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Патент USA US3036304

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May 22, 1962
3,036,294
J. C. GIBSON
FIRE ALARM
Filed Jan. 24, 1958
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INVENTOR.
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Jefferson C. Gibson
BY
United States Patent Office
3,636,294
Patented May Z2, 1362
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ductors 11 and 12 and is extended in multiple from the
conductors 11 and 12 to the alarm lamp 13 through con
ductors 44 and 48 and the normally closed contacts of
FIRE ALARM
Jelferson C. Gibson, 217 E. Cullerton, Chicago, Ill.
Filed Jan. 24, 1958, Ser. No. 710,957
4 Claims. (Cl. 340-227)
the solenoid 40, here represented schematically by con
tacts 21. The secondary winding 14b of the step-down
transformer 14 is center tapped and a circuit is completed
The present invention relates to fire alarm systems and
from the center tap 51 via a conductor 15 through the
particularly to a lire alarm system including a central
pilot lamp 1S and a conductor 17 extending to a terminal
alarm station and a plurality of monitoring substations.
end 52 of the winding 14h. In addition, a connection is
An object of the present invention is a simple and 10 completed from the terminal end 52 through the conduc
inexpensive lire alarm system of the type described where
tor 17, the alarm horn 19, a conductor 2€), the winding
in the central alarm station and the substations are con
of the solenoid relay 49, a conductor 21 and a conductor
tinuously energized and wherein responsive to an abnor
16 to the other end terminal 53 of the secondary winding
mal temperature condition in any one of the substations,
14h. In this circumstance and without considering fur
the central alarm station is operated to render both a
ther connections frorn the central alarm station to the
visual and an audible alarm.
substations, the current flows between the center tap 51
Another object of the invention is to provide thermo
and the end terminal 52 of the secondary winding 14b
static means at each of the substations which is adjustable
through the pilot lamp 18 thereby illuminating the lamp
to be responsive to different alarm temperature and which
and a current ñows between the terminals 52 and 53 of
when operated in response to an abnormal temperature 20 the secondary winding 14b in series through »the alarm
condition is maintained operative thereafter despite gra
horn 19 and the winding of the solenoid relay 40. The
dient changes in the temperature from the abnormal tem
solenoid 40 is energized in order to maintain the operat
perature.
ing circuit for the alarm lamp 13 interrupted at the con
A feature of the invention is an improved ñre alarm
tacts 21, and the impedance of the energized solenoid is
circuit provided with pilot lamps at the central station and
at each of the substations illuminated under normal con
ditions of operation to indicate the monitoring state of
the central station and of the` substations.
An additional feature of the invention is the provision
such that the current flow through the series connected
alarm horn 19 is insuñicient to operate the horn. Ac
cordingly, in this circumstance, the pilot lamp 18 of
the central alarm station 10 is illuminated to indicate that
the central alarm station is in monitoring operation and
in each of the substations of a conductive bimetallic 30 neither the alarm lamp 13 or the alarm horn 19 are
thermostat arrangement adjustable for different tempera
ture ranges and which includes a magnetized Contact plate
completing a circuit with the temperature flexed bimetallic
operative.
rIhe solenoid relay 70 which, as schematically illus
trated in FIG. l includes the contacts 71, is connected
thermostat and maintaining such circuit in spite of gra
across the secondary winding 14h to conductors 16 and
dient temperature changes tending to interrupt the circuit 35 17, respectively, by conductors 73 and 72 so that the relay
contact.
is energized and the contacts 71 are opened. A circuit
Another feature of the invention is the inclusion in the
including a conductor 75, a battery source 77, contacts 71
central alarm station circuit of a normally energized
and a conductor 74 is connected across alarm horn 19
gravity solenoid which when deenerg-ized completes a
at conductors 17 and 2t) for energizing the alarm horn
circuit for operating alarm devices.
40 when the solenoid relay 70 is deenergized and the contacts
Further objects and features of the invention pertain to
71 are closed as by a power failure to the step-down
the particular structure and arrangement employed in the
transformer 14. In the circuit a switch 76 may -be in
invention whereby the above described objects are at
cluded for intermpting the circuit and preventing opera
tained. The invention, both as to its structure and mode
tion of the alarm horn 19.
of operation, will be better understood by reference t0 45
Considering now the connection of the substations
the following specification and drawings, forming a part
such as the substation 30 to the central alarm station
thereof, wherein:
10, a conductor 22 is connected in multiple to the substa
FlGUREl is a circuit diagram in schematic form of
tions at the junction between the conductors 21 and 16
the ñre alarm system;
in the central alarm station and a conductor 23 is con
FIGURE 2 shows in detail the structure of and the 50 nected in multiple to the substations from the conductor
.circuit connections in each of the substations of the fire
20 in the central alarm station. In the substations, as
alarm system;
in the substation 30, a pilot lamp 33 is connected in
FIGURE 3 shows in partial cross-section the structure
series between the conductors 22 and 23, and in parallel
of a gravity solenoid that may be employed in the circuit
with the lamp 33 is the normally opened circuit includ
of the central alarm station; and
55 ing the bimetallic thermostat 31 and the magnetic con
FIGURE 4 shows in partial cross-section the structure
tact 32. The magnetic contact 32 is coated or plated
of a spring loaded solenoid that may be employed in the
with silver, copper, or the like to render it highly con
circuit o-f the central alarm station.
ductive. Under normal temperature conditions, the cir
Referring now to the drawings, there is shown in FIG
cuit between the bimetallic thermostat 31 and the mag
URE l a lire alarm system in accordance with the inven 60 netic contact 32 is opened so that the pilot lamp 33 is con
tion including a central alarm station 10 and a plurality of
nected in parallel with the winding of the solenoid relay
monitoring substations including the substation 3l?. The
40 inthe central alarm station 10.
central alarm 'station 1t) includes an alarm lamp 13, a
step-down transformer 14, a pilot lamp 18, an alarm horn
pilot lamp 33 is illumina-ted, thereby indicating that the
Accordingly, the
substation 30 is in monitoring operation.
Assuming an abnormal temperature condition such as
19 and a solenoid relay 40 and a solenoid relay 70. AEach 65
would cause the bimetallic plate 31 to complete a circuit
of the substations such as the substation 30, includes a
at the magnetic contact 32 in the substation 30, a low irn
bimetallic thermostat 31, a magnetic contact 32 for the
pedance path is'completed between the terminals 52 and
thermostat 31, and a pilot lamp 33.
-
Considering in detail the structure of the central alarm
station 10, a 110 volt, 60 cycle source is applied to the
primary winding 14a of the transformer 14 through con
53 of the secondary winding 14b including the conductor
17, the alarm horn 19, the conductor 23, the bimetallic
thermostat 31, the magnetic contact 32, conductor 22 and
conductor 16. Accordingly, both the winding of the
3,036,294
3
4
.
solenoid relay 40 in the central alarm station 10 and the
pilot lamp 33 in the substation 30 are shunted so that
a large current flows through the alarm horn 19 thereby
causing an audible signal to be emitted. At the same time
the solenoid relay 40 is deenergized thereby completing
the circuit between the conductors 11 and 12 >for illumi
nating the alarm lamp 13. In this manner the audible and
visible alarms inthe central alarm stations are both oper
remain >maintained between the bimetallic strip and the
magnetic contact even after the temperature in the area
has dropped 1to considerably less than 200°, for exam
ple, to 150°. Thus the magnetic contact insures a good
circuit connection between the contact and the bimetallic
strip and causes the alarm condition to persist until in all
certainty the Vabnormal temperature condition has sub
sided.
'
>
.ated to indicate that an abnormal temperature condition
exists at one of the substations. The alarms will con
For purposes of testing the operation of the central
alarm sta-tion circuit and reproducing therein the same
tinue to operate throughout the period of the abnormal
effects as would be created by an abnormal temperature
condition at any one of the substations such as the sub
station 30, a test switch 78 is connected in parallel with
temperature condition, through gradient fluctuationsY in
temperature and even after the abnormal temperature
the winding of Vthe solenoid relay 40. Upon closing of
condition has been corrected and until .the contact be
tween the bimetallic thermostat 31 and the magnetic 15 the test switch 78 a low impedance path is completed
between the terminals 52 and 53 of the secondary wind
Contact 32 is broken. Thereupon, the low impedance
path is interrupted, and the path through the winding of
the solenoid 40 is again completed and the alarm lamp
ing 14h including the conductor 17, the alarm horn 19,
the conductor 20, the contacts of the test switch 78, the
conductor 21 and the conductor 16. Accordingly, the
Specific operation and construction of the substation 30 20 winding of the solenoid relay 40 in the central alarm
station and the conductors 22 and 23 extending to the
will be better understood from the following considera
substationss are shunted so that a large current ñows
tions.
through the alarm horn 19 thereby causing an audible
As shown in FIGURE 2, in each of the substations,
signal toV be emitted. At the same time the solenoid
'such as the substation 30, the conductor 22 from the
central alarm station 10 is terminated on a terminal 61 25 Yrelay 40 is deenergized thereby completing the circuit be
tween the conductors 11 and 12 for illuminating the
common to the magnetic contact 32. The conductor 23
alarm lamp 13.
extending from the central alarm station 10 is terminated
Considering the circumstance where a power failure
in the substation on a terminal 62 which is connected
to the central alarm station is experienced so that the
by means of a strap 66 to a pivotal arm 63. The arm
13 and the alarm horn 19 are both rendered inoperative.
63 is pivotally mounted on an axis 64 and carries thereon 30 alarm system is inoperative for renedring abnormal tem
the bimetallic strip 31 having .a curved portion 31a and
perature alarms, provision is made for operating the
alarm horn 19 without illuminating the alarm lamp 13
'a straight portion 31b. Also mounted on the arm 63 is
toindicate the power failure condition. Specifically, with
the pilot lamp 33 supported at one of its terminals in a
a power failure the windings of the relays 40 and 70 are
clip 65 completing a conductive connection with the arm
63 and connected at its other terminal by a conductor 67 35 deenergized so that the contacts 21 and 71 are closed.
to the substation terminal 61. In this manner a circuit
Even though the contacts 21 are closed the alarm lamp
is completed from the conductor 22 to the conductor 23
13k is not illuminated becauseof the lack of power.' How
Y via the terminal 61, the conductor 67, the lamp 33, the
ever, when the contacts 71 are closed the previously de
support clip 65, the arm 63, the strap 66, and the ter
scribed circuit including the battery source 71 is com
minal 62, whereby the pilot lamp 33 is illuminated when 40 pleted across the alarm horn 19 and causes operation of
the central alarm station 10 is provided with _energizing
the alarm horn. Operation of the alarm horn 19 without
power. The arm 63 against which the free end 31b of
illumination of the alarm light 13 indicates power failure
the bimetallic strip 31 rests under normal temperature
to the attendant‘at the central alarm station and alerts
' conditions is arranged in the substation 30 with regards to
him that the fire alarm system is ineffective until power
the magnetic Contact 32 so as to be adjustable at various
is restored.
`
.
distances from the magnetic contact 32. Accordingly, 45 The structural details of the one type of solenoid re
the free end of the birnetallic strip 31 may be moved
lay employed in both the relay 40 and the relay 70 ofthe
between close and remote positions in regards to the mag
central alarm station 10 is shown in FIGURE 3. rThe
netic contact 32, presenting in the close position a con
solenoid relay structure shown therein is of the gravity Y
dition Where only a small temperature change is required
type >and includes a coil coreV 41 of insulated material
to complete the circuit between the bimetallic ,strip 31 570 joined at its ends to an insulator collar 42 and an in
and the magnetic contact 32 and presenting a condition
sulator collar 43, respectively, by means of a cylindrical
in the remote position where a relatively large change
conductive shaft 49 extending through the coil core 41.
in temperature is'required to complete the circuit. Cali
At the collar end 42 a circuit conductor 54 is inserted
brations may be provided as shown in FIGURE 2 where
intoV the cylindrical casing 49 and in conductive relation
by the substation'can be set to be responsive and to ren
der an alarm at Various different temperatures here shown '
to extend in a range between 85° and 200°. Thus,
assuming that the substation is set to`be responsive to` Y
a temperature of 200° as shown in FIGURE 2 and assum
ship therewith and at the collar end 43 a conductive screw
or plug 47 having a circuit conductor 55 connectedrthere#
to is inserted'in spaced apart relationship with the, cylin-V
drical casing 49. Carried in the cylindrical casing 49
between the conductor 54 and the -plug 47 Vand in the
ing a normal temperature of approximately 70°, as the 60 approm'mate area of the coi‘l core 41 is a conductive
temperature within the area of the substation 3_0 increases
to 200° the bimetallic strip 31 is graduallydistorted-'in
its portion 31a and along its straight surface to move the
free end 3111 thereof towards -the magnetic contact 32.
solenoid pin>46 slidable in the shaft with an insulating
„ture is above 200° and due to the magnetic attraction ’
49, the‘ solenoid pin 46 and the conductive plug 47. Y
pad 45 positioned between the conductor 54 and kthe
solenoid pin 46. The winding v50 is'carried on the coil
core
41 and when therwinding 50 is energized the sole
65
When the temperature of 200° or more is achieved, con
noid pin 46 is carried inthe casing 49' as shown in FIG
Vtact will have been completed between the metallic strip
URE 3 approximateV toV the; conductor 54. In this con
31 and the magnetic contact 32 so that a circuit _is com
dition the circuit between the conductor 54 and ther con-`
pleted between the conductors 22 and 23 via the termi
ductorV 55 is incomplete. When the winding 50 is de
nal61, the magnetic contact 32, the bimetallic strip 31, ' Y energized,
the solenoid pin 46 drops from its proximate c
the arm 63, the strap 66 andthe `terminal v62. VThe pilot 70
relationship to the conductor 54 and rests on ,the plug.47
lamp 33 is shunted and extinguished.- ',Accordingly, an
>alarm isV sounded at the `central alarm station 10. This . thereby completing-a conductive path between the-con-V
ductor 54 andthe Vconductor 55 v-ia the cylindnircal casing
circuit-is maintained completed as long as the tempera
e of-t'nemagnetic contact32 a good Circuit connection'will
An alternative structure for the solenoidrelays 40V and
assegna
5
6
70 employed in the central alarm station 10 is shown in
FIG. 4. The solenoid relay thereof is of a spring loaded
type and includes all of the structural elements of the -re
lay shown in FIG. 3 and in addition a helical spring 56.
relay and connected in series with the winding of said
second relay and said audible alarm device wherein a
substantial portion of the power in said series connection
is utilized in said second relay winding to energize and
In this arrangement a circuit is completed between con
to operate said second relay so that said audible alarm
ductors 54 and 55 by action of the spring engaging the
ldevice is not operative, and temperature responsive
means operative for completing a conductive path shunt
ing the winding of said second relay and of an impedance
low as compared to that of said audible alarm device,
wherein responsive to the operation of said temperature
pin 46 against the plug 47. However, when the winding
50 thereof is energized, the pin 46 is withdrawn from
Contact with the plug 47 and the spring 46 is compressed
as shown in FIG. 4 thereby interrupting the circuit be
tween the conductors 54 and 55.
responsive means a series conductive path is completed
through said temperature responsive means and said au
As previously explained, the windings of the solenoid
relays 40 and 70 are normally maintained energized so
that the circuits controlled thereby are normally incom
dible alarm device and the secondary winding of said
‘transformer and a substantial portion of the power in said
plete. In the case of relay 70, the winding thereof is
path is utilized in said audible alarm device and said
second relay is shunted and deenergized and rendered in
operative, whereby said visual alarm and audible alarm
deenergized in response to a power failure to the central
alarm station so that the contacts 71 are closed and the
circuit completed for operating the alarm `horn 19. In
the case of relay 40, the winding thereof is deenergized
in response to operation of the test switch 78 or an ab
normal temperature condition in one of the substations
so that the contacts 21 thereof are closed and the circuit
devices are operated.
2. The tire alarm system set forth in claim 1 wherein
20 said first and second solenoid relays each include a hollow
cylinder of conductive material for containing said sole
noid pin, an input conductor connected to said cylinder,
and an output conductor spaced apart from said conduc
completed for operating the alarm horn 19 and illumina
ting the alarm lamp 13. It is to -be understood that the
tive cylinder, said solenoid pin being dimensioned and
alarm lamp 113 is merely illustrative of a group of alarm 25 positioned so that responsive to energization of the relay
devices operative from the relay 40 and that fire doors,
said solenoid pin is retracted into said conductive cylinder
alarm sirens, remote indicators, etc. could also be op
and responsive to non-energization of the relay, said sole
erated under control of the relay 40.
noid pin is extended from said cylinder and completes
In view of the foregoing, there -has been provided here
conductive contact between said cylinder and said output
in an improved lire alarm system of simple and inex
pensive construction. Though the embodiment described
30 conductor.
3. The fire alarm system as set forth in claim 2 wherein
herein is at present considered to be preferred, it is un
each of said iirst and second solenoid relays is of the
derstood that variations and modifications may be made
gravity type wherein responsive to non-energization of
therein and it is intended to cover in the appended claims
the relay the solenoid pin falls into conductive contact
all such modifications and improvements as fall within 35 with said output conductor.
the true spirit and scope of the invention.
4. The tire alarm system as set forth in claim 2 wherein
What is claimed is:
each of said lirst and second solenoid relays is of the
1. A fire alarm system operative from a ñrst source
spring loaded type wherein responsive to non-energization
of power, a visual alarm device, a first solenoid relay in
of the relay the solenoid pin is pressed into conductive
cluding a conductive solenoid pin connected in a series 40 contact with said output conductor.
circuit with said visual alarm device and said first source
of power to complete a conductive path responsive to the
References Cited in the tile of this patent
non-energization of said first relay, an audible alarm de
UNITED STATES PATENTS
vice of an impedance low as compared to the winding of
said relay, a second source of power, a second solenoid 45
relay including a conductive solenoid pin connected in a
series circuit with said audible alarm device and said
second source of power to complete a conductive path
through said audible alarm device responsive to non-en*
ergization of said second relay, a transformer including a 50
primary winding connected to said first source of power
and a secondary winding connected in parallel with the
winding of said second «relay for energizing said second
651,325
1,146,637
1,729,137
1,780,202
2,044,256
Dorsey ______________ __ June 5, 1900
Massa ______________ __ July 13, 1915
Stalmach ____________ _„ Sept. 24, 1929
2,300,092
2,736,012
Martin ______________ __
Nothstine ____________ __
Baum _______________ _Bland et al. __________ „_
Nov. 4,
June 16,
Oct. 27,
Feb~ 21,
1930
1936
1942
1956
2,745,926
2,753,548
Mullally ____________ __ May 15, 1956
Gates _______________ __ July 3, 1956
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