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Патент USA US3036950

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United States Patent
,.
3,036,940
IC€
Patented May 29, .1 962
1
'
2
tent, lithium perchlorate is unusually soluble, as the fol~
lowing table will re?ect:
3,036,940
EXPLOSIVE COMPOSITION
David A. Fletcher, Redlands, Calif., assignor to Lock
heed Propulsion Company, a corporation of California
No Drawing. Filed Jan. 21,1958, Ser. No. 710,380
Grams dissolved in 100 g. solvent
Solvent
2 Claims. (Cl. 149--78)
111C104
This invention relates to improvements in, new and use
ful compositions of matter of the liquid or gel type suit
K0104
182.3
Explosives differ from ordinary combustibles in that
10
they contain both oxidizing and reducing features and re
NaClO,
0. 11
(1)
51. 4
105. 0
0. 01
0.01
(1)
14.7
_
79. 3
0.005
(1)
l. 9
Acetone ________________ _ _
156.3
0. l6
(1)
51. 7
Diethyl ether ____________ __
113. 7
insol.
(1)
lnsol.
, ,
___,
151.8
n-Propanol.
able for use as explosives and fuels for rocket motors.
NHrClOr
n-Butanol-_
(I)
4. 0
1 Solubility about like K0104.
quire no air or other supporter of combustion in order. to
react. These features may be both contained in the
Any combination of the above solvents or other active
same molecular structure, such as nitroglycerin or nitro 15
solvents or diluents such as low molecular Weight aliphatic
cellulose, or they may be combined as a heterogeneous,
nitro compounds, for example, nitromethane, nitroethane
multiphase system such ‘as sulfur-potassium nitrate-char
and dimethyl for-mamide, which exert solvent action on
lithium perchlorate may be employed. The choice of
In vall instances, shipment and handling has been a
or solvents may be governed by the particular
problem, as the prepared explosive is usually processed 20 solvent
usage or the desired degree of vigor of reaction.
and packaged prior to use, after which it must be shipped
The following speci?c examples are illustrative of com
to the location where it is to be used. Shipment and
positions contemplated by the present invention but in
handling are extremely hazardous.
no manner limit the scope of the invention:
Most liquid propellants are of the bi-propellant type
which consists. of two strongly interacting liquids, one an 25
Percent by wt.
(1) Anhydrous LiClO4 _______________________ __ 62
oxidizer and the other a reducing agent. These, when
combined under the proper conditions and ignited, burn
Methanol _______________________________ __ 38
coal, i.e., gunpowder.
rapidly with the liberation of much energy and gaseous
(2) Anhydrous LiClO4 _______________________ __ 15
products. Examples of such pairs are liquid oxygen/
gasoline, or red fuming nitric acid/dimethyl hydrazine. 30
These liquids have the disadvantages of requiring sep
arate storage tanks and needing complicated feed mecha
nisms, pumps, turbines, or pressurizing devices, and a
complicated thrust chamber. In the case of liquid oxy
Nitromethane __________________________ __ 70
______________________________ __ 15
Methanol
(3) Anhydrous LiClO4 _______________________ __ 35
Nitromethane
Methanol
____
35
______________________________ __ 25
Acetone
_
___..
5
gen, it cannot be stored for any extended period, because 35
Any suitable stabilizers, combustion catalysts or modi
of its low critical pressure.
?ers may be added as desired.
Another type of liquid propellant, used to a very limited
Compositions of the present invention, lithium perchlo
extent commercially, are the monopropellants, which are
rate-methanol solution, for example, when employed as
complete rocket fuels in themselves and which contain
monopropellants, provide higher energy than any other
both the oxidizing and reducing features. The present 40 monopropellant generally known in the art at the pres
invention is of this type. Examples are hydrogen per
ent time as shown by the following comparative data:
oxide, nitromethane, ethylene oxide, tetranitromethane,
or solutions of an organic material such as ethyl alcohol
Density,
Propellant System lbs/in.3
in hydrogen peroxide or tetranitromethane. They gen~
erally have the disadvantages of (1) low energy output, 45
e.g., hydrogen peroxide, ethylene oxide; (2) poor storage
stability; or (3) sensitivity to detonation, e.g., tetranitro
methane; or they may have all three disadvantages. Con
centrated hydrogen peroxide, 70-95 % pure, has been used
to some extent to provide auxiliary power for helicopters, 50
but it has comparatively low energy, and trace impurities
or contamination ‘may cause spontaneous detonation.
0. 050
150 max
0. 0412
173 ______ __
.
Remarks on
Stability 01'
Performance
7. 5
Unstable, low
7. 1
Detonates easily,
w.
impulse.
smoky exhaust.
Ethylene oxide- _-.
_
0.032
180 ______ __
5. 8
Stable but low
vol. impulse.
LiclOi-methenol
0. 0497
226 ______ _-
l1. 2
Stability of sol
solution (62%
concentration).
ute and solvent
excellent; ex
smoky, good
impulse.
Tetra 55
nitromethane, although capable of furnishing high im
pulse has thus far been too sensitive to detonation to
be used to any extent as a monopropellant.
0
Volume
Impulse
haust non
Nitromethane, while stable to ambient temperature stor
age, is low in energy and underoxidized to the point that
carbon smoke may appear in the exhaust gas.
Hydrogen peroxide
Nitromethane. _ _ __
I“, 1,000
Feed sys
Speci?c impulse, Isp, as used in the above table, is a
parameter used in rocketry for rating energies of pro
pellants and is the pounds thrust obtainable per pound
per-second or propellant flow under a given set of condi
tems for monopropellants are comparatively simple since
60 tions.
‘only one material is supplied to the rocket engine.
Volume impulse, which is the product of speci?c im
I have discovered that explosives and monopropellants
pulse and density, gives a rating of propellants per unit
may be prepared from safe, easily handled nonexplosive
of volume. Note that ethylene oxide has a moderately
constituents which may be shipped with safety to the
good speci?c impulse, but a low volume impulse due to
location of use, stored inde?nitely and combined in solu
its low density.
'
tion when use is desired. Speci?cally, my invention con
templates lithium perchlorate in a solvent solution, pref
65
Monopropellant compositions preferably should con
erably, low molecular weight polar organic solvents.
tain a nitroparaf?n such as nitromethane which improves
which are soluble in organic solvents to a very limited ex
formation may occur if nitromethane or other diluent is
not added.
?uidity yet allows the least reduction in speci?c impulse.
Such solutions, once prepared, may be readily detonated.
The
solubility of lithium perchlorate in methanol changes
Unlike other solid perchlorates, such as ammonium
perchlorate, potassium perchlorate and sodium perchlorate 70 considerably with temperature and precipitation or gel
3,036,940
3
I claim:
1. A liquid monopropellant composition which con
sists essentially of about 62% by weight of lithium per
chlorate in solution with about 38% of methanol. >
A
OTHER REFERENCES
Leonard: “Journal of the American Rocket Society,”
No. 72, December 1947, pages 10-16.
A
“Jet Propulsion,” Report prepared by the Guggenheim
2. A liquid monopropellant composition which consists 5 Aeronautical Laboratory ‘and the Jet Propulsion Labora
essentially of about 15-35% by weight of lithium per
tory, GALCIT, California Institute of Technology for the
chlorate in solution with about 35-70% of a lower nitro
Air Technical Service Command, 1946, pages 295-296.
para?in and about 15-25% by weight of methanol.
Lange’s Handbook of Chemistry, 7th ed., Handbook
Publishers,
Inc., Sandusky, Ohio, 1949, pp. 228-229.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
Tschinkel: Ind. and- Eng. Chemistry, vol. 48, No. 4,
UNITED STATES PATENTS
pp. 732-735, April 1956.
2,783,138
Parsons ________________ __ Feb. 26, 1957
i
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