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Патент USA US3035421

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May 22,- 1962
3,035,413
E. T. LINDEROTH
THERMODYNAMIC COMBUSTION DEVICE USING
PULSATING GAS PRESSURE
Original Filed Jan. 17, 1950
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
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May 22, 1962
E. T. LINDEROTH
THERMODYNAMIC COMBUSTION DEVICE USING
PULSATINGGAS PRESSURE
Original Filed Jan. 17. 1950
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PRESU
TIME
BY
Arryk.
States Patent
"‘ ice
3,635,413
Patented May 22, 1962
1
2
3,035,413
pure air is a special con?guration of the combustion
chamber and of the air inlet which permits a suction
relatively free of turbulence and a storage of fuel-free air
THERMODYNAMIC CUMBUSTION DEVICE USING
PULSATING GAS PRESSURE
Erik Torvald Linderoth, N. Malarstrand 60,
Stockholm, Sweden
Original application Jan. 17, 1950, Ser. No. 139,015, now
Patent No. 2,727,535, dated Dec. 20, 1955. Divided
and this application Nov. 7, 1955, Ser. No. 553,169
Claims priority, application Sweden Jan. 29, 1949
8 Claims. (Cl. Gil-69.77)
The present invention relates to a thermodynamic blast
device preferably for generation of power, e.g., jet pro
pulsion, but it may also ?nd general use wherever a
strong blowing e?ect obtained by the consumption of
heat may be useful.
as well as fuel-admixed air in the combustion chamber
without appreciable intermixing of them.
Such inter
mixing and turbulence in the combustion chamber is
deferred to a subsequent phase of the operating cycle by
the action of the above-named combustion accelerating
means. Thus, since fuel air mixture which is ignited is
not admixed with combustion residues in advance, the
effect of the combustion accelerating means will be en
hanced and a very abrupt increase of pressure will be ob
tained.
The various means described generally above and which
will be described in more detail below, are complementary
to each other and cooperate to serve a common pose, viz.
This application is a division of my application, Serial
to obtain a thermodynamic blast device operating with
bio/139,015, ?led January 17, 1950, now Patent No.
intermittent combustion, in which, notwithstanding the
2,727,535 issued on December 20, 1955.
use of continuously open combustion chambers, high ex
The present invention is concerned with the type of
thermodynamic blast devices in which the pressure is 20 plosive pressures may be obtained.
The invention is illustrated by the accompanying draw
caused to pulsate by intermittent heating, and if desired,
ings in which:
by alternate heating and cooling of a gaseous medium,
FIG. 1 shows a venturi tube having an edge for the
the heating being achieved by intermittent combustion in
constriction of the reverse flow.
a combustion chamber in which the pressure pulsations
FIG. 2 is a fragmentary sectional view showing the
25
are produced.
sharp reverse flow resisting edge on an enlarged scale.
Such thermodynamic blast devices, e.g. so-called pulse
FIG. 3 is a view in axial section showing a modi?ed
jets, operate with permanently open gas outlets. As a re
form of venturi tube in which the sharp edge is so shaped
sult thereof, it is not possible to obtain high explosive
and arranged that a powerful constriction of the gas
pressures in the combustion chambers, particularly as
the permanently open gas outlets must be given a rela 30 stream is obtained for resisting reverse flow.
tively large area of ?ow to permit a rapid exhausting of
remaining combustion residues, which must be evacuated
to make way for a new fuel air mixture.
PEG. 4 shows means for controlling the supply of
fuel.
FIG. 5 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view show
ing a modi?cation of FIG. 4.
This type of jet propulsion has heretofore exhibited a
FIG. 6 is a transverse sectional view taken along the
very low efficiency compared to the turbojets now used. 35
line VI—VI of FIG. 5.
This disadvantage becomes still more marked if in order
FIG. 7 is a longitudinal sectional view of a complete
to avoid any moving parts it is attempted to construct a
multi-chambered combustion device using a group of de
pulse jet with the air inlet also permanently open. The
vices as shown in FIGS. 5 and 6.
increase of pressure by the intermittent combustion will
40
FIG. 8 is a transverse sectional view of the device
then be still lower.
shown in FIG. 7.
The present invention has for its main object to avoid
FIG. 9 is an enlarged view of one of the asymmetrical
this disadvantage by providing means for achieving a
ly ?ow resistant nozzles of FIGS. 7 and 8.
very rapid ignition and rapid combustion of the fuel air
FIG. 10 is a time-pressure graph illustrating the over
mixture in the combustion chambers so that, in spite of a
permanently open gas outlet and optionally a permanently 45 lapping polyphase power pulsations of the multi-charn
bered device shown in FIGS. 7 and 8.
open air inlet, high explosive pressures may be obtained.
For comprehension of the inventive idea and the man
Another object of the invention is to provide means
ner of operation of the suggested devices reference is
whereby it will be possible to use relatively small areas
made to Bernoulli’s Theorem and to the manner of opera
of ?ow in both the gas outlet and the air inlet, which
makes it easier for the combustion accelerating device to 50 tion of a venturi tube. A common venturi tube is char
acterized by a smoothly and gradually curved entrance
produce the high explosive pressures which are the main
portion and a long conical (diffuser-shaped) delivery
purpose of this invention.
portion. It is possible with such a tube to obtain very
A further object of the invention is to provide means
high velocities in the narrowest or throat section with
whereby a certain quantity of pure air is sucked in both
before and after aspiration of the fuel air mixture. The 55 a small resistance to ?ow, due to the recovery of pres
sure that is obtained in the diffusor shaped delivery por
purpose of the pure air is primarily to prevent direct con
tion. In the entrance portion the pressure falls, thus
tact between the aspirated fuel air mixture and the com
transforming pressure energy to velocity energy and in
bustion gases remaining in the combustion chamber. It
the conical delivery portion a transformation of energy
has been found that such contact may result in a prema
ture ignition of the aspirated fuel air mixture which would 60 in the opposite direction is carried out, i.e. from velocity
cause the igniting and combustion accelerating means ac
cording to this invention to be less effective or even in
operative.
to pressure.
According to the present invention a recovery of pres
sure during ?ow in the reverse direction is prevented
In addition, the intake of pure air referred to above 65 by an annular sharp forwardly directed edge 2, FIGS.
1 and 2, being ?tted at the narrowest section of the
aims at eliminating another disadvantage inherent in
venturi tube 1. The inlet portion is in the shape of a
permanently open gas outlets and air inlets, viz. an exhaust
curvedly ?aring funnel having a radius of curvature R
ing of unburnt or partially burned fuel air mixture during
and terminating at its small end in the forwardly directed
the ?rst phase of a combustion period before the entire
sharp edge '2. When there is a flow in the reverse direc
volume of combustible gas in the combustion chamber 70 tion, this sharp edge causes the flow to be disengaged
has been completely burnt.
or diverted inwardly from the surface of the throat por
The means utilized for achieving the desired intake of
tion of the venturi tube, so that the air ?ow tends to
3,035,413
3
4
continue in a free jet of reduced cross sectional area
reduced to a sharp-edged discharge nozzle 35 in the
other chamber.
as it passes rearwardly beyond the edge. When there
is a flow in the forward direction, the flow is only slightly
affected by the edge, if it is shaped as shown in FIGS.
1 and 2.
The course of pressure will thus remain prac
tically unchanged in the forward direction, while the
resistance in the reverse direction is immensely increased.
The resistance in the reverse direction can in the con
The apparatus works as follows: It is started with com
pressed air thus charging all the combustion chambers
with a fuel-air mixture. Preferably, separate fuel injec
tion nozzles S (FIG. 5) are used for starting, and ignition
is then effected by means of electric spark plugs or glow
plugs in one of the chambers. The combustion will then
struction shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 be about 10 times
spread through one of the pipes 33 to an adjacent com
larger than the resistance in the forward direction. A . 10 bustion chamber, viz. the one into which the nozzle 35
necessary condition for this is that the venturi tube is
opens. As shown in FIG. 9, the discharge nozzle 35 of
so shaped that the widening angle of divergence of its
the duct 33 is indicated as being sharp-edged at 35a. The
conical part is at most 12.“, but preferably 5~10° and
other end at 34 is rounded to permit free ?ow into the
duct 33. By reason of this sharp-edged con?guration of
that the ratio between the areas of the narrowest and
widest sections is below the value 0.5 and preferably 15 its mouth, the nozzle 35 is asymmetrically ?ow-resistant.
should be chosen between 0.3 and 0.1. The radius R
The need for a positive acting check valve including a
of the entrance portion should be at least 25% of the
I bodily displaceable member is thus avoided. The trans
smallest section diameter d and should preferably be
fer of the combustion from one chamber to another
chosen between 0.3 and 1d. D is the diameter of the
takes a certain period of time, which is determined by the
20 ratio between the volume of the pipe 33 and the area of
largest section.
In the construction shown in FIG. 3 the flow separating
the nozzle 35. After still another such a period of time
edge 2 is ?tted a short distance in front of the narrowest
the combustion has reached the third combustion cham
part of the venturi tube and shaped like a nozzle having
ber etc. When the combustion has reached the last
approximately the same inner diameter as the venturi
chamber, the first one has been recharged with a new
tube. Between said nozzle and the narrowest section of 25 fuel-air mixture due to the suction effect of the ejector,
the venturi tube there is an enlarged portion.
and the ejector has during this period received ?ve power
Through this shape not only a disengagement of the
impulses. The combustion will thus continuously travel
around the circle of combustion chambers and cause
?ow in the reverse direction is obtained, but also a strong
constriction of the emerging jet, the smallest section of
which can be reduced to 55% of the passage area of the 30
nozzle 2. In forward ?ow, on the other hand, there is no
constriction. Some increase in the resistance in the for
ward direction is, however, obtained, for which reason the
distance I from the mouth of the venturi tube to its narrow
est section should not exceed three times the mouth diam
eter d1 and the smallest diameter d2 of the venturi tube
should lie between 0.70 to 1.1, and preferably between
successive explosions at equal intervals.
FIG. 7 shows how the successive power impulses com—
bine to produce a substantially constant thrust. An essen
tial advantage reached by the ignition being effected
through injection of combustion gases from one chamber
to the other is, that the combustion is hereby strongly
accelerated, which is of the utmost importance in this
case, when high explosive pressure is desired in chambers
which are constantly in connection with the atmosphere,
and where the suction losses are small due to the venturi
0.8 and 1.0.
shape, thus causing slight turbulence.
FIGS. 5 and 6 show a modi?cation of the apparatus
of FIG. 4 and a complete multi-chambered device using 4.0
For the previously described purposes a too violent
ignition is not desirable with respect to silent operation.
?ve of these units is shown in FIGS. 7 and 8.
Referring to FIGS. 7 and 8, ?ve venturi tubes 1d
serving as combustion chambers are mounted in a circle
In jet propulsion, though, the power output is of greater
importance than silent operation. The large ejector, how
around an ejector comprising a series of secondary air
ever, provides a silencing effect to a certain extent, if it
nozzles 30a which serve ?rstly to cooperate in drawing 45 is composed by a large number of relatively short nozzles
of different lengths, so that resonance phenomena cannot
out remaining combustion gases from the combustion
occur. The streamlined casing 36 enclosing the apparatus
chambers, and secondly to accelerate a quantity of air
also contributes to the silencing etfect. The main purpose
which is many times larger than the quantity of air taking
of said casing 36 is to catch the wind by means of a
part in the combustion, thus considerably increasing the
motive power. The gases ?owing from the combustion 50 diffuser-shaped air inlet 37 in its front end and transfer
the ram pressure thus obtained to the jet power unit.
chambers are de?ected rearwardly by the curved discharge
So as to permit the power unit to utilize the ram pres
nozzles 5b which are interconnected with the central
sure in the best possible way the area of the discharge
ejector 30a. Thus the directions of discharge of the
nozzle should not be greater than the area of the air in
reverse ?ow as well as the main ?ow coincide. The re
verse flow from the venturi tubes is injected in the sec 55 take through the venturi tube. Preferably the area of
the discharge port should be 0.5 to 1 of the intake of the
ondary nozzles 30b mounted around the central ejector
venturi tube.
and connected thereto. The combustion chambers and
the discharge nozzles are surrounded by cooling jackets
A condition precedent for the combustion properly
travelling around as described above is, that a certain
60 quantity of air is drawn in both before and after the
quently draws in cooling air.
fuel is supplied so as to ‘avoid self-ignitions, and that the
The fuel is supplied through an annular distribution
transfer pipes 33 are constructed as indicated above, i.e.
chamber 31 (FIGS. 5 and 6) to a plurality of bores 32
with a smoothly curved admission portion and a delivery
circumferentially spaced around the narrowest section
of the venturi tube. The fuel supply is otherwise con
portion so shaped that constriction is obtained in the
trolled by ball valves in the manner hereinafter described 65 reverse direction. Through this constriction and the sub
8b, connected to the central ejector 30a which conse
in connection with FIG. 4, so as to ensure that there is a
mass of air containing no fuel on either side of the fuel
sequent formation of turbulence the ?arne emerging in
air mixture at the moment of ignition. As in this case
through the entire length of the pipe 33, while the smooth
ly curved admission portion gives a smooth ?ow in the
the most violent explosions possible are desired, in order
to obtain high explosion pressures, the following arrange
the reverse direction will be very short and will not reach
opposite direction and a slow combustion so that the
?ame reaches the sharp-edged nozzle 35 and ignites the
gas body in the combustion chamber. A further condi
the adjacent chamber, said pipe having a smoothly curved
tion for the operation of the device is that the transfer
admission part 34 connected to one chamber and being 76 pipes are cooled to a temperature lying slightly below
ment may be effected.
From each combustion chamber a pipe 33 is drawn to
3,035,413
5
6
the ignition temperature of the gas mixture. For this
reason they are provided with cooling ?anges 38.
wardly with respect to said chamber, said lip being di
Also the combustion chambers should be cooled down
to below the ignition temperature of the fuel-air mixture.
Cooling ?anges are not required, however, except at the
rected toward said chamber for providing an asymmetrical
?ow resistance opposing reverse ?ow through said inlet,
a fuel supply duct communicating with said chamber, a
metering valve included in said duct, said valve including
portion lying nearest the discharge nozzles 5b.
Obviously, the number of combustion chambers may
a check member which shuts off fuel ?ow into said cham
her through said duct after a predetermined volume of
be other than ?ve.
fuel has been admitted into said chamber, said check
member being resettable by an increase in pressure within
As illustrated in FIG. 10, the ?rings of the several
chambers are displaced in phase because they ?re suc 10 said chamber to permit a repeated flow of ‘fuel in said
duct, ignition means for repeatedly igniting a combus
cessively. As a result, there is a series of pressure peaks
which partially overlap each other with a resulting con
tible air-fuel mixture in said chamber, said mixture being
formed by said ‘fuel and by air entering said chamber
tinuity of pressure. The individual pressure pulsations
through said inlet, and exhaust means communicating
are thus suppressed or ?ltered out in the combined output
of the ?ve chambers.
15 with said chamber for removing the products of combus
tion produced by ignition of said mixture.
Having now particularly described the nature of my
6. A thermodynamic blast device comprising a plural
invention and the manner of its operation what I claim is:
ity of combustion chambers arranged in an endless series,
l. A thermodynamic blast device comprising a plural
each chamber being adapted for intermittent combustion
ity of combustion chambers arranged in an endless series,
each chamber being adapted for intermittent combustion 20 and each having a gas outlet and an air inlet, adjacent
ones of said combustion chambers being interconnected
and each having a ‘gas outlet and ‘an air inlet, each air
with each other by means of continuous open ducts,
inlet being in continuous communication with the atmos
whereby said ducts and said chambers form a closed cir
phere, adjacent ones of said combustion chambers being
cuit, each one of said ducts having a flow restricting ?rst
interconnected with each other by means of ducts whereby
said ducts and said chambers form a closed circuit, each 25 end including an asymmetrically ?ow-resistant nozzle and
a second end shaped to permit free ?ow into said duct,
one of said ducts having a sharp-edged ?ow restricting
said ends of each duct being connected to said two adja
?rst end constituted by an asymmetrically ?ow-resistant
cent ones of said chambers between which said duct ex
nozzle and a second end shaped to permit free ?ow into
tends, said duct ends permitting the ?ow of an igniting
said duct, said ends of each duct being connected to said
and combustion accelerating ?ame around said closed
two adjacent ones of said chambers between which said
circuit in one direction and opposing the ?ow of said
duct extends, said duct ends permitting the ?ow of an
igniting and combustion accelerating ?ame around said
flame in the opposite direction, whereby combustion gases
in said chambers may be repeatedly ?red in a cyclical
manner, the gases in the several chambers being ?red
gases in said chambers may be repeatedly ?red in a 35 consecutively in a predetermined sequence.
7. A thermodynamic blast device according to claim 6,
cyclical manner, the gases in the several chambers being
in which each of said combustion chambers is elongated
?red consecutively in a predetermined sequence.
and comprises a venturi-shaped portion which de?nes said
2. A thermodynamic blast device according to claim 1,
continuous air inlet passage, the throat portion of said
wherein said second end of each duct is enlarged and
connected to said combustion chamber by means of a 40 inlet passage comprising an annular knife-edged projec
tion offering an asymmetrical aerodynamic resistance to
?aring and smoothly rounded funnel-shaped part.
the flow of gas through said throat portion, said knife
3. A thermodynamic blast device according to claim 1,
edge being directed forwardly with respect to combustion
including a common central ejector around which all of
air entering said chamber to minimize resistance to in
said combustion chambers are arranged and into which
said gas outlets open, and cooling jackets surrounding the 45 ward ?ow and to oppose the outward ?ow of combustion
gases from said chamber.
combustion chambers and in communication with said
8. A thermodynamic blast device according to claim 7,
central ejector in order to cool said chambers below the
in which said venturi-shaped portion extends beyond said
ignition temperature of the fuel air mixture.
throat portion exteriorly of said chamber.
4. A thermodynamic blast device according to claim 1,
further comprising individual fuel injection means com 50
municating with each combustion chamber, a fuel supply
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
conduit connected to each fuel injection means, and two
UNITED STATES PATENTS
check valves arranged in each fuel supply conduit, one of
2,404,335
Whittle ______________ __ July 16, 1946
said check valves closing in the direction in which the
Serrell ______________ __ Mar. 14, 1950
fuel is supplied, the other of said check valves closing in 55 2,500,712
2,612,749
Tenney et al ____________ __ Oct. 7, 1952
the opposite direction, the ?rst-mentioned check valve
2,639,580
Stuart ______________ __ May 26, 1953
being biased to be normally kept open ‘and to limit
2,674,091
Malick _______________ __ Apr. 6, 1954
the ?ow of fuel for each of the pressure pulsations in the
combustion chamber to which its associated fuel injec
FOREIGN PATENTS
60
closed circuit in one direction and opposing the ?ow of
said ?ame in the opposite direction, whereby combustion
tion means is connected.
5. A pulsating thermodynamic blast device comprising
a combustion chamber, a continuously open air inlet for
said combustion chamber through which said chamber
communicates with the atmosphere, said inlet having a
constricted throat portion, an annular sharp-edged lip ex
518,453
559,370
630,180
616,481
Germany ____________ __ Feb.
Germany ____________ __ Sept.
Germany ____________ __ Sept.
Great Britain _________ .__ Jan.
16,
21,
24,
21,
1931
1932
1936
1949
OTHER REFERENCES
tending around the periphery of said throat portion, said
US. Navy Project “Squid,” Technical Memorandum
throat portion being smoothly rounded to provide a pro
No. 4, “The Aero'Resonator Power Plant of the V-l
gressively increasing cross-sectional area for said inlet
Flying Bomb,” by Ing. Guenther Diedrich, June 30, 1948,
proceeding away from said lip both inwardly and out 70 Princeton, University, page 39, Fig. 55.
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