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Патент USA US3035831

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May 22, 1962
F. c. PETERSON
3,035,821
BUCKET TYPE MECHANICAL MOLE
Filed sept. 12, 1958
3 Sheets-Shee‘l’I 1
INVENTOR.
FRA/VK C. PETERSON
BY MI," _ l 57TH'.J M
A TTORNEV
May 22, 1962
F. c. PETERSON
3,035,821
BUCKET TYPE MECHANICAL MOLE
Filed Sept. l2, 1958
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
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FRANK C. PETERSON
BY MMM,
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A T TOR/V57
May 22, 1962
F. c. PETERSON
3,035,821
BUCKET TYPE MECHANICAL MOLE
Filed Sept. 12, 1958
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INVENTOR.
FRANK C. PETERSON
BY
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LM...) 572.,.4 #1_-45
ATTORNEY
United States Patent Oñice
1
3,635,821
BUCKET TYPE MECHANICAL MOLE
Frank C. Peterson, Oroville, Calif., assignor to Amo
Placer Mines, Inc., Oroville, Calif., a corporation of
California
Filed Sept. 12, 1958, Ser. No. 769,804
6 Claims. (Cl. 262-5)
3,035,821
Patented May 22, 1962
2
such further objects, advantages and capabilities as will
fully appear and as are inherently possessed by the device
and the invention described herein.
Invention further resides in the combination, construc
5 tion and arrangement of parts illustrated in the accom
panying drawings, and while there is shown therein a
preferred embodiment thereof, it is to be understood that
the same is merely illustrative of the invention and that
This invention relates to a digging device, and more
the invention is capable of modification and change, and
particularly to a mechanical digging device using the 10 comprehends other details of construction without de
crowd method for underground tunneling and digging.
parting from the spirit thereof or the scope of the ap
Underground `and tunnel vdigging is extremely costly
and it is one of the purposes of this invention to provide
substantially automatic digging equipment capable of op
eration -by ya maximum of two men which will reduce the
digging cost per yard, and accomplish this objective with
out the necessity of bringing power to the machine, other
than electricity.
pended claims.
Referring to the drawings:
FIGURE l shows the mechanical mole of the present
invention in side elevational View with the digging boom
substantially in ‘a horizontal position. The approximate
maximum upward angle of digging and the approximate
lower maximum angle of digging are indicated by the
Another object is to provide a mechanical mucking ma
phantom broken lines, as well as the position of the
chine which may readily be moved into position and con 20 maximum forward digging for any one base location of
tinue to be moved forwardly as the digging progresses by
the machine;
its own means, all without complicated rigging or other
FIGURE 2 is a top plan view of the mechanical digger
supplemental moving equipment.
shown in FIGURE l with the approximate maximum
Still another object is to provide a mechanical digging
lateral angularity for the digger shown in broken phan
machine for digging into the face of a bank, which will
tom lines. The receiving trough at the Irear end has been
dig tight material without blasting and its attendant haz
ards, while, at the same time, will automatically back
o5 if an unexpected obstacle requiring power to dislodge
omitted in this view;
Y
FIGURE 3 is a Arear elevational view of the digger
shown in FIGURE l; and
FIGURE 4 is a schematic arrangement, showing the
trols, is encountered.
30 coupled operation of the manual hydraulic operating con
Another object is to provide a machine which will dig
trols for the device.
a cut twenty feet wide and nine feet high from a
Referring now more particularly to the drawings in
single base location.
which like reference characters have been used to desig
Another object is to provide a mechanical digger which
nate like parts in the several views, it will be observed that
can operate successfully and maintain volume operation in
the mechanical digger of the present invention is con
the confines of a six foot by six foot tunnel.
structed upon a revolving table or tub which is generally
beyond the setting of the automatic drive or thrust con
A further object is to provide a machine having a con
ldesignated by the numeral 10. The stationary portion
comprises a stationary flat plate 11 having a peripheral
delivery of the material to be removed in a relatively
upstanding flange 12. Immediately above, but out of
steady stream to a conveyor which makes possible the 40 contact with the top edge of the peripheral flange 12, is
tinuous bucket line for accomplishing the digging and
use of continuous belt conveyors, as no large Volume of
material is dumped at any one time.
It is a further object to provide a mechanical digging
base plate 14 which is substantially coextensive with the
plate 11. The base plate 14 is mounted concentrically
line for such purposes with `each bucket having an ex
Suitable bearings may be added in the collar 15 to secure
easy rotation of the :base plate 14 around the pivot 16 and
on the stationary plate 11 Yby two cooperating means. At
boom having a continuous bucket line, using hexagonal
the center, a collar 15 secured to the under surface of the
45 base plate lits over =a stationary pivot pin 16 which is se
drive tumblers for operating the bucket line.
Another object of the invention is to provide a bucket
cured to the stationary plate 11 at the center thereof.
tended forward lip contiguous with the back thereof and
digging teeth extending outwardly from the heel thereof
to take some of the thrust. The other means comprises a
which loosen the bank for the encounter of the bucket im 50 plurality of rollers or heavy casters 17 which are mounted
mediately following.
in any suitable manner on the under surface of the base
Still another object of the invention is to provide a
plate 14 for rolling contact with the inner face of theV
digging machine which is completely self-contained, not
plate 11. The rollers or casters 17 are mounted on plate
only so far as operating the digging boom, but with re
14 in such a manner that the peripheral ñange 12 also
55 acts as an outer guide or raceway for the said rollers or
spect to the forward movement of the device, itself.
A further object is to provide such a digging machine
casters. For convenience of forward and rearward drag
made for the most part with standard equipment and in
movement of the tub, a pair of skids 18 having suit-which the operating drive unit may be removed as a
able coupling openings 20 are provided. The skids 18
unit for overhaul and repair without dismantling the en
rest on the ñoor level 21 `and provide clearance for the
tire machine.
60 tub 1t) .as it is moved along the floor.
A still further object of the invention is to provide
It is apparent that the tub 10 can be mounted on any
a method of digging the face of a bank wherein there
suitable means of conveyance rather than the skids 18,
is no tendency or opportunity to push the material into
such as tracks, wheels, rollers or track-laying treads. The
the face of the bank and wherein the arc of travel of the
use of any of these, however,- may be limited by the space ~
bucket cutting lip is changed during the digging oper 65 demands of the digging.
tation.
A still further object is to provide automatic controls
for the entire digging and moving operations which can
be handled by a single operator from one side of the
Mounted in parallel relationship on said base plate in
planes perpendicular to the plate 14 and at either side of
the longitudinal axis of the machine are side plates 22
forming a pedestal thereon. The side plates have a rear
70 overhang portion 23 with parallel longitudinal slots 24.
Further objects are to provide a construction of maxi
Mounted above and below the opening of each of said
mum simplicity, economy, and ease of manufacture, also
slots and on the outside thereof are angle members 25
machine only.
3,035,821
3
which form slide guides at either side of the pedestal. The
center of the slots 24 lies in the longitudinal, horizontal
plane which represents the'center line 26 of the boom
assembly, 4which is generally designated 27, when the
same is in the horizontal position. Mounted for horizon-v
tal sliding action within the groove and slide angle mem-'
bers 25 at each side are trunnion ‘blocks 28 in which are
journaled the horizontal, transverse driven shaft 39. As
shown in FIGUREI, the shaft 30 also acts as the pivot
4
the digging face on a relatively ñat curve to ñll the bucket.
When the bucket is filled and as it passes the longitudinal
axis of the boom, the bottom of the bucket swings free
of the chain 47 and the digging lip is withdrawn in a
relatively fiat curve in a rearwardlyv direction. The buckets
are arranged closely together and each bucket has a flat
back 51 and an elongated forward lip 52 integral there
with. Near the base of each bucket on the exterior there
of are a pair of digging teeth 53, which, after the bucket
mounting for the vertical raising and lowering of the boom - 10 has passed the digging face and been filled, engages the
digging face and loosens the material for the next bucket.
assembly 27.
The boom which is generallyrdesignated as 27 is some
what cigar shaped, closed by vertical sidewalls 31 and
by a topY 32. The boom housing enclosesthe driving
mechanism which comprises an electricgear motor 33 con- Y
nected to a standard Ford truck transmission 34, which
in turn rotates drive shaft 35 journaledY as at 36 in either
side of the housing 31, to drive gears 37 located just out
side of .the housing. It is to be understood, of course,
that there are hinged openings (not shown) in the side
walls of the »boom housing 31 providing easy access both
toV the motor 33 and to the transmission 34, which are
bolted -within- the framework of the boom and therefore
protected at all times. -It follows, therefore, that eitherv
As the bottom of the filled bucket 48 swings clear of the
chain 47 on its delivery passage, the digging teeth 53 en
gage the digging face with substantial power and force to`
make the loosening most effective. In digging very tight
material the digging teeth 53 are removed from the base
of the bucket and placed along the digging lip of the
bucket.
Since the boom assembly 27 is supported in the frame of
the machine only by the pivot shaft 30 at the rear, it is
apparent that the boom would fall-down at the front
thereof unless there was some support. At either side of
the boom housing 31 are laterally extending wings 54
which extend upwardly at a slight angle. From the outer
the motor or the transmission may be uncoupled, un 25 ends of these wings 54 the crowd or lateral support hy-`
draulic cylinders 56 are suspended by a universal connect
bolted and removed-without dismantling the remainder
of the equipment. The-boom housing and therefore the
ing joint 55. At the other extremity of the hydraulic
entire boom assembly 27 at- the rear end thereof is mount
cylinders 56 extends the piston stem 57 to which is se
Mounted-on the idler shaft 44 at either side of the boom ‘
are carrying shoes 61 to support the loaded bucketsand
to keep them from- engaging the upper surface of the
cured a foot 58. The feet 58 are cup-shaped and are
ed-for-pivotalmovement about the shaft 30. Suitable
thrust bearings 38 are provided for this purpose. It is 30 hard faced around the edges so that they will dig into the
floor 21.V The manner of supportingthe boom assembly
therefore apparent that all vertical movement of the boom
27 is clearly shown in FIGURE 3.V Because of the uni
assembly 27 has the shaft 30 as its pivot point. Mounted
versal joint» 55 and the foot 58, the- lateral support orl
on shaft 30 in line with drive sprockets 37 are a pair of
crowd cylinders 56 may be independently placed in any
drivensprockets 40. The sprockets 37 and 4t) at either
side are connected by roller chains 41 which obviously 35 desired angle or position to support the boom in any
adjusted-position vertically orlaterally or any combina
dri-ve simultaneously at the same rate. Also mounted on
tion thereof. It is obvious that in so doing the boonr
shaft St) and driven thereby are a pair of hexagonal
assembly should not be subjected to any twist.
tumblers 42. At the beginning of each alternate face ofl
Along the under surface of the> boom `at either side»
the-hexagonal tumbler 42 is a projecting point or tooth
43, the purpose of which will be explained subsequently. 40 and 1n contact with» the travel of the chains 47 are- digging 1
shoes 60 to force the buckets to dig without contacting
Carried at the forward end of the boom frame 26 is an
the yboom housing. On the top surface at the forward end
idler Shaft 44 suitably journaled at either side as'atÁlS.`
is a pair of hexagonal tumblers 46 identical with those at'
the rear with projecting teeth at the beginning of each~
housing.
Also secured to the outer ends-of the forward wings 54
are lateral attaching brackets, the piston stem 63 of the
vertical lift cylinders 64 are pivotally attachedto the
47 which' is the bucket chain. The bucket chain Vis com
bracket 62 by means of pivot ends 65. A bracket 66,
posedof alternate solid and double links having a distance
which is firmly secured to the base plate 14, pivotally
between the connecting links such that in making the turns
atieither end the links will ñt flush along the peripheral4 50 mounts the lower end of the vertical lift cylinders 64.
It will be readily observed that by raising or lowering
faces of the hexagonal tumblers. The bucket chains are
the piston rods 63, the boom lassembly 27 may be raised
driven in a counterclockwise direction as viewed in FIG-V>
or lowered to any adjusted position within the limits of
URE ~1, by means of the hexagonal tumblers 42. This
the device. Because 0f the forces applied to the outer
is accomplished by the contact of thev projecting points ory
teeth 43 engaging in the heels of the solid 'links with the 55 ends of the wings 54 it has been deemed advisable to
provide a tie brace 67 connecting the two extremities.
double-links straddling the projecting points or teeth 43.
alternate perimeter face. Extending 'around the hexag-Y
onal tumblers 42 and 46 at either side is an endless chain v‘
In this manner and at both ends of the bucket line are
Obviously the tie brace 67 is arched so there will be no
always in positive engagement and control of the hexag
interference with the `buckets passing beneath it.
It has been found advisable, particularly with respect
onal tumblers. A plurality of buckets 48 is carried bythe '
chain.
While the buckets 48 have the conventional and usual
shape» of drag line buckets, nevertheless there are several
to the forward hexagonal tumblers 46, to cover them
with removable protective circular covers 68, which, of
course, do not interfere in any way with the operation of
important features which distinguish Vthis type of bucket
line from others previously known. In the first place
the boom or the buckets and do not move.
pins which join the links on a line with the digging lip
thereof as at 50. At the end of the boom, in making-the
turn on the hexagonal tumblers 42 and 46, but with ‘par
ticular reference to the digging end and tumbler> 46, the
'buckets move V-upwardly in other than a circular path.
This permits the digging lip of the buckets 48 to engage
tudinally in the slots 24 and slide guides 25 by means of
its mounting blocks 28, the entire boom may be moved
forwardly and rearwardly within the limits of the stroke
of the piston 71. Thus, the boom assembly ’27 can be
Fitted longitudinally between the slides at each end of
they are secured to the chain at one point only so that> 65 the side plates 22 and secured to the side plates is a pair
of hydraulic cylinders 70, one at either side. The piston
they are free to move along'the straight travels and pivot
stem V71 for these cylindersis secured toV the> block 28.
in'making the angular turns at eitherend. AThey are.
It is apparent that since the shaft 30> is movable longi
hinged to thesolid links of the chain 47 by means of the
moved Aforwardly without 'moving the entire machine
itself and can dig a substantial amount without being,
3,035,821
5
6
stopped for movement of the entire machine to another
Referring to FIGURE 1, valve 101 controls the simul
taneous operation of cylinders 70 and moves the boom
assembly 27 forwardly and rearwardly. Valve 102 con
trols the simultaneous operation of cylinders 64 for rais
ing and lowering the boom assembly. Valve 103 con
trols the simultaneous operation of the cylinders 73 for
anchoring the machine against the ceiling. Valves 104
and 105 must be operated conjointly and control the
mov-ement of .the anchoring cylinders 56. Each of the
forward position. Although the pressure in cylinders 70
is the same as that applied to any other cylinder in the
system, nevertheless it is set and controlled at a lesser
pressure -by the setting of the relief valve mechanism 72.
Thus, the machine can only dig up to the predetermined
pressure setting of the cylinder and no more.
Accord
ingly, in the digging operation, if the bucket line en
counters an object requiring a force greater than the
drive or thrust of the setting, the boom will automatically 10 control valves 100 is a dual acting valve which has a
central neutral position and is moved away from the
back olf due to release of iluid pressure in the cylinders
operator for one direction and toward the operator for
70 and when this object is passed, the pressure is restored
to the cylinders and the boom moves forward again. In
this manner the digging force of the boom and twin
bucket line is not jeopardized and damage to the machine
is minimized.
Mounted at either side on the side plates 22 forming
the pedestal are upwardly directed hydraulic cylinders 73
the reverse direction. Valves i101, 102 and 103 may
be operated independently, but valves 104 and 105 must
be operated in conjunction with each other and can be
moved forward together or rearwardly together or in
opposite directions together. This llexibility is of course
required because of the varying conditions which are
frequently encountered in positioning the anchoring feet
with their piston stems 74 pivotally connected to an over
head cross brace 75. At the central portion of the cross 20 58. This means that either cylinder may be reversed,
ie., the piston in one cylinder can be pushing down
brace 75 is a pad '76 for bearing against the ceiling of a
wardly while the other is being released and moved up
tunnel. The pad 76 may be rotatably mounted to pro
wardly, or both can go in t-he same direction at the same
time or either can be stationary while the other moves.
anchoring of the machine to the ceiling of the tunnel and 25 To obtain this action the valves 104 and 105 are ar
vide for rotation of the machine without releasing the
bearing pressure on the ceiling. In order to secure better
ranged in parallel with a double ball check valve 106
between them. As diagrammatically shown in FIGURE
5, when the valves are in the neutral position, liquid in
one end to the cross brace 75 and at the other end to the
the feed line 1437 passes through Valve 104 and out to
upper overhang portion of the side plates 23. The sup
port of the bar members '77 minimize the likelihood of 30 the discharge line to the reservoir 108. If, for example,
the valve 1041 is opened to put pressure in the cylinder 56
bending the stems 74.
and extend the piston stem 57, Athe incoming liquid in
At the rear or discharge end of the chain bucket line
line 1457 would be fed to the line 110 to the pressure
is a receiving trough 7S which has inwardly sloping sides
side of the cylinder 56. At the same time liquid would
80, the bottom of the trough being an endless belt con
veyor 31 driven by a separate motor 82. The motor 52 35 be delivered to the double ball check valve 106 and liquid
would flow into the valve 105. If the valve 105 were
and 'the drive pulle‘ S3 for the belt conveyor 31, as well
in ythe neutral position the liquid would ñow through the
as the receiving trough 7S, are mounted between >the side
valve into the discharge line 108 `to the reservoir. How
plates 22 on the base plate ill-i» for rotative movement
ever, if both valves were opened simultaneously to the
therewith. To maintain this position land for reinforce
pressure side of their respective cylinders 56, then liquid
ment accommodating the weight of the material delivered
would be delivered to line l’lû’ to the pressure side of
to the belt conveyor 3l, rigid side brackets 84 are secured
its cylinder 56. Of course the opposite is true. If valve
to the receiving trough 73 at either side and are anchored
le@ is moved to reverse the direction or rearwardly, then
at the top thereof to the lower portion of the side plate
fluid pressure is delivered to the line 1-11 and at the same
overhangs 23 of the pedestal. The delivery end of the
time to the opposite side of the double ball check valve
receiving trough 78 must necessarily always be in position
106, to the valve 105. If the valve in i105 is moved in
with respect to the receiving end of the normal belt con
the same direction, -then lluid is delivered to the line 111’.
veyor S5. For »this purpose `a pivotal coupling has been
Since fluid pressure is fed to valve 105 through valve 10d,
devised which will maintain this relative position regard
to operate valve 105 alone it is necessary to hold valve
less of the digging position of the machine. Since the
delivery end of the belt conveyor in the trough 78 must 50 104i in a pinched position in either direction. This means
that valve 104 is opened sumciently to permit fluid to
overlay the receiving belt 86 of the normal conveyor S5,
pass »therethrough to valve 105, but not suñìcient -to op
a bracket 87`is secured to the under portion of the re
erate cylinder 56 through lines 1li) or 111. This ma
ceiving trough 7S. To this bracket 37 is secured an out
neuver is needed in retracting the foot 58, and is used
wardly projecting face plate 88 having an aperture there
only at a time when there is no lo-ad on the foot.
through. To the under support 90 for the normal belt
In this manner a single operator controls the entire
conveyor 85 is secured a pivot pin 91 which projects
digging operation and movement of the machine. How
through a face plate 92 also secured to said bracket 90.
ever, he does require a helper on the opposite' side to
rIhe pivot pin 9i projects through the aperture of the
assist with the placing and anchoring of the Afoot 53 and
face plate d8, bringing the two face plates 92 and $8 into
contact with a substantial supporting surface in contact 60 cylinder 55 on that side and to appraise him of the extent
of the movement permissable for the boom on the opposite
and providing a pivotal mounting. In this manner the
side to him.
delivery end of the receiving con eyor 7 S is always main
In order to prevent any canting in the raising and lower
tained in appropriate position with >the normal con
ing of the boom assembly 27 and to assist in minimizing
veyor 85.
any canting or twist during the digging operation, the
Referring now to FÍGURE 4 and particularly to the
side plates of -the boom 31, just ahead of the axis of
diagrammatic showing therein, a typical flow control di
rotation of the base, are provided with rollers which roll
agram is shown for the operation of the hydraulic cylin
`against the inner faces of the side plates 22 forming the
ders in the operation of valve lil-fl». However, FlGURE
pedestal of `the machine. These rollers not only provide
4 has speciiic reference to the necessary simultaneous
opera-tion of valves 104i- and 105. In order to allocate 70 a smooth vertical movement, but prevent the likelihood
of twisting or canting of the boom in the pedestal, re
or orient `the controls for the machine, it is to be noted
that the controls are all on the right side of the machine
sulting in twisting and Abinding of the shaft 30.
so that a single operator manipulating the control valves
It is to be understood that the device carries its own
can control all of the movements of rthe device. The
liquid reservoir and pressure system, including a motor
hydraulic controls are valves generally designated 100. 75 and pump for handling the lluid pressure systems. Since
thereby promote better digging performance, are a pair
of bar members 77 angularly disposed and pivoted at
3,0 O5,82 1 «
Si
this is all conventional equipment‘it‘is not shown. How
ever, these are preferably located on theV side opposite
to the controls as there is more room for the mounting
and more protection for the equip-ment.
Also mounted on and secured to the base plate 14 are
upstanding circular skirts 9S. These skirts 95 serve as
protection »for the operator at one side and for the helper at
e opposite side of the machine against any inadvertence
proceeds in a gradually ‘reducing diameter until it Vleaves
the influence' ofthe hexagonal tumblers 46. Accordingly,
by using the hexagonal tumblers which change the arc`
of the travel of the bucket line -at each end, the -arc of
the bucket digging lip also changes so that after it passes
the center line the bucket pulls away from the bank to
shear the material rather than pull upwardly against the
ceiling. lit thus follows that the bucket in digging travels
in contacting any part of the machine. The skirts do not
extend forwardly or rearwardly enough to interfere with
in a wider arc until a point is reached which corresponds
with the >filling of each bucket, after which the iilled
the movement of the boom assembly 27, nor high enough
to prevent easy opera-tion of the control valve-s tilll.
bucket moves from the digging face in a substantially
reduced and different arc caused bythe falling of each
bucket back upon its flat back Si after passing the longi
Operation
tudinal center lineV of the boom, as shown in FIGURE
The operation of the device is really quite simple. The
digging machine is moved up to the digging face with the
boom assembly in substantially horizontal position and
with the boom itself in the most rearwardly position ac
complished by cylinders 7i). lf it is a tunnel operation,
then the machine would be approximately in the middle
l.
if ordinary sprockets were used, the digging >motion
would tend to push the rock into the bank or the face
which, of course, cannot be done successfully. The
changing of the arc accomplished by the present device
is a great advantage, particularly in the digging of tight
material. As before described, also, the heel of the
of the center of the tunnel floor so as to take advantage
buckets 4S carry a -pair of digging teeth 53 which come
of the maximum later-al movement of the boom.
into operation against the cutting face after the bucket
Hav
ing thus positioned the machine the operator then pulls
has passed over and above the horizontal center line of
valve 103 toward him, raising the overhead cross brace
the boom. ri`hese teeth dig into the face of the bank,
loosening the material in preparation for the cutting and
loading of the following bucket.
As has been before described, the back of each bucket
has
integralforwardly extended lip 52 which reaches
75 until the pad 76 is firmly positioned against the ceil
ing of the tunnel. In this manner there is a downward
pressure on the base of the machine. At the same time,
:by means of Iangular bar members 77 the rear overhang
portion Z3 of the side plates 22 forming the pedestal on
the base are firmly positioned and steadied. These kbar
members 7'7 also »function to prevent any bending of the
piston stems 74. When the proper holding position or“
the ceiling brace and pad 76 is assumed the valve @d3
is moved to neutral position, maintaining the fluid pres
sure to accomplish the holding. Next valve 102 is pushed
away yfrom the operator to remove liquid from the cylin
acts as a spill carrier for the rearward transportation of
the loaded buckets. As can be seen in FlGURE l, the
loaded bucket is turned on its back and carried rear
wardly, spilling some of the contents onto the lip 52
ders 64 so that the stems 63 are retracted within the
twin chains.
cylinders, lowering the boom assembly to its lowerrnost
digging position which is substantially that shown in
the discharge end. Here the lip is long enough to pro
almost up to the bucket immediately ahead.
This ex~
tended lip performs two important functions, one is it
which otherwise would be spilled onto the top of the
boom, unnecessarily loading the same and fouling the
The other function of the lip occurs at
vide a chute and prevent spilling of the contents of the
FIGURE 1 as position L. lt is apparent that the lower 40 bucket until the lower bucket is completely out o-f the
way. As the machine is operated and digs into the face
most posit-ion will dig to the iioor level 2i and that the
position L of the drawings is not quite the maximum
of the bank, the operator gradually moves the boom
assembly upwardly in a vertical arc by operating valve
position. The valve 102 is then moved to the neutral
itil and moving it outwardly. The boom is moved
position so that the boom is maintained in this position.
Valves 1434 and 165 are then operated and »manipulated
gradually in a vertical arc until it reaches its maximum
to iirst extend the stems 57 until one of them reaches
the door level. For the purpose of this discussion we
will assume, for example, that the stem on the side of
the helper is moved so that the foot 5S engages the iloor
21. Accordingly, by continuing the extension of this
stem, the entire base plate pedestal and boom assembly
are rotated on the pivot 16 laterally to the position M
shown in FIGURE 2. The pad 76 of the ceiling anchor
is axially laligned with the pin 16 and is so arranged as
to permit this rotation without release of the pressure.
The machine is then ready for the digging operation and
the starter switch is pressed to operate the motor 33, driv
ing the transmission 34V and operating the twin chain
bucket line comprising chains 47 and the buckets 4S. As
viewed from the operator’s side shown in FIGURE l,
digging height which is substantially the position shownin FIGURE l as N. |The boom is then rotated on its
base to the next position'where the same procedure is
repeated Vand this occurs in increments along the digging
face until Vthe digging has been completed to the maximum
distance to the left-hand side or the position shown as
P in FIGURE 2. Then the same procedures are re
peated by operating the valve lill to move the boom for
ward by increments until the maximum forward distance
D indicated by the broken line position Q in FIGURE 1
has ‘been attained. Since the maximum digging for the
original face position Vhas been accomplished by all of
these maneuvers of digging from position L to position
N in all of the horizontal increments from M to P and
all the vertical increments `from the minimum setting of
the chain bucket line travels counterclockwise so that 60 the boom to the maximum reach Q, it is now necessary
the front edge of the buckets approach the bank, cut into
to move the entire base 10 forward, which moves the
the same, load, and then transport the removed material
rearwardly where it is dumped into the receiving trough
position of the entire machine, and repeat the same pro
cedures.
78 4and from thence onto the standard conveyor belt S5.
The device illustrated in FIGURE l can be moved for
It will be observed that as the empty buckets 48 ap 65 wardly under its own power by releasing the ceiling stabi
lizer contact and withdrawing the stems 74 of the cylinders
proach the digging end, »the chain moves upwardly at a
73, releasing the anchorage of the cylinders 56 and swing
slight angle with the chain being held taut by the digging
ing these into a rearward position andy using them as
shoes 60. As the chain is picked up by Vthe hexagonal
tumblers 46, the bucket being attached to 4the chain only 70 walking cylinders. By doing this several times the de'
vice may be advanced forwardly the required distance
at a single point Si) will travel upwardly and outwardly
to the proper operating contact with the face of the bank.
to the maximum point where the meeting corner’of the
Obviously, if space permits, the base l0- may be mount
hexagon beneath the front edge of the cup is on the
ed on wheels or rollers with or without tracks or on a
longitudinal center line of the boom. From this point
on, the bucket lip is withdrawn and the'arc of the lip 75 track laying tractor land moved again under its own
3,035,821
power.
These, however, are only obvious ways of ac
complishing the nondigging, forward movement of the
entire machine and are only possible where space per
mits.
It is to be understood that as the various digging
procedures are followed, the receiving chute 7S attached
'at the rear end of the pedestal and movable therewith,
follows 4the horizontal rotating position, but swings op
positely to that of ‘the digging end of the boom. Since
the loading end of the conveyor belt 85 is supported by
the bracket 87 and lip 88, this end swings to accom
modate the position of the receiving conveyor 7S so that
they are always in line. It is not necessary to uncouple
the pivot 99 as the boom moves from retracted position
to its extended position Q, `because »the lbracket 37 is 15
mounted in a slot or guide in the bottom of the receiving
conveyor 7S.
l claim:
l. A mechanical mole of the type described comprising
in combination a base, a horizontally pivoting pedestal on
said base, a boom mounted at one end for slideable move
10
lower said boom and chain bucket line in a vertical arc
and hold the same in the adjusted position, hydraulic
means for rotating said pedestal to move said boom and
chain bucket line horizontally in the adjusted position, and
power means mounted within said boom and connected
to one of said tumblers for driving said chain bucket
line, and means for separately moving the boom and
bucket line forwardly from the adjusted position in the
slideable mounting to >keep the buckets in contact with
the digging face, within the limits of the slideable mount
ing.
3. A mechanical mole of the type described comprising
in combination »a base, a horizontally pivoting pedestal on
said base, a boom mounted at one end for slideable move
ment in a horizontal plane on said pedestal rearwardly of
the vertical axis thereof for movement therewith in a
horizontal plane and pivotally mounted at its rearward
portion in slidea-ble mounting for separate movement in
a vertical arc, a continuous twin roller chain bucket line
traveling over the upper and lower faces of said boom,
said buckets being hingedly mounted on said chain each
ment in a horizontal plane on said pedestal rearwardly of
adjacent the lip thereof, hexagonal tumblers mounted «at
the vertical axis thereof for movement therewith in a hori
each end of said boom for driving said chain bucket line
zontal plane and pivotally mounted in said sliding mount
and cooperating with said bucket mounting for varying
ing lfor separate movement in a vertical arc, a continuous
the arc of the bucket travel at the turn, said tumblers hav
chain and bucket line traveling on the upper and lower
ing beginning triangular points projecting from alternate
faces of said boom, said buckets being hingedly mounted
on said chain each adjacent the lip thereof, to swing away
peripheral `faces for engaging the pivot pins between the
double links of said chain, hydraulic means mounted on
said base at either side of said boom to simultaneously
of the boom, said lbuckets having a forwardly extending 30 adjustably raise or lower said boom and chain bucket
from the chain in other than a circular path at each end
elongated ñat lip integral with the back thereof and dig
ging means externally mounted adjacent the trailing edge
for loosening the digging face for the next succeeding
bucket, hexagonal tumblers mounted at each end of said
line in a vertical arc and hold the same in the adjusted
position, hydraulic ram means spaced from either side
of said boom secured thereto in the plane forward of the
center line of horizontal rotation for rotating said pedestal
boom for driving said chain and bucket line and cooper 35 boom and chain bucket line horizontally and anchoring
ating with said bucket mounting vfor varying the arc of
the same in the adjusted position either vertically, lateral
the bucket travel at the turns, said tumblers having be
ly, or any combination thereof, power means mounted
within said boom and connected to `one of said tumblers
ginning triangular points projecting from alternate pe
ripheral Ifaces for engaging the pivot pins between the
for driving said chain bucket line, and means for sepa
double links of said chain, hydraulic ‘means mounted on 40 rately moving the boom- and «bucket line forwardly from
said base at either side of »said «boom to adjustably raise
the adjusted position in the slideable mounting to keep
or lower said boom in a vertical arc and hold the same
the buckets in contact with the digging face, within the
in the adjusted position, power means mounted within
said boom and connected to at least one of said tumblers
limits of the slideable mounting.
'
4. A mechanical mole for underground digging which
for driving said chain and bucket line and control means 45 can be self-propelled to the digging face, comprising in
for separately moving the boom and bucket line forwardly
combination a base, hydraulic means supported on said
in said slideable mounting to »keep the buckets in con
base and movable therewith for -adjustably and pivotally
tact with the digging face, within the limits of the slide
anchoring the machine to the ceiling, a pedestal mounted
able mounting.
on said base `for pivotal movement in a horizontal plane
2. A mechanical mole for underground digging com 50 the axis of which is in line with said ceiling anchor
prising in combination a base, hydraulic means supported
ing, va. boom mounted at one end for slideable move
on the base »for adjustably `and pivotally anchoring the
ment in a horizontal plane on said pedestal rearwardly
machine to the ceiling, a horizontally pivoting pedestal on
of said axis -for horizontal rotation therewith and
said base, `a boom mounted at one end for slideable
pivotally mounted at the rearward portion in said slide
movement in a horizontal plane on said pedestal rearward 55 able mounting »for independent movement in ya vertical
ly of the vertical axis thereof for movement therewith
arc, a continuous twin roller chain ibucket line traveling
in a horizontal plane and pivotally mounted at its rear
along the upper »and lower faces of said boom, said buck
portion in said sliding mounting for separate movement
ets being hingedly mounted on said chain each adjacent
in a vertical arc, a continuous twin chain bucket line
the lip thereof, hexagonal tumblers mounted at each end
traveling on the upper and lower faces o'f said boom, said 60 of said boom for driving said chain bucket line and co
buckets being hingedly mounted on said chain each ad
operating with said bucket mounting for varying the arc
jacent the lip thereof, to swing away from the chain in
of the buckets travel at the turns, said tumblers having
other than a circular path at each end of the boom,
beginning points projecting from alternate peripheral faces
said buckets having a ‘forwardly extending elongated flat
`for engaging the pins between the double links of said
lip integral with the back thereof and digging means ex 65 chain, hydraulic means mounted on said base at either
ternally mounted adjacent the trailing edge yfor loosening
the digging face :for the next succeeding bucket, hexag
side acting simultaneously for raising «and lowering the
said boom on its -pivotal mounting ín a vertical arc, hy
draulic ram means spaced from either side of said boom
driving said chain bucket line and cooperating with said
secured thereto vforwardly of the axis of rotation of said
bucket mounting «for varying the arc o'f the bucket travel 70 pedestal Áfor horizontal movement of said pedestal boom
at the turn, said tumblers having beginning triangular
and chain bucket line and for anchoring the same in the
points projecting from lalternate peripheral faces for en
adjusted position either vertically, laterally, or any com
gaging the pivot pins between the dou-ble links of said
bination thereof, power means mounted within the boom
chains, hydraulic means mounted on said base at either
and connected to one of said tumblers for driving said
side of said boom to simultaneously adjustably raise or 75 chain and bucket line, and means for separately moving
onal tumblers mounted at each end of said boom for
3,035,821l
11
end thereof for slideable movement in a horizontal plane»
on said pedestal rearwardly of said axis for horizontal`
rotation therewith and pivotally- mounted at the rear end
thereof in said slideable mounting for independent move
thetboom ~and bucket linev forwardly from~the` adjustedr~
position in theslideablemounting to keep the »buckets'in'
contact -with the digging face `rwhilerin the `adjusted posi-V
tion, within the limitsof Vsaid slideable mounting; l '
ment in a vertical arc, a continuous tW-inroller chain
5, A mechanical mole-for` underground digging com
prising in combination a-basewhich is moved by its own
power to thefdigging face, »hydraulic means supported yon
bucket line traveling lalong the upper and lower faces of
said boom, said buckets being hingedly mounted on said
chain each `adjacent the lip thereof, hexagonal tumblers
mounted at each end `of said boom for driving said chain
bucket line and cooperating wtih said bucket mounting
for varying the arc .of the bucket travel at the turn, said
said base and movable'therewith lforfadjustably-and piv
otally anchoring the 'machine `to the ceiling, a- pedestal
mounted »onrsaid base-tor pivotal-movement in'ahori
zontal plane the vertical axis of which is in line with said'V
ceiling anchoring,~a boom mounted at- the rear `end thereof
tumblers having beginning points projecting from alter
nate peripheral lfaces for engaging the pins between the
for slideable» movement in a hor-izontalplane on said-
double links of said chains, hydraulic means mounted on
pedestal rearwardly -of s-aid axis yfor horizontal rotation
said base at either side lacting simultaneously for raising
andV lowering the said boom and chain bucket line in a
therewith and pivotally mounted at the rear end thereof
in said slideable mounting` for'independent movement in
Vertical arc on its pivotal mounting, hydraulic means
for limited horizontal forward and rearward movement of
a verticalv arc, a continuous twin roller- chain bucket line '
traveling along the upper and Alower'faces of said boom,
said buckets being hingedly mounted on said chain each
adjacent the lip thereof, hexagonal'tumblers `mounted at
said boom and chain bucket line independently of said
20
pedestal, hydraulic ramrmeans spaced from‘either side”
of said boom and secured thereto forward of the axis of
each end of said boom for driving said chain bucket line
rotation of said base forrotating said pedestal, boom and
chain bucket line horizontally and holding the- same in
the arc 'of the bucket travel at the turns, ‘said tumblers
the adjusted positioneither vertically, laterally, or any
having beginnnig points projecting from alternate pe-~
ripheralffaces for engaging the pins between the' doublek 25 combination thereof, a plurality of valve systems for con-trolling, adjusting and holding the setting of the various
links of said chains, hydraulic means vn‘?ounted onA said?
hydraulic means each independently of the other, and
base at either'side acting simultaneously for raising? and
and’cooperating with saidl bucket'mounting -for varying
power means mounted within the boom andconnected
to one of said tumblers for driving said chain and bucket»
lowering the'boomv and chain bucket lin'e in a vertical arc
on' its pivotal mounting, hydraulic means for vlimited hor'i-`
zontal Y forward and rearward -f movement of--said ‘ boo‘mi
30
and rchain'bucket line »in said`slideable mounting inde~
References Cited in the file of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
pendently'of said pedestal; hydraulicy ra'm means spaced
from’ either sidev ofsaid boom secured thereto forward>
of the axis'of rotation» of said> base- for rotating th'e‘ped'-A
estal, boom and chain bucket line laterally `‘and anchoringA 3
thesame in the adjusted position either vertically,`ilateral1y,
or any combination thereof,--valve systems v‘for controlling,
adjusting and holding the setting of thevariou's hydraulic’
means each independently Vof the other, yand power means
mounted within the boom'and connected to one >of said‘ 40
tumblers for driving said chain’buck'et‘line.
6. A mechanical mole lfor underground digging 'com-V
prising in combination azself-propelled base, hydraulic
means'supported on saidf base'foïr adjustably and pivotally
anchoring the machine to the Vceiling when in position,
a pedestal mounted on said base A‘for pivotal movement
in a horizontal plane the vertical axis of which is in line
with said ceiling anchoring-’a boomV mounted at the. rear
line.
45
60,774
452,492
824,531
878,460
884,960
1,246,527
1,561,105
1,579,704
1,850,364
Molyneux ____________ __ Ian. 1,
Whitcomb ____________ __ May 19,
Ducellier _____________ __ June 26,
Greer et al. ___________ __ Feb. 4,
Suiter _______________ __ Apr. 14,
1867
1891
19061908
1908I
Bentson ______________ __ Nov. 13, 1917
Otto _________________ __ Nov.` 10, 1925
Grow ________________ __ Apr. 6,1926'
Vaughn ______________ __ Mar.V 22, 1932v
1,987,982 _
2,290,325 »
Wheeler _____________ __ Jan. 15, 1935
Hammond ____________ __ July 21, 1942
2,311,834
2,363,682
2,528,748
2,597,036
Hollmann et al ________ __ Feb. 23,
Madsen et al __________ __ Nov. 28,
Greene _______________ __ Nov. 7,
Roe _________________ __ May 20,
1943
1944
1950
1952
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