the anchor 14. The barrel
ticularly, to buoys which may be considered expendable 15 containing member 12 is formed to provide a breech block
in that they are employed as temporary markers for indi
having ‘a passageway 18 axial-1y alined with the cartridge
cating, ‘at the surface, a certain position in a body of water
15 and with a ?ring tube 19 in which is slidably mounted
or for marking a navigation pattern.
a ?ring pin 21 having a point 22 adapted to enter the pas
The buoy of the present invention will probably ?nd
sageway 18 to ?re the cartridge 15. The ?ring pin 21 is
its greatest use in the type of buoying for which standard 20 biased away from its ?ring position in the passageway 18
Navy ‘dan buoys are presently employed. Such uses in
by a spring 23 under compression. A pin 24 carried by
clude the marking of swept paths in minesweeping opera
tions and for marking a particular position in a body of
the ?ring pin 21 extends through a slot 25 in the wall of
the ?ring tube 19 to limit the upward movement of the
water such ‘as the location of an object to be salvaged or
pin 21 by the action of the spring 23 and to permit ?ring
removed, e.g., a ground mine or a sunken vessel. One 25 movement of the pin 21 when the ?ring mechanism is
highly desirable feature in such buoys is a lightweight an
actuated as now to be described. A plunger 26 extending
choring means which does not drag. Also, it is frequently
desirable to have ‘a buoy which will submerge to the
bottom of a body of water and remain there for a prede
through the top mounting plate 13 downwardly into the
upper end of the ?ring tube 19 has a shoulder 27 between
which and the mounting plate 13 a main ?ring spring 28
is held under compression. When otherwise unrestrained,
to the surface to mark a position in the body of water.
the spring 28 presses the shoulder 27 against the top of the
An example of this latter use is a vessel-towing mine
?ring tube 19 ‘and when the plunger 26 is in the cocked
sweeping gear which can drop the buoys overboard and
position shown in FIG. lb, it opens ‘apertures 29 to permit
the buoys will not surface until after the sweep gear has
?ooding of the ?ring tube 19 between the ends of the
passed overhead, thereby enabling the vessel to mark its 35 plunger 26 and the ?ring pin 21 to provide a water piston
own swept path.
to transmit the movement of the plunger 26 to the ?ring
An object of the invention is to provide an improved
pin 21, the arrangement being such that when it is an air
marker buoy.
piston there is insufficient motion transmitted from the
Another object of the invention is the provision of sub
plunger 26 to the ?ring pin 21 to complete a ?ring cycle
mersible buoys having self-contained means for causing
as is well known. A bell crank lever mounted for rock
the buoy to surface after a predetermined period of sub
ing movement on a pivot 31 carried by a bracket 32 has
mersion.
a cooking arm 33 and a trigger arm 34. In cocked posi
A further object of the invention is the provision of a
tion, the end of the cocking arm 33, which may be
buoy which will ?rmly anchor itself when it impacts the
notched, holds the shoulder 27 against the force of the
45 compressed spring 28. The trigger arm 34 of the bell
\bottom of a body of water.
A buoy embodying certain features of the invention may
crank is provided with two arcuate slots 35 and 36 through
include a ?otation section and an anchor section releas
which pins 37 and 38 extend from, respectively, an impact
ably secured together and adapted, when placed in a
?ring rod 39 and a time-delay ?ring rod 40. It will be
body of water, to submerge to the bottom ‘and thereafter
evident that, when the impact ?ring rod 39 strikes against
release the flotation section to permit it to rise to the
a relatively solid surface, such as the ocean floor, it will
surface, and having in the ‘anchor section an anchor which
rotate the trigger arm 34 clockwise to move the cocking
is explosively driven into the bottom either in response to
arm 33 out of engagement with the shoulder 27'to permit
impact with the bottom or at the expiration of a prede
the spring 28 to force the plunger 26 downward to cause
termined period of time. Also, the ?otation section is
55 the cartridge 15 to ?re, the slot 36 constituting a loss
termined period of time and thereafter automatically rise
preferably nonbuoyant but is automatically rendered Ibuoy
Iant as a result of the ‘anchor being driven into the bottom.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will
appear from the following detailed description of a pre~
ferred embodiment thereof when read in connection with
the accompanying drawing in which:
FIG. 1a is a sectional view of the ?otation section of
a buoy embodying the invention;
FIG. 1b is a sectional view of the anchor section of the
buoy shown in FIG. 1a; and
motion connection between the arm 34 land the pin 38.
The time-delay ?ring rod 40 is provided at its distal end
with a piston 41 which is held in the position shown in
FIG. 1b against the compression of a spring 42 in a cylin
60 der 43 by a closure plug 44 with an intervening water
soluble plug 45 of known type which, depending upon its
composition, will dissolve in water in- a relatively short
time, say from 2 to 10 minutes or longer if desired. It
will be evident that, in the event the impact ?ring rod 39
fails to function or is purposely disabled (as by removal),
3,035,285
when the soluble plug 45 is dissolved the spring 42 will
force the piston 41 against the closure plug 44 to impart
a ?ring movement to the trigger arm 34.
The housing 11
is provided with openings 46, or their equivalent, to be
sure that the housing 11 will be free-?ooded when im
mersed in water.
The buoy and reel housing 10 is preferably equal in
diameter to the Ianchor mechanism housing 11 and is re
leasably attached thereto by a plurality of latch arms 47
(only one is shown) adapted to be moved into engage
ment with an internal shoulder 48 in the lower end of the
housing 10 by the upper end of the plunger 26 when it is
moved to the cocked position shown. This upper end
of the plunger 26 may be provided with a threaded mem
ber 49 for adjusting the effective length of the plunger
. 26 to insure the desired latching movement of the arms
47. Rotatably mounted between a lower bulkhead ‘51
and an upper bulkhead 52 in the housing 10 is a ?anged
reel 53 upon which is wound the desired length of moor
A.
is transmitted through the housings 11 and 10 to the pres
sure cartridge 65 which drives the gas cartridge 65 against
the tack 66 which is held relatively stationary by the end
block 69 which, due to its resistance to rapid upward
movement through the water, slides downwardly in the
housing 10. The end block 69 is forced out by the in
?ation of the balloon 64 which starts to rise to the surface
carrying with it the housing 10, the latches 47 holding the
housings 10 and 11 together having been released by the
The mooring
line 54 unwinds from the reel 53 until the in?ated balloon
10 downward movement of the plunger 26.
64 neals the surface of the water where the reduction of
hydrostatic pressure causes the reel to be locked by in
sertion of the pin 60 into the reel ?ange aperture 61 there
by effeotively preventing the unreeling of any more line.
The depth at which the reel 53 is locked is chosen to ap
proximate the slack left in the anchor cable 17 after the
anchor has penetrated the bottom so that the ?nal ascent
of the balloon 64 will lift the housing 11 off the ocean
ing line 54, the free end of which is passed through an 20 ?oor as indicated in FIG. 2.
In the foregoing example of the operation of the buoy,
eyebolt guide 55, a fairlead 56 in the bulkhead 51 and
it will be evident that if the ?ring rod 39 fails to ?re
secured to the mounting plate 13 as by a screw 57. As
the anchor for any reason, such as too soft a bottom, the
will be pointed out. below, it is desirable to restrain the
soluble plug 45 will dissolve to permit ?ring movement
reel 53 from paying out line when subjected to less than
a preselected hydrostatic pressure. Any suitable arrange 25 of the time-delay ?ring rod 40. When it is desired, as
in a minesweeping operation, that the Ibuoy remain on the
ment may be employed to perform this desired function,
bottom for a preselected period of time before rising to
the one here illustrated being similar to that disclosed
the surface to mark its position, the impact ?ring rod 39
in Patent No. 2,830,309 to Lawson. In this arrange
is omitted, and the setting of the ancor is controlled by
ment, a stop pin 58 is supported by and projects from a
a time-delay device such as the soluble plug 45.
?exible diaphragm 59 through an opening 60‘ in the upper
While, for the purpose of disclosing the invention, a
bulkhead 52 and in alinement (circumferentially) with at
preferred
embodiment thereof has been disclosed in de
least one aperture 61 in a ?ange of the reel 53.. The
tail, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited
diaphragm 59 is exposed on its pin-projecting side to
thereto but is of the scope of the appended claims.
ambient conditions and on its other side to a variable
volume compartment 62, which may be gas-?lled or pref 35 What is claimed is:
1. A buoy for marking a preselected position in a body
erably partially evacuated to lower its sensitivity to tem
of water comprising a ?rst housing containing an anchor~
perature changes. The diaphragm 59 has suf?cient re
ing mechanism including an anchor, an anchor cable
silience to hold the pin 60 in the aperture 61 against
connecting the anchor to the housing, an explosive charge
the pressure on the diaphragm 59 at the depth it rides in
for embedding the anchor in the bottom of a body of
the water when the buoy housing 10 is held at the surface
water and means operative to explode said charge, a sec
as hereinafter described. Felt washers 63 may be secured
ond housing containing a collapsed in?atable ?otation
to the bulkheads 51 and 52 in position to contact the
member, a reel, a length of mooring line stored on the
?anges of the reel 53 so as to provide sufficient friction
reel and ‘having its free end secure-d to the first housing,
to prevent overrunning of the reel 53.
The ?otation member of the buoy comprises a collapsi 45 means responsive to recoil from the explosion of said
charge for in?ating said ?otation member, and means
ble in?atable member 64, such as a balloon, having its
attaching the ?rst housing to the second housing adapted
neck secured to the walls of a pressure cartridge 65 which
to be released by the operation of said charge exploding
introduces an in?ating medium into the balloon 64 when
means.
the pressure cartridge is ruptured as by a tack 66 carried
2. A buoy in accordance with claim 1 wherein the ?rst
by a resilient cap 67 enclosing the sealed end of the pres 50
housing is free-?ooding, and the portion of the second
sure cartridge 65. The pressure cartridge 65 is ?xedly
housing remote from said attaching means is adapted to
mounted axially of the housing 10 in a tubular socket
entrap air when the buoy is placed in water with said
68 secured to the upper face of the bulkhead 52. The
second housing uppermost so that the buoy submerges to
upper open end of the housing 10 is provided with an end
block 69 having a friction ?t with the housing 10 so as to 55 the bottom with said ?rst housing leading.
3. A buoy in accordance with claim 1 wherein the
permit longitudinal movement of the cap 69 to push the
means operative to explode said charge comprises a ?ring
tack 66 through the seal of the cartridge 65 thereby in
rod positioned to be the ?rst portion of the buoy to con
?ating the balloon 64 through apertures 70 in the cap
tact the bottom, a spring-loaded plunger movable against
67. As the balloon 64 in?ates, it forces the end block
out of the housing 10. The housing 10 is provided with 60 the force of the spring to ‘a cocked position and movable
by the spring when released from cocked position to ?re
an ‘aperture 71 just above the bulkhead 52 to permit the
said charge, and a part engaging said plunger to hold
entry of water and to trap air between it and the end block
it in cocked position ‘and arranged to be moved from its
69 to thereby assure that the assembled buoy will sink
engagement with said plunger by the ?ring rod impacting
through the water with its anchor 14 pointed down and,
if the cartridge 15 does not ?re upon contact with the 65 the bottom.
4. A buoy in accordance with claim 1 wherein the
bottom, the buoy will remain in an upright position.
When the buoy assembly is dropped into the sea, at a
means operative to explode said charge comprises a spring
position to be marked, it sinks to the bottom orienting
loaded plunger movable against the force of the spring
itself with its anchor 14 down. On impact with the
to a cocked position and movable by the spring when
bottom, the ?ring rod 39 is pushed upward to rotate the 70 released from cocked position to ?re said charge, means
cocking arm 33 out of engagement with the shoulder 27
movable to but biased from a position where said plunger
whereupon the plunger 26 is forced downward by the
is held in cocked position, and a water soluble plug posi
spring 28 to drive the ?ring pin 22 into the cartridge 15,
tioned to. overcome the bias of said movable means until
the ?ring of which drives the anchor 14 into the bottom.
The recoil resulting from the ?ring of the cartridge 15 75 said plug dissolves, the solubility of said plug being such
3,035,285
I
o
n
n
6
that it remains intact at least until the buoy submerges
to the bottom.
_
_
'
5. In a marker buoy havmg ta ?otation section and an
anchor section treleasab-ly secured together and adapted
leasing the ?otation section from the anchor section, and
a ?ring rod movable upon impact with the bottom to
actuate Said ?ring and releasing means,
when placed in a body of water to submerge to the bottom 5
and thereafter release the ?otation section which rises to
the surface, means for ‘anchoring the anchor section and
for releasing the flotation section comprising an anchor,
2,752,615
Parker _______________ __ July 3, 1956
an anchor cable connecting the anchor to the anchor sec-
2,825,803
Newbrough __________ __ Man 4’ 1958
tion, van explosive charge for embedding the anchor in the 10
bottom, means for ?ring the explosive charge and for re-
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,993,461
F 61'1 at _______________ __ J u l y 25, 1961
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