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Патент USA US3036272

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May 22, 1952
Filed May 19, 1958
, 5-16
I I0
L l N E VOL-r5
BY %
A 1 1 ORNEy
Patented May 22, 1932
Jack 1). Welsh, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, assignor to Collins
Radio Company, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, a corporation of
characteristic may be readily governed by a preselected
choice of turns ratios and secondary load values,
These and other objects and features of the invention
will become more apparent from a reading of the follow
ing description in conjunction with the accompanying
drawing, in which:
Filed May 19, 1958, Ser. No. 736,240
4 Claims. (Cl. 323-43)
FIGURE 1 is a schematic representation of an em
bodiment of the invention;
This invention relates generally to magnetic voltage
FIGURE 2 is a representation of the ideal output
regulation and more particularly to signal translating 10 voltage characteristics of the invention; and
devices employing the saturation characteristics of mag
netic cores as a regulating principle.
it is well known that the ampere-turns in the primary
FIGURE 3 is an actual output voltage characteristic
of a circuit constructed according to the principles of this
and secondary windings of a transformer are equal, as
With reference to FIGURE 1, the invention is seen to
suming no losses and under conditions wherein the trans— 15 be comprised of a pair of cores 15 and 16 upon which
former core is not saturated. The present invention oper
is wound a primary winding 11. Primary winding 11
ates on the principle that the ampere-turns in the wind
is common to each of the cores 15 and 16. A second
ings of a transformer must be maintained equal and the
ary winding 12 is Wound about core 15 and a second
invention further incorporates the saturation effects of
secondary winding 13 is wound about core 16. A load
magnetic cores to provide a voltage reference device, the 20 resistor 24 is connected across secondary winding 13.
output of which is essentially Zero until a voltage source
A'load resistance 17 is connected to a center tap on
applied to the primary winding reaches a predetermined
level, afterwhich time the output of the device in
creases linearly with input voltage.
The present invention is, therefore, termed a mag
netic voltage reference and concerns a device which may
be used to monitor an alternating current voltage source.
secondary winding 12 and through two diodes 18 and
19 to the ends of secondary winding 12.. This latter ar
rangement provides a well-known full wave recti?er cir
25 cuit as load on secondary winding 12. For the purpose
of the operating principle of the present invention, how
ever, the load may be considered as the resistor 17 across
The device of the present invention provides an output
one-half of secondary winding 12. Core 16 is of the
voltage characteristic which is essentially zero until the
saturable type and thus primary winding 11 and second
input reaches a preselected value and then rises linearly 30 ary winding 13 operate as a saturable transformer with
with further increase in input voltage. This particular
the core 16 possessing a square hysteresis characteristic
characteristic might be particularly useful, for example,
such that the voltage induced in secondary winding 13
in a voltage monitoring system wherein a relay is desired
increases linearly with signal applied to primary wind
to be closed at some particular line signal level and it
ing 11 until a saturation point is reached, at which time
is desirable that the relay shall close as the input level 35 it essentially levels ed at a predetermined voltage level.
reaches a predetermined value and further shall release
Prior to saturation of core 16, the ampere-turns of
with decreasing input signal at a voltage level essential
secondary windings 12 and 13 each equal those of pri
ly that at which it was closed. It is well known that
mary 11 according to well-known transformer character
a relay which will close at 60 volts, for example, will
istics and, therefore, are themselves equal. The load
not release until the voltage applied to its coil falls sub 40 resistor 24 across secondary winding 13 is chosen as a
stantially below the 60 volt level. By the present in~
relatively high resistance value such that the current
vention, the linear increasing input signal characteristic
in secondary winding 13 is held to a low value. This
may be converted to a more desired characteristic with
low value of current prior to saturation of core 16 de
a delay feature of sorts whereby the linear increasing
termines the value of the ampere-turns which will exist
signal may be made to be essentially zero until a prede 45 in secondary winding 12 and the number of turns of
termined input level is reached and may then assume a
secondary winding 12 may then be so chosen that an
linear increasing characteristic having a steepness substan
extremely small current will flow in the circuit of sec
tially greater than that of the input signal characteristic.
ondary winding 12 and this current in conjunction with
The device of the present invention is essentially a
the load resistance 17 on secondary winding 12 main
controlled transformer having a single primary winding 50 tains an extremely low voltage drop across load resist
wound about two cores with each of the cores having
ance 17. Secondary winding 13 possesses a number of
wound thereon a secondary winding. At least one of
turns which in conjunction with its high load resistance
the cores is of the saturable type with a well-known
24 may be made to control the ampere-turn situation
square hysteresis characteristic. By proper choice of the
existing in all the windings prior to saturation. This
load on this core, control of the ampere-turns in both 55 control is e?ective until the input signal level applied
secondary windings is maintained by the winding on the
to primary winding 11 reaches a value such that core
saturable core until such a time as the saturable core
reaches the saturation point. The other secondary wind
ing, through the range of input voltages below satura
16 saturates. For input signal levels beyond this satura
tion point, secondary winding 13 and core 16 no longer
exercise their control. The output voltage across resist
tion of the saturable core is held to essentially a zero 60 ance 24 remains essentially constant and the ampere
voltage level and begins to rise linearly at the saturation
point of the saturable core.
it is an object therefore of the invention to provide a
turn relationship existing in secondary winding 12 be
comes independent of that of winding 13. The current
in secondary winding 12 then increases in a normal
magnetic voltage reference device operating upon satura
linear fashion with increased primary signals such that
ble core characteristics which converts a linear input sig 65 the voltage across load resistor 17 increases linearly from
nal into an output signal which is essentially zero until
its near zero value.
a predetermined input signal level is reached and which
The ideal output characteristic of the device of FIG
begins from this point to rise linearly at a predetermined
URE 1 is shown in FIGURE 2, wherein the output volt
rate for continued increase in input signal level. It is
age across load resistor 17 is plotted as line ABC. This
a further object of this invention to provide a magnetic 70 output level is seen to be ideally zero for input voltages up
voltage regulating device by which the output voltage
to approximately 95 volts and then increases linearly
from point B to point C as the input voltage increases '
volts input approximately 40 vol-ts appears across load
resistor 17.
A regulating device constructed according to this inven
tion and having parameters as discussed above provided
the output characteristic illustrated in FIGURE 3. It is
above the level at point B. The line AB'C is the ideal
plot of the voltage across the controlling load resistor 24
on secondary winding 13. This characteristic is seen to
increase linearly’ from point A to point B’ and then levels
off in the portion shown from B’ to C. The point B repre
sents in FIGURE 2 the value of input voltage (in this
case approximately 95 volts) at which core 16 begins to
saturate over a portion of each half cycle. It is noted
that the two output voltage plots have essentially opposite
characteristics for input voltage levels below the satura»
tion point B and for those levels above the saturation
point B.
seen that the characteristic is essentially zero for line
voltage values up to approximately 95 volts, at which
time it begins to increase linearly with line voltage in-i
crease. The actual characteristic in FIGURE 3 is thus
seen to approximate the ideal characteristic ABC of
FIGURE 2. It is realized that the zero level of the out
put characteristic is not attained in practice since the zero
level is based on ideal transformer characteristics wherein
inherent losses have been neglected, and assumes in?nite
The manner in which these voltage characteristics are
essentially attained may be then fully described by con 15 resistance being re?ected into primary 11 by resistor 24
across secondary 13.
sideration of actual voltage values, turns ratio and load
resistance values. For example, consider it desirable to
As previously discussed, the output characteristic ABC
of FIGURE 2 might be valuable for a monitoring system
construct a device to monitor a 400 cycle per second power
which employs a relay. With reference to FIGURE 2, a
line voltage where the output from the monitoring device
is to remain essentially at zero until the supply voltage 20 dotted linear characteristic AD is illustrated which might
be, for example, any linearly increasing line voltage. If
reaches 95 volts. It is desirable that, for supply voltages
a relay were to be energized with this voltage character
above 95 volts, the output should increase linearly for
input up to at least 135 volts where the output should
istic applied to its coil, the relay might close, for example,
as the input voltage reached approximately 130 volts or
deliver 20 milliamperes into a 1,750 ohm load. For this
application, the primary winding 11 contains 1,900 turns 25 point D on the dotted characteristic. Now as the input
and secondary winding 12 is provided with a center tapped
voltage decreases along the line DA, the relay, due to in
winding of 3,800 turns, while secondary winding 13 is
herent characteristics, might not release until the point B
were reached or at approximately 60 volts, for example.
provided with 1,125 turns across which is connected a
It is seen that by utilizing the device of the present inven~
relatively high resistance of 560,000 ohms. As previously
discussed, prior to saturation of core 16, the ampere-turns 30 tion the line voltage characteristic may be converted to
the line ABC by projecting the point E to point E’ on
in both secondaries are equal. Since secondary winding
characteristic ABC. It is seen that the same relay might
13 on saturable core 16 is operating into a relatively high
be made to energize as point D is reached and deenergized
resistance load 24, the current in secondary winding 13
at point E’. The variation in input voltage at the ener
is low. The manner in which the load resistance 24 may
be made to control the ampere-turns situation might be 35 gizing and release points for the same relay is thus seen
to be considerably narrowed.
further considered upon the basis of the relative manner
It is seen that by the present invention a magnetic volt
in which load resistance 17 and 214 are re?ected back into
age reference device is provided by which a linearly in
the primary winding 11. In the example under considera
creasing alternating current signal may be converted to
tion, the 560,000 ohm resistor 24 re?ects into the primary,
due to the coupling ratio as well over a million ohms, 4.0 a ‘signal which is essentially zero until a predetermined
whereas the 1,750 ohm resistor 17 through its one-to-one
coupling ratio re?ects back in as but 1,750 ohms. It is
thus seen that prior to any saturation eifects, the current
input level is reached and thereafter increases propor
tionally with input signal.
Although this invention has been described with respect
?owing in the primary winding 11 is essentially governed
to a particular embodiment thereof, it is not to be so
by load resistor 24. This control is exercised until core 16 45 limited as changes and modi?cations may be made there
in which are within the full intended scope of the inven
saturates, at which time load resistor 24 is not effectively
coupled into the primary circuit and ‘actually the load
resistance 24 in conjunction with secondary winding 13
tion as de?ned by the appended claims.
I claim:
1. A magnetic voltage translating device comprising
?rst and second cores having a common primary winding
current. For example, the resistance re?ected in primary
winding 11 is, from its turns ratio with respect to secondary
thereon and first and second secondary windings wound
individually on each of said cores, an input signal applied
windings 12 and 13, approximately 1,565,000 ohms. Thus
to said primary winding, said ?rst secondary winding con
as the 400 cycle supply voltage reaches 95 volts, approxi
mately 0.06 milliampere ?ows in primary winding 11.
nected to an output resistance load and having a prede
‘Since equal ampere-turns must exist in secondary winding 55 termined number of turns so as to reflect comparatively
small resistance into said primary winding, said second
12, it is seen that, in conjunction with the 1,900 turns of
secondary winding having a predetermined number of
each half of winding 12, the same current or approxi
mately .06 milliampere will ?ow through the 1,750 ohm
turns and connected to a resistance load so as to re?ect
a considerably greater resistance into the said primary
resistor 17, which results in a voltage across resistor 17 of
approximately lyio volt. From the turns ratio between 60 winding so as to essentially determine the current in said
primary 11 and secondary 13, approximately 0.1 milli
primary winding, said second core being saturable at a
ampere ?ows in secondary 13 and approximately 56.2
predetermined level of said input signal, said ?rst core be
volts is developed across resistor 24. This particular 95
ing unsaturable over the variable range of said input
volt input level is discussed since in this case it is the
‘signal whereby for values of said input signal below the
predetermined level at which said second core begins to
level which, in conjunction with core 16, secondary wind
saturate the ampere-turns in said ?rst secondary winding
ing 13, and load resistance 24, determines the saturation
are essentially equal to those in said second secondary
point of core 16. Thus in FIGURE 2, the saturation point
is indicated at B and B’ on the output curves. The output
winding and the current in said ?rst secondary winding
voltage at point B’ across resistance 24 is illustrated as
is held to a low level, and above the saturation point of
being 56 volts, while the output voltage at point B across 70 said second core the current in said ?rst secondary wind
on core 16 exercises no further control over the primary
resistor 17 is shown to be ideally zero and as indicated
above is in the neighborhood of 1/10 of a volt as compared
ing increases linearly with said input signal.
2. A‘ magnetic voltage translating device comprising
to the 5 6 volts across secondary winding 13-. As the input
?rst and second magnetic cores upon which is Wound a
primary winding common to both of said cores and ?rst
voltage increases above 95 volts, core 16 saturates over a
greater and greater portion of the cycle until with 135 75 and second secondary windings wound individually on said
?rst and second cores respectively, an input signal applied
to said primary winding, said input signal being variable
in magnitude over a predetermined range, a resistance
predetermined level of said input signal, said ?rst core
being unsaturable over the range of said input signal, the
?rst secondary winding having a number of turns such
connected across each of said secondary windings, the
that the current in said windings is held to a low value for
turns ratios between said primary winding and said ?rst
and second secondary windings being predetermined such
magnitudes of input signal below the predetermined level
thereof suf?eient to saturate said second core, the current
that the load across said second secondary winding re
in said ?rst secondary winding increasing linearly with
?ects into said primary winding at an effective value sub
increase of primary signal voltage above the saturation
stantially greater than that re?ected thereinto by the load
point of said second core.
across said ?rst secondary winding and the current ?ow 10
4. A magnetic voltage translating device comprising
in said primary winding is held at a low value thereby
?rst and second cores said second core being of the satur
holding the current in said ?rst secondary winding to a low
able square hysteresis type, a primary winding wound
value in accordance with its ampere-turns relationship
common to each of said ?rst and second cores, a ?rst
with said primary and said second secondary windings,
secondary winding wound on said ?rst core, a second
said ?rst core being unsaturable over the predetermined 15 secondary winding wound on said second core, each of
range of said input signal, said second co-re being saturable
said secondary windings connected to a load resistance,
at a predetermined magnitude within the predetermined
the load resistance for said second secondary winding be
range of variation of said input signal, whereby the volt
ing substantially greater than that for said ?rst secondary
age developed across said second secondary resistance
winding, whereby the ampere-turns in said ?rst secondary
increases proportionally with primary voltage and the 20 winding are controlled by those present in said second
voltage across said ?rst secondary winding is held at a
secondary winding, an input signal applied to said primary
low value for input voltage levels below the saturation
winding, said input signal being variable over a predeter
point of said second core and the voltage across said ?rst
mined range Within which a predetermined level is su?‘i
secondary resistance varies linearly with input voltage for
cient to saturate said second core and throughout which
input signal levels exceeding the saturation point of said 25 said ?rst core is unsaturable whereby the current in said
second core.
3. A magnetic voltage translating device comprising
?rst secondary winding is held to a substantially constant
low value below the saturation level of said second core
?rst and second magnetic cores, a primary Winding wound
and increases linearly with input signal levels above said
common to each of said cores and ?rst and second second
saturation level.
ary windings wound individually about said ?rst and 30
second cores, each of said secondary windings connected
to a resistance load, the resistance across the second
secondary winding being substantially greater than the
resistance across said ?rst secondary winding and thereby
substantially determining the current ?o-w in said primary 35
winding, an input signal applied to said primary winding,
said input signal being variable in magnitude over a pre~
determined range, said second core being saturable at a
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
Lawrence ____________ __ Oct. 8, 1957
Switzerland ___________ __ Mar. 1, 1954
Great Britain ________ __ Sept. 24, 1937
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