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Патент USA US3037340

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June 5, 1962
3,037,330
C- G. WElGAND
AUTOMATIC GRINDING AND POLISHING MACHINE
Filed April 15, 1959
7 Sheets-Sheet 1
m mmm.
04/: mes G. WE/GAA/D
June 5, 1962
c. G. VVEIGAND
3,037,330
AUTOMATIC GRINDING AND POLISHING MACHINE
Filed April 15, 1959
'
'7 Sheets-Sheet 2
1*“
June 5, 1962
3,037,330
c. G. WEIGAND
AUTOMATIC GRINDING AND POLISHING MACHINE
Filed April 15, 1959
7 Sheets-Sheet 3
June 5, 1962
c. G- WEIGAND
3,037,330
AUTOMATIC GRINDING AND POLISHING MACHINE
Filed April 15, 1959
'7 Sheets—Sheet 4
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INVENTOR.
Cf/AELES G. WE/GA/VD
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June 5, 1962
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AUTOMATIC GRINDING AND POLISHING MACHINE
Filed April 15, 1959
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INVENTOR.
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June 5, 1962
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Filed- April 15', 1959
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Faterated June 5, 1862
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.
3,037,330
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AUTOMATIC GRINDING AND POLISHING
..
,
.
.
.
MACHINE
_
‘I
7,
Charles G. Weigand, Glencoe, Ill._. assignor t0 Fijdelitone,
Incorporated, ‘Chicago, ‘Ill; a corporation of Illinois
Filed Apr. 15, E59, Sen. No. 806,729
17 Claims. (CI. 51-50)
The present invention relates to automatic grinding and
polishing machines, and more particularly to such ma
chines adapted for grinding and polishing styli formed
an‘ automatic grinding and polishing machine of a com
bined hydraulic and pneumatic [means for reciprocating the
grinding wheel wherein the hydraulic means is rendered
ineifective when fast motion in either direction of the
grinding wheel is desired.
Further objects and advantages of the present inven
tion will become apparent as the folowing description
proceeds, and the features of novelty which characterize
the invention will be pointed out with particularily in the
claims annexed to and forming a part of this speci?cation.
For a better understanding of the present invention, ref
erence may be had to the accompanying drawings, in
phonograph records‘ and the like.
which:
In transducer assemblies for reproducingv sound from
grooved records the tendency in recent years has been 15 ‘FIG. 1 is a schematic perspective view of the automatic
grinding and polishing machine of the present invention;
toward using styli for-med of precious stones such as sap
FIG. 2 is a front elevational view of the automatic
phires and diamonds ‘which possess the desired hardness
grinding and polishing ‘machine of the present invention;
characteristics. vPreferably such diamond tipped styli are
of precious stones for use in sound reproduction such as
FIG. 3 is a top plan view of FIG. 2 with certain por
tions
cut away and effectively is a sectional view taken on
are oriented properly to assure the maximum hardness 20
united with a shank element so that the diamond styli
and the like of what will eventually become the tip por
tion engaging the record groove of a phonograph record.
An improved process of uniting a precious stone such as
line 3—6 of FIG. 2;
FIG.
“FIG.
FIG. 2
a diamond to a shank element with proper orientation of
the precious stone is disclosed in an application, Serial No. 25 FIG.
76‘0,5"13—Curcio, ?led September 11, 1958, and assigned
to the same assignee as the present application. After
the proper bonding of the diamond to the shank element
or other suitable holding means, it is necessary to grind
the bonded diamond to a predetermined con?guration to
provide a‘ record engaging tip, and the present invention
is concerned with improved apparatus for accomplishing
4 is a sectional view taken on line 4;‘!- of FIG. 2;
5 is a rear elevational view of the apparatus of
with certain portions thereof cut away;
6 is a sectional view taken on line 6-—6 of FIG. 2
but with the 'wheel dressing mechanism in actuated posi
tion;
,
_
FIG. 7 is a greatly enlarged sectional view taken along
line 7_—‘7 of \FIG. 6;
FIG. 8 is a fragmentary view illustrating the work-piece
held in the chuck and its relationship with the grinding
wheel;
‘
FIG. '9 is a schematic diagram of a control circuit for
this. It will be appreciated that such styli are very small
the automatic grinding and polishing apparatus of the
and to perform a grinding operation it is necessary for
the operator to view the grinding operation through a 35 present invention; and
microscope or other means for providing- an enlarged View
of the grinding operation during the grinding process.
Moreover, such apparatus must be completely free of
vibration and, ‘furthermore, should be automatic in opera—
tion so that the operator, with a vrninirnum of effort, may 40
be assured of obtaining a proper grinding operation and
polishing operation.
Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to
provide a new and improved grinding and polishing ap
paratus.
‘
It is another object of the present invention to provide
a vibration free grinding apparatus for grinding precious
stones such, as those employed in phonograph styli.
It is another object of the present invention to provide
a grinding machine with a movable carriage having auto
matic means for providing fast traverse at all times except
FIG. 10 is a view illustrating a closed circuit television
system associated with the grinding apparatus so the opera
tor may watch the grinding operation without the use of
a microscope.
Brie?y, the present invention comprises a support for
motor driven grinding and polishing wheels which may be
moved to a position for either grinding or polishing a pre
cious stone held in a chuck which is mounted for move
ment toward or away from such abrasive wheels.
The
chuck is mounted so that it will always be tangential with
the abrasive wheels, so that regardless of the wheel size the
grinding operation will be at the same predetermined
angle. A vibrationless mechanism is provided for recip
rocating the carriage supporting the abrasive wheels at
high speed when moving toward or away from the chuck
containing the tip but at slow reciprocating grinding or
polishing speeds during either the actual polishing or actual
grinding operations. The manual control means for sup
porting the chuck holding the item to be ground is sup
during the actual grinding or polishing operation.
It is another object of the present invention to provide
in an automatic grinding and polishing apparatus pneumat 55 ported on an air cushion so as to eliminate any error due
ic counterbalancing means in the mechanism supporting
to backlash or the like. Automatic controls are provided,
the item to be ground, and/ or polished thereby, to elim
so the operator in starting the machine must have his‘
inate any errors due to backlash in gears or the like form
hands free. These controls provide for slow speed recip=
ing a necessary part of the mechanism.
rocating movement across either the grinding wheel or
Still another object of the present invention resides in
the provision in an automatic grinding and polishing ma 60 the polishing wheel and high speed movement at all other
times.
chine of safety means whereby no interference between
Referring now to the drawings, the high speed grinding
the chuck for holding the item to be ground and the
apparatus
of the present invention is generally designated
grinding wheel can occur.
by
reference
numeral 20 and comprises a base or frame
It is a further object of the present invention to provide
21. For the purpose of preventing vibrations of the en
an automatic grinding and polishing apparatus for pre
cious stones in which the grinding wheels are automatically
dressed between successive grinding operations.
It is a still further object of the present invention to
vironment where the ‘machine 28 is mounted from reach
ing the machine itself, the base 21 is preferably supported
on a plurality of shock absorbers generally designated at
22. As illustrated, the frame or base 21 is provided with
provide an automatic grinding apparatus with tangential 70
a plurality of integral projections 21a, three being shown
feed whereby grinding wheel size is immaterial and grind
in
the drawings, for engaging the shock absorbers 22.
ing at any angle may take place.
3,037,330
3
4
These shock absorbers are preferably formed of steel mesh
and three of them are employed, one beneath each projec
tion 21a, so that the machine may readily be adjusted to a
level condition as by adjusting screws 24 threadedly re
ceived one in each projection 2111. As best shown in
FIGS. 3 and 4 of the drawings, two shock absorbers 22
atmosphere through conduit 44 so as to exhaust that end
of the cylinder. Exactly the reverse occurs when sole
noid 46, which might be termed the “left” traverse sole~
are employed at the right end of the machine and one at
the left end (FIG. 6). Lock nuts 25 associated with
noid, is energized, since under these conditions air from
regulated source 40 is permitted to enter the right end of
cylinder 36 through conduit 43, while the other end of the
cylinder is exhausted through exhaust 44. Thus, the se
lective energization of solenoids 45 and 46 will insure the
screws 24 are preferably provided. As will become ap
reciprocating movement of carriage 26.
parent from the description included herewith, the ma 10
With the arrangement described thus far the carriage
chine 20 is essentially a vibrationless' machine, but if
26 would move at high speed to the right or to the left
mounted in a manufacturing plant there is bound to be
depending upon which solenoid 45 or 46 was energized.
some vibration of the ?oor where such a machine is sup
In accordance with the present invention, however, there
ported, and the shock absorbers 22 are provided to elim
is employed the hydraulic cylinder 37 containing therein
inate the vibrations of any environment with which the 15 the piston 38 connected to the same piston rod 34. In
machine is associated.
order to provide slow or fast speed operation of the pis
Supported for reciprocal movement with respect to the
ton 38 as desired, the hydraulic cylinder 37 is
frame or base 21 is a slide assembly carriage 26 including
provided with a large solenoid controlled bypass
a guide means 26a provided for accurate reciprocal move
generally designated at 48, which bypass interconnects the
ment by suitable ways 28 de?ned in the base 21 or means
two ends of the cylinder 37 through a relatively large
secured to the base. A grinding wheel motor 29 is sup
passageway. This passageway is controlled by solenoid
ported on the slide assembly carriage 26, and the drive
operated valve 49 including the solenoid 50 having a
shaft of this motor extends through a suitable bearing
winding 50a. When the winding 50a is energized, the
housing 30 where the end remote from the motor may
large bypass 48 is opened, which means that hydraulic
suitably support a pair of abrasive wheels which may com
?uid contained in cylinder 37 can move freely from one
prise a grinding wheel 31 and a polishing wheel 32 ar
side of the piston 38 to the other so as not to provide any
ranged in parallel relationship and slightly spaced from
one another. The housing 30 encloses suitable bearings
to provide a substantially vibration-free arrangement so
that the grinding wheels 31 and 32 are driven without vi
drag on the piston 39. Additionally, the cylinder 37 in~
cludes a small controlled bypass 51 which, like bypass 48,
interconnects the two ends of the cylinder 37. However,
this bypass comprises a relatively small passageway with'
bration.
in which is included a needle valve 52 whereby the size
In an embodiment built in accordance with the
present invention, the motor 29 drove grinding wheel 31
of this bypass may be adjusted. Bypass 51 is always open
at some predetermined setting of the needle valve 52, and
when bypass 48 is closed it provides the desired selective
In order to reciprocate the entire slide assembly carriage 35 speed control of the piston 39. It will be apparent that
and polishing wheel 32 in excess of 5000 surface feet per
minute.
26 and, consequently, the grinding and polishing wheels
31 and 32, respectively, the carriage 26 is connected by a
when winding 50a is energized piston 39 will reciprocate
the carriage 26 at high speed regardless of the direction
reciprocating rod 34 to a pneumatic-hydraulic mechanism
in which it is moving, whereas when winding 50a is not
energized and bypass 48 is closed the movement in either
pneumatic or air cylinder 36 and a hydraulic cylinder 37 40 direction of piston 39 will be relatively slow and con
arranged in axial or end-to-end relationship. As best
trolled by the needle valve 52 in bypass 51.
shown in the somewhat schematic view of FIG. 1 of the
In order to make sure that diamond dust and the like
drawings, the rod 34 suitably connected to the carriage 26
removed during the ‘grinding or polishing operation does
is really a piston rod and extends into both of the axially
not deleteriously affect the piston rod 34, the portion
generally designated at 35, which comprises effectively a
aligned cylinders 36 and 37, actually passing entirely
thereof which moves into and out of the combined pneu
through cylinder 37 into cylinder 36. A piston 38 is se
matic~hydraulic motor 35, as is clearly known in ‘FIGS.
2, 3, 4 and 5 of the drawings, is enclosed within a protec~
tive rubber bellows or the like generally designated at 55,
cured to rod 34 within cylinder 37, and a piston 39 is se
cured to rod 34 within cylinder 36.
As clearly shown in FIG. 1 of the drawings, the air cyl
which bellows has one end thereof secured in sealed rela
lnder 36 of the combined hydraulic air mechanism is a 50 tionship to the wall surrounding the opening into the end
conventional pneumatic means including piston 39 for re
of the cylinder 37 as indicated at 56, while the other end
ciprocating the carriage 26. A suitable source of air
thereof is suitably clamped as indicated at 57 to the pis
under pressure, not shown, is preferably supplied to a
ton rod 34. Consequently, the portion of the shaft 34
pressure regulator unit 40 also shown in FIG. 2 of the
which moves into and out of the cylinder 37 is completely
drawings. The unit 48 preferably includes lubricating
protected from diamond dust and the like.
means for introducing some lubricant into the air supply.
It will be understood that the grinding wheel 31 and
This regulated air under pressure is supplied through a
the polishing wheel 32 are diamond impregnated abrasive
four-way valve 41 and a conduit 42 with one end of the
air cylinder 36 or through this valve 41 and a conduit 43
wheels which may be made of metal or a vitreous mate
rial. These abrasive wheels are essentially the same ex
with the other end of the air cylinder 36. The four-way 60 cept that there is a difference in the diamond grit size and
valve 41 is also connected to atmosphere through a con
duit 44. As illustrated schematically, the four-way valve
concentration thereof embedded in the metal or vitreous
material so that, in elfect, grinding wheel 31 might be
41 is a solenoid operated valve, and two solenoids 45
considered a coarse wheel whereas wheel 32 might be
and 46 having windings 45a and 46a are schematically in
considered a ?ne wheel.
dicated. From the above description it is apparent that 65
As illustrated in FIG. 2 of the drawings, the pressure
solenoids 45 and 46 control the movement to the right
regulator 40 is preferably provided with a pressure gauge
or to the left, as viewed in FIG. 1, of the piston 39 and,
58 furnishing ‘a continuous indication of the pressure of
consequently, of the carriage 26. Assuming that solenoid
the air supplied to the various portions of the machine 20
45 is the “right” traverse solenoid and controls movement
including the air cylinder 36 described above. The air
to the right of piston 39, it will be apparent that when 70 supply will be turned on before any grinding operation
solenoid 45 is energized the four-way valve 41 will permit
is to be initiated.
air from hte regulated supply 40 to pass through conduit
It will 'be appreciated that in any grinding apparatus
42 into the left end of cylinder 39, as viewed in FIG. 1
means must be provided for holding the object to be
of the drawings, and the four-way valve 41 under these
ground and polished during the actual grinding or pol
conditions will connect the other end of cylinder 36 to 75 ishing operation, which means must also be movable
3,037,336
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6
toward and away from the abrasive wheels. To this end
or belt guard 79 is a suitable chuck 82 for holding a
there is provided a work spindle assembly generally des
stylus element designated as 83 (FIG. 8). In accordance
with the present invention the spindle assembly 60 is so
designed that the stylus element 83 is substantially at the
axis of the pivotal means '70‘, which means that the grind
ing operation will in all cases be tangential to the grind-v
ing or polishing wheels 31 and 32, respectively, and con
ignated at 60 which, as best shown in FIG. 4 of the draw
ings, comprises a carriage 61 which is movable along a
predetermined axis speci?cally designated in FIG. 4 by
the reference numeral 62. Movement along the axis 62
results in movement of the carriage 61 towards and away
from the grinding and polishing wheels 31 and 32, respec
tively. The spindle carriage 61 is reciprocably movable
sequently is unaffected by the abrasive wheel size. Thus '
with the arrangement described above any size may be
along the axis 62' relative to a carriage support 63 which 10 employed for the grinding or polishing wheel without in
any way affecting the angle at which the device is ground,
the grinding always occurring tangentially to the wheel.
the spindle carriage 61 relative to the support 63 is con
is suitably supported from the base 21. The position of
trolled by a lead screw 65 (FIG. 4) to which is secured
the conventional manually adjustable handle 66. A
micrometer gauge 67 permits the operator to determine
the relative movement of the carriage 61 along the axis
62.
In accordance with the present invention, the lead
screw 65 has associated with the lower end thereof a
Furthermore, in a very simple manner the angle of cut
may be adjusted in a relatively simple manner. The bear‘
ings for the grinding spindle 80 are such as to insure
vibrationless operation. Preferably the spindle 80 is pro
vided with an indexing disk or scale, not shown, whereby
the operator may during a grinding operation hold the
spindle at some indexed position or positions such as for
pneumatic cylinder 69 which is connected to the source
of air pressure and speci?cally the regulator 40 at all 20 grinding pyramid faces on a stylus or the like. This
indexing disk or scale may be identical with those shown
times when the machine is in use. To this end a regulator
in Hille Patent 1,981,174.
4011 (FIG. 2) is provided for the cylinder 69 by means of
It will be appreciated that a stylus is a very small ele
which the air pressure to cylinder 69 is independently
ment and in order for the operator to know what is hap
controlled. A piston 68 associated with cylinder 69
pening it is necessary to magnify the view of the grinding
biases carriage 61 in a predetermined manner thereby to
operation which the operator sees. To this end there is
counterbalance the weight of the spindle assembly 69
mounted on the spindle assembly 60 or bracket 71 a
including the carriage 61 to take up any slack in the lead
suitable optic support 85 for supporting a microscope 86
screw 65. In other words, this pneumatic cylinder 69
which in an embodiment built in accordance with the
including piston 68 causes the spindle assembly 60 and
present invention was a thirty power microscope. Since
carriage 61 to be biased upwardly by the air pressure so
this microscope is mounted on the spindle assembly 60
that when manipulating the handle 66 there is positive
or the bracket 71, it is stationary relative to the location
feed against air pressure so that no change of position by
of the spindle 80 at any time, and once properly focused
virtue of slack in the threads in the lead screw 65 can
as by adjusting screw 88 it will remain in focus during
occur.
The spindle assembly 60‘ is supported from the carriage 35 the grinding or polishing operation. Suitable lamps 90
are provided which are supported as by lamp brackets 91
61 by the pivotal means designated as 70 (FIG. 4), so
from the bracket 71, so that when once properly posi
that the spindle assembly 66 may be adjusted at various
tioned to direct their respective light beams on the object
angles with respect to the carriage 61. To this end a
which is being ground and polished they will remain so
bracket 71, which may be cast integrally with other por
tions of the spindle assembly, is provided from which 40 regardless of the position of the carriage 61 relative to
the support 63.
certain portions of the spindle assembly, to be described
From the above description it will be understood that
hereinafter, are supported. This bracket 71 is pivotally
the grinding wheels 31 and 32 are reciprocably movable
mounted to the spindle carriage 61 about the pivotal
means 70. In order to secure bracket 71 to carriage 61
from a position such as shown in FIGS. 1, 2, 3 and 5 of
provided with a pair of diametrically opposed elongated
are to one side of the chuck 82 and the object 83 held
in any selected predetermined position, the former is 45 the drawings, where the grinding and polishing wheels
arcuate slots 72 through which extend clamping screws
73. By means of suitable nuts 74 the bracket 71 may be
supported at a predetermined angular relationship with
respect to the carriage 61.
So that this angular relationship can readily be deter
mined, spindle carriage 61 of the automatic grinding and
polishing machine 2%) of the present invention is prefer
ably provided with suitable indicia indicated at 75, as
clearly indicated in FIG. 2 of the drawings. A suitable
index mark 76 on the bracket 71 cooperating with this
indicia 75 permits the operator readily to see what the
thereby, to a position where grinding and polishing may
take place. Obviously, if the chuck 82 were moved
downwardly along the axis 62 ‘as viewed in FIG. 4 to a
su?icient extent, it would be struck by the grinding and
polishing wheels during their reciprocable movement.
For the purpose of insuiing that this cannot happen,
there is mounted on the support 63 a feed safety switch
93 which is connected in an electrical control circuit to
be described hereinafter. This feed safety switch 93 is
adapted to be actuated by an adjustable rod 94 supported
on the spindle carriage 61. Thus, when the spindle car
riage 61 is moved along the axis 62 toward the abrasive
particular setting is. This setting will determine the
wheels a su?icient distance which would cause it to inter
grinding or polishing angle of the object being ground.
The ‘speci?c setting of the device indicated in the draw 60 fere with the abrasive wheel 32, should this Wheel be
moved by reciprocating motor 35, rod 94 would actuate
ings is to produce a sixty degree angle, but this may be
adjusted to either a greater or smaller angle as desired.
In order to insure initial alignment of the parts of
machine 20 a suitable opening 77 is provided in bracket
71 which is adapted to receive a gauge, not shown, suit
ably secured on carriage 26 in place of the shaft of
motor 29.
Supported from the bracket 71 is a spindle motor 78
suitably connected by a belt drive, not shown, housed
within a belt guard ‘79 to a spindle 80.
In an embodi
ment built in accordance with the present invention the
spindle 80 was driven at 7200 r.p.m. The spindle 80' is
rotatable in suitable bearings housed within a housing 81
the feed safety switch 93 to prevent motor 35 from oper
ating.
The rod 94 is adjustable by being threadedly
mounted in an extension 61:: of the carriage 61. This
safety arrangement is useful in the setting up operation
when the object 83 is chucked in the chuck 82 of the
spindle assembly 60, since under these conditions the
operator cannot actuate the machine and cause the grind
ing and polishing wheels to move into grinding or polish
70 ing positions unless the spindle assembly 60' is so posi
tioned that no damage or interference could occur by
this relative movement between the abrasive wheels and
the spindle assembly.
For proper grinding operation it is desirable to supply
forming a part of this spindle assembly 60*. Supported
from the end of the spindle 80 remote from the housing 75 a suitable coolant to the object being ground so the bond
3,037,330
7
8
between the diamond and supporting shank is not broken.
This coolant preferably is supplied in mist form and com
ing 124 de?ned in the top of hood 103. Since two abra
sive wheels 31 and 32, slightly spaced from each other,
are disclosed in the drawings, the dressing stick 121 is
illustrated as comprising two separate sticks 121a and
prises a water solution of some sort which is atomized by
air. Accordingly, a tank 97 is supported from the base
21 as by brackets 95. This coolant tank is disposed in
an elevated position so that the liquid contained therein
?ows by gravity through a suitable tubular passageway
121]; (FIG. 7) which are secured together to move as a
unit but spaced in the identical manner as the abrasive
wheels 31 and 32. These dressing sticks may be made of
98 which might be a ?exible hose of some sort or the
pumice or similar material.
like. This coolant is supplied to a mixing area, not shown
In order to reciprocate the dressing sticks 121a and
in the drawings but which may be identical with the mix 10 121b as a unit, any suitable pneumatic or other means
ing area shown in Skriba Patent 1,715,574, where it is
may ‘be employed. As best illustrated in the schematic
mixed with air and atomized, from whence it is supplied
showing of FIG. 1, the stick generally designated at 121
to a suitable ?exible conduit 1100 to a nozzle 101 which
is reciprocated by a suitable pneumatic motor comprising
directs the atomized cooling liquid in the vicinity of the
a cylinder 126 and a piston 127. The cylinder 126 is
object being ground, as clearly indicated in FIGS. 1, 2
suitably mounted on support 122 (FIG. 7). The piston
and 3 of ‘the drawings. The supply of coolant is con
127 is secured to a piston rod 128, which in turn is fas
trolled by a suitable solenoid actuated valve, not shown
but which may be identical with solenoid actuated valve
tened to the dressing sticks 121a and 121.’: as indicated
nected to a suitable suction nozzle 104 so that diamond
source 40 is preferably supplied to the cylinder 126
through a suitable solenoid actuated valve 132 including
the solenoid 133 having a winding 133a (FIGS. 1 and 9).
Whenever the solenoid winding 133a is energized, a wheel
dressing operation will occur by virtue of the fact that
the pneumatic motor comprising the cylinder 126 and the
piston 127 move the dressing stick 121 into engagement
at 129. The air motor comprising cylinder 126 and pis
49, but the winding 102 of which solenoid (FIG. 9) is
ton 127 may be employed to actuate the dressing sticks
energized selectively during the operation of the machine 20 in both directions. As schematically illustrated in FIG.
as will be described hereinafter in connection with the
1, however, the dressing sticks may be actuated in one
circuit diagram of FIG. 9 of the drawings.
direction by suitable spring means designated at 130. AS
For the purpose of con?ning the coolant mist in the
there illustrated, spring 130' mounted within the cylinder
vicinity of the abrasive wheels and also to prevent the
126 normally biases the piston 127 and hence the dress
diamond dust from being dispersed throughout the sur
ing sticks 121a and 1221b to the nondressing position.
rounding atmosphere, the abrasive wheels are continu
When it is desired to cause a wheel dressing operation,
ously housed within a suitable hood 103 (best shown in
the pneumatic motor comprising the air cylinder 126 and
FIG. 6) suitably supported on the carriage 26. This
piston 127 is actuated. As schematically illustrated in
hood is provided at the rear with a suction opening con
FIG. 1 of the drawings, air from the pressure regulated
dust and the like is sucked away. Furthermore this suc
tion prevents the coolant mist from interfering with the
vision of the operator during a grinding operation. The
hood 103 is provided with a window 105 through which
the operator may view the grinding operation and also
to permit the chuck to enter in response to reciprocating
motion of the abrasive wheels. The hood 103 is further
more provided with an upper L-shaped shield 106 secured
with the abrasive wheels 31 and 32 as indicated in FIGS.
6 and 7 of the drawings.
thereto as by fastening means 107 so as to substantially
A suitable cooling liquid is preferably supplied during
prevent coolant from being thrown around by the wheel
into the operator’s face. A similar shield 108 is pro
vided for the lower end of the opening 105 which is also
the wheel dressing operation of the abrasive wheels 31
and 32, and to this end tank 97 containing a cooling
liquid is connected through a suitable ?exible hose 134
secured to the hood 103 as by fastening means 5109.
In accordance with the present invention there are pro
terminates at 137 in support 122 in the space between
vided adjacent the operator’s position two sets of control
switches associated with switch boxes 110 and 111, re
spectively. The box 110 includes a start button 113 and
a stop button 114, whereas the control box 111 includes
a grind button 116 and a polish button 117. These con
and a solenoid controlled valve 135 to a conduit 136 which
dressing sticks 121a and 121b. The solenoid controlled
valve 135 is indicated schematically in FIG. 1 of the
drawings, including the solenoid 140 having a winding
140a (FIGS. 1 and 9).
In accordance with the present invention the wheel
trol boxes 110 and 111 are mounted one on either side 50 dressing operation occurs each time the carriage 26 moves
of the grinding station and in order to start the machine
to the position shown in FIG. 1 of the drawings, which
the operator must press the start button 113 with one
should be at the end of a grinding and polishing opera
hand and either the grind button 116 or the polish button
117 with the other hand. This means that both hands
of the operator are required to be free of the machine
tion. Moreover, this dressing operation should be timed
so that no danger to the operator is involved. The con
trol boxes 110 and 111 are suitably connected to the ele
ments of the control circuit described in connection with
FIG. 9, and to this end suitable electrical conduits 118
and ‘119 are connected to the boxes 110 and 111, respec
tively.
In any kind of grinding operation it becomes necessary
to dress the grinding or polishing wheel, as the case may
be, and this is especially important in an accurate type of
for a short interval of time of the order of several sec
onds, which is all that is necessary. To this end there
is provided a suitable time delay relay of the thermal type
generally designated at 142 (FIG. 9 of the drawings)
which is connected in circuit with the windings 133a and
140a of the solenoids 133 and 140 controlling the move
60 ment of the dressing stick 121 and the supply of liquid
to the abrasive wheels 31 and 32, respectively. This cir
cuit is preferably energized each time the carriage 26
reaches the position indicated in FIG. 1 of the drawings,
and the time delay relay 142, having a bimetallic ele
grinding operation such as the grinding of precious stones
ment 1425, will then open the circuit after a time delay
for use as phonograph styli. In accordance with the 65 of several seconds, whereupon the wheel dressing opera
present invention there is provided an abrasive wheel
tion is terminated.
dressing mechanism 120 which is automatically rendered
In connection with the operation of the grinding and
e?ective at the end of each grinding and polishing opera
polishing machine of the present invention, it is desired
tion. This wheel dressing mechanism is best shown in 70 that under certain conditions the carriage 26 cause short
FIGS. 1, 2, 6 and 7 of the drawings. As there illus
reciprocating strokes of the grinding wheel 31 so that the
object being ground moves back and forth across the
‘trated, a wheel dressing stick generally designated at 121
is mounted for guided reciprocal movement in an elon
width of the wheel. This reciprocating motion should.
gated support 122 mounted on hood 103 as by a bracket
therefore, be of the order of the width of the wheel 32
123. The lower end of support 122 extends into an open 75 plus about 0.005 of an inch at each end of the stroke.
3,037,330
At other times during a polishing operation the recipro
cating motion should be across the surface of the polish
ing wheel and of a magnitude of the order of the width
of the polishing wheel plus about 0.005 of an inch at
either end. In order to automatically control the carriage
26 in this manner, a plurality of limit switches, speci?cally
designated as 151, 152, 153, 154 and 155, are provided,
which are suitably supported ‘from the base 21 at the
10
175a is preferably energized immediately upon deenergi
zation of winding 172a or, in other words, upon opening
of the switch 172 to the spindle motor 78, whereby the
chuck 82 driven by spindle motor 78 is immediately
stopped.
For the purpose of controlling the right and left tra
verse solenoids having windings 45a and 46a, respectively,
there is provided a suitable traverse relay generally desig
rear of the machine 20 as best shown in FIG. 5 of the
nated at 178, which relay is illustrated as comprising a
the schematic diagram of FIG. 9 and are designated by
member 17%, a normally open contact 17812 controlled
drawings. These switches are schematically indicated in 10 normally open contact 178a controlled by a switching
by a switching member 1791), and a normally closed con
tact 1780 controlled by the same switching member 179]).
The contact 178:: controls the right traverse solenoid 46,
opened when the carriage 26 is in the position shown in
FIGS. 1 and 5 of the drawings. It is used to terminate 15 while the contact 17% controls the left traverse solenoid
45.
certain operations at this time. This limit switch in
in order selectively to control the polish or grinding
cludes a contact 151a, which is closed when the carriage
operation,
as the case may be, there is provided a polish
26 is in the FIG. 1 position, and this contact is con
grind relay generally designated at 180, which relay in
nected across the power circuit in series with the time
delay relay 142 and windings 133a and 140a described 20 cludes a normally open seal-in contact-180a controlled by
a switch member 181a. It also includes a switch mem
above.
ber 1811) cooperating with a normally open contact 18011
The limit switches 152 and 153 are limit switches for
and a normally closed contact 180b, a switch member ‘18110
controlling the reciprocating movement of the carriage
cooperating with a normally open contact 180d and a
26 during a polishing operation, while the switches 154
normally closed contact 180e, and a switch member 181d
and 155 are limit switches for controlling the reciprocat
cooperating with a normally open contact 180]‘ and a
ing movement of the carriage 26 during a grinding opera
normally closed contact 180g. The polish-grind relay
tion. For the purpose of actuating these switches in ‘ac
the same reference numerals. Actually the switch 151 is
an end limit switch which is normally closed and is
cordance with predetermined positions of the carriage 26,
there are provided a plurality of cams speci?cally desig
nated as 161, 162, 163, 164 and 165 which actuate the
switches 151, 152, 153, 154 and 155, respectively. These
cams are supported on a suitable rod 157, which in turn
is supported from the carriage 26.
The cams may be
adjustably positioned along the rod 157 and secured
thereto to give any desired operation.
In order to understand fully the operation of the auto
matic grinding and polishing machine of the present in
vention, the electrical control circuit schematically indi
180 is indicated as normally biased to- the polish direc
tion so that when the winding of the relay 180 is not
energized the relay will be in the position for controlling
the polishing operation. When the winding 180* is en
ergized then the contacts will be actuated so as to con
trol a grinding operation. This polish-grind control is
indicated by suitable arrows immediately adjacent the
: relay 180.
The control circuit of FIG. 9 also includes a start relay
generally designated at 1813 including a set of normally
open contacts 184. This relay essentially is a seal-in
relay for the start button 113 and either the polish button
The corresponding parts of FIG. 9 are designated by the 40 116 or the grind button 117, so that immediately upon
actuating the necessary controls it will seal them in so that
same reference numerals as in the preceding ?gures of
even though the start button is released the machine 20
the drawings. schematically shown in FIG. 9 are such
will function automatically in its desiredpmianner.
elements as the grinding motor 29, the spindle motor 78,
One ‘additional relay is included in FIG. 9 generally des
the switch box 110 including the start button 113 and
ignated by the reference numeral 135, and it performs two
the stop button 114, the switch box 111 including the
functions. It controls the start and stop of the coolant
grind button 116 and the polish button 117, the cam actu
spray or mist during a grinding and polishing operation by
ated switches 151, 152, 153, 154 and 155, and the asso
controlling the energization of the spray solenoid 102i, and
ciated cams 161, 162, 163, 164 and 165, the feed safety
it also controls the high speed or fast traverse movement
switch 93, the sources of illumination such as the lamps
cated in FIG. 9 of the drawings will first be described.
90, the winding 45a of right traverse solenoid, the winding 50 of the carriage 26 by controlling the bypass valve 49
through winding 50a of bypass solenoid ‘50. It is gener
‘46a of left traverse solenoid, the winding 50a of fast
traverse bypass solenoid, spray solenoid 102, and the like.
As illustrated in FIG. 9 of the drawings, there is pro
vided a conventional three-phase source of power gener
ally designated as the spray and fast traverse relay 185.
As illustrated in the drawings, it comprises a normally
open contact 185a controlled by a switching member
ally designated by the reference numeral 170 which is 55 186a, a normally open spray solenoid contact 185‘b con
trolled by a switching member 186b, and a normally
connected through a suitable main switch 171 which con
closed fast traverse bypass solenoid contact 1850 con
trols all the electrical power to the apparatus. Whenever
trolled by the switching member 18611.
switch 171 is closed, the grinding motor 2% is energized.
The contact details of the limit switches 151 to 155,
The spindle motor 78 is not energized when the main
switch 171 is closed, since obviously the operator must 60 inclusive, are illustrated in FIG. 9‘ of the drawings. As
there shown, the end limit switch 151 has a single switch
be able to chuck and unchuck the object to be ground.
element controlling a normally closed power cutolf con
Consequently, the spindle motor 78 is periodically and
tact 1511b and a normally open dressing stick control con
automatically energized during the grinding operation,
tact 151a already described. The limit switches 152 and
and to this end there is provided a solenoid actuated
switch 172, including the solenoid winding 172a which 65 153 determine the limits of reciprocating movement of
carriage 216 during a polishing operation, while the limit
when energized closes the switch supplying power from
switches 154 and 155 similarly determine the limits of
source 170 to the spindle motor 78.
reciprocating movement of carriage 216 during a grinding
In order that the spindle motor may be stopped rapidly
operation. As illustrated the switches 152 and 154 are
upon deenergization of the solenoid winding 172a, it is
identical
and each comprises a single switching member.
preferably provided with a suitable brake 173 schemat 70
This switching member in the case of polish limit switch
ically indicated in FIG. 9 as comprising a brake drum
152 controls a normally closed contact 152a and ‘a nor;
173a rotatable with the spindle motor 7 8 and a cooperat~
mally open contact 15215, While in the case of grind limit
ing brake shoe 17%. The brake shoe 173b is actuated
switch 154 the switching member controls a normally
into braking engagement with the drum 173 ‘by a solenoid
175 including the solenoid winding 175a. The winding 75 closed contact 154a and a normally open contact 154D.
3,037,330
11
12
The polish limit switch 153‘ and the grind limit switch
155 are identical and each comprises a single switching
winding 45a through closing of contact 178b, and since
member controllng a normally closed contact, 153a in
the case of swtch 153 and 155a in the case of switch
155.
As illustrated in FIG. 9, the start and stop buttons
113 and 114, respectively, are mounted in a common hous
the fast traverse solenoid 50 has been energized the car
riage 26 moves at high speed to the right, as viewed in
FIG. 1 of the drawings.
(6) Such movement of carriage 26 causes end limit
switch 151 to close its contact 151b and to open its con
tact 151a.
,
ing 110. The start button 113 comprises two normally
The various operations which occur can readily be
open contacts 113a and 1131) controlled by switching
determined from the schematic diagram of FIG. 9 of
members 1136 and 1130!, respectively. The stop button 10 the drawings. Power to energize the start relay can
114 includes a normally closed contact 114a and a nor
readily be traced from one side 170a of the power source
mally open contact 11417 controlled by switching mem
bers 114C and 114d, respectively. The contact 114a is
the main power control contact, and when opened causes
immediate termination of the operation of the grinding
or polishing operation. The contact 11% is the spindle
motor brake control contact to insure immediate stopping
of spindle motor 78.
through the normally closed contact 114a of the stop but
ton 114, the contacts of the speed safety switch 93, con
ductor 193 to the contact 116b of‘grind switch 116, con~
ductor 194, contact 113a of start switch 113 and the wind
ing of relay 183 to the other side 17Gb of the source of
power. The energization of start relay 183 and closure of
its contacts 134 then bypasses the speed safety switch 93
The grind and polish buttons 116 and 117, respectively,
and seals in start relay 183 across the source 170a, 1701:
are shown in FIG. 9 as mounted in a common housing 20 through its own contacts 184.
111. The grind button 116 includes two normally open
contacts 116a and 11612 and a normally closed contact
1166‘ controlled by switching members 116d, 116a and
116]‘, respectively. Similarly, the polish button 117 in
cludes two normally closed contacts 117a and 117i) and
a normally open contact 1170 controlled by switching
members 117d, 117s and 117]‘, respectively.
Assuming now that the automatic grinding and polish
The circuit for energizing the fast traverse bypass sole
noid valve having winding 56a can readily be traced from
one side 17Gb of the source through the normally open con
tact 11312 of start button 113, conductor 195, fast traverse
bypass solenoid winding 50a, normally closed contact
1350 of spray and fast traverse relay 185 and conductor
1% back to side 170a of the source. The energization
circuit for the traverse relay 178 may be traced from con
ing machine 20 is in the position indicated in FIG. 1 of the
ductor 1701) of the source, through conductor 197, through
drawings ‘and it is desired to start a grinding or polishing 30 the Winding of the traverse relay 178, conductor 198, the
operation, the main power switch 171 is closed and the
normally closed contact 180g of the polish-grind relay
supply of air for actuating the various pneumatic motors
1%, normally closed contact 152a of limit switch 152,
and producing the atomized spray is turned on. The
conductor 199, contact 154a of limit switch 154, conduc
closure of the main switch 171 causes the grinding and
tor 200 and through contacts 184 of start relay 183 to
polishing motor 29 to be energized so that the grinding
side 170a of the source of control power. As soon as
wheels 31 and 32 are rotated at high speed. Closure of
traverse relay 178 is energized it seals itself in from con
the switch 171 ‘also supplies single phase power at con
ductor 197 connected to one side 17% of the power
ductors 170a and 17% which is fed to the control cir
source through its winding and its normally open contact
cuit through fuse 190 and where it energizes lights 90
178a, conductor 201, normally closed contact 180e of
through a transformer 191. The operator then secures an 40
polish-grind relay 180 and limit switch 153 to conductor
object to be ground such as 83 into the chuck 82 and
2% which is connected to the other side 170a of the
is now ready to start a grinding operation. If the spindle
source.
It should be appreciated that polish-grind relay
chuck is properly positioned so that it will not interfere
180, as will be described immediately hereafter, is also
with the abrasive wheels in their reciprocating movement,
energized, but this does not affect the energization circuit
the safety feed switch 93 will have its contacts closed as
of
the traverse relay 178 since switching members 1810
indicated in the schematic view of FIG. 9 of the drawings.
and 181d when actuated to the grind position close con
In order to start a grinding operation of the automatic
tacts 180d and 180]‘, respectively, each of which will com
grinding and polishing machine 20 of the present inven
plete an electrical circuit through limit switches 155 and
tion, the operator must simultaneously actuate not only
154, respectively, directly to the conductor 200.
the start button 113 but also the grind button 116. In
The energization circuit for the polish-grind relay 180
view of the positions of these buttons on the machine 20, 50
can readily be traced from the conductor 197 connected
it is quite obvious that the operator must use both hands
to one side of the power source through the winding of
to actuate them, thus providing an additional safety fea
the polish-grind relay 180, through the normally open
ture in that the operator’s hands must of necessity be
contact 116a of the grind button 116 and back to the
free of the machine. With all of the controls in the
55
conductor
20% which goes to the other side of the power
positions indicated in FIG. 9 of the drawings except that
source. Energization of the polish-grind relay 180 to
switch 171 is closed and the contacts of time delay switch
the grind position thereof causes switching member 181a
142 have been opened by the bimetal 142a, when the op
to close seal-in contact 180a thereby completing a seal-in
erator simultaneously actuates the start button 113‘ and
circuit for the winding of relay 180 from conductor 197
the grind button 116 a plurality of elements of the auto
matic machine 20 are actuated, as follows:
60 connected to one side 17811 of the source through the
winding of relay 180, seal-in contact 18011, normally closed
(1) The start relay 183 is energized to close its con
contact 117a of polish button 117 and back to conductor
tacts 184 thereby sealing in the power even though the
20% which is connected to the other side 170a of the power
start and grind buttons are immediately released.
source.
(2) The fast traverse bypass solenoid 59- has its wind
65
As the carriage moves to the right as viewed in FIG. 1
ing 50a energized so as to open the bypass 48 around the
hydraulic piston 38 thereby insuring high speed movement
of the carriage 26 as soon as it starts to move.
(3) The traverse relay 178 is also immediately ener
at high speed, the cam support 157 as viewed in FIG. 9
moves to the left (FIG. 9 showing a view of the cam sup
port 157 and associated limit switches similar to the rear
view shown in FIG. 5 of the drawings). Just before the
(4) The polish-grind relay 180 is energized so as to 70 leading edge of the grinding wheel 31 comes into position
so as to perform a grinding operation on the object to
move the switching elements 181 thereof in the direction
be ground, cam 164 engages limit switch 154. As a
of the grind arrow shown in FIG. 9 of the drawings.
matter of fact, by this time cam members 162 and 163
(5) The energization of the traverse relay 178 causes
have engaged their respective limit switches to actuate
immediate energization of the right traverse solenoid 75 them. but this has no effect on the circuit when the relay
gized.
3,037,330
13
1% is energized. The actuation of limit switch 154 opens
normally closed contact 1540 and closes normally open
contact 15412, which results in immediate energization
of the spray and fast traverse relay 185. This energiza—
tion circuit leads from conductor 200 connected to the
side 1701: of the power source through contact 1541) of
limit switch 154, contact 18017 of grind relay 180, the
winding of spray and fast traverse relay 185, through con
1d
edge of the wheel. During all this time the coolant in
atomized form will be‘ supplied within the hood 103
through nozzle 101.
When the grinding operation is completed, the opera
tor may decide to press either the stop button or the
polish button. If the polish button 117 is actuated that
causes immediate deenergization of the polish-grind re
lay 180 ‘by interrupting the energization circuit therefor
through normally closed contact 117a and the seal-in
ductor 204 to the conductor 197 which goes to the side
10 contact 180a of the polish-grind relay 180. This causes
17 0b of the power source.
the polish-grind relay to move to the position shown in
FIG. 9 with the result that the control of carriage 26 is
taken over by the limit switches 152 and 153 instead of
sulting in immediate deenergization of the fast traverse
the limit switches 154 and 155 which control the grinding
bypass solenoid winding 5011, resulting in the immediate
slowing down of the carriage 26. Secondly, it closes con 15 operation. As is obvious from the arrangement dis
closed in FIG. 9 of the drawings, the carriage 26 will
tact 135b with the immediate energization of the spindle
move toward the left as viewed in FIG. 1 until- the polish
motor relay 172, which causes the spindle motor 78 to
wheel is effective, and then it will reciprocate back and
be energized. The circuit for the energization of the
forth so that the object being ground just moves slightly
spindle motor relay 172a can be traced from side 170a
of the power source through conductor 196, normally 20 off each edge of the polish wheel.
When the polishing operation is completed or when
open contact 1851) of relay 185, conductor 2%, the wind
the grinding operation is completed in the event it is
ing of spindle motor relay 172a and conductor 205 to
decided not to polish following the grinding operation,
conductor 197 which goes to the other side 1701) of the
the operator merely actuates the stop button 114, which
power source. Simultaneously with the energization of the
spindle motor relay winding 172a the spray solenoid 102 25 does the following things:
(1) It deenergizes the start relay 183.
is energized. The circuit for the spray solenoid can be
(2) It deenergizes the spray and fast traverse relay
traced from side 170a of the power source through con
185.
ductor 196, normally open contact 18Sb of the spray
(3') The deenergization of the relay 185 immediately
and fast traverse relay 185, conductor 204, to the spray
deenergizes. the spray solenoid 1412 which cuts oif the
solenoid winding 1G2, and thence to the other side 1701b
Energization of the spray and fast traverse relay 185
does two things. First of all, it opens contacts 185e, re
of the power source.
It will be appreciated that not‘ only will the object 83
to be ground be rotated by the spindle motor 78-, but a
coolant will be supplied in spray or atomized form to cool
such object, and this occurs just as the object to be ground
approaches the leading edge of the grinding wheel 31.
Moreover, the carriage 26 is now moving at low speed.
coolant for the grinding and polishing operation.
(4) The deenergization of the relay 185 interrupts
the energization circuit ‘for the solenoid actuated switch
172 which deenergizes the spindle motor 78.
(5) The deenergization of the spray and fast traverse
relay 185 causes reclosing of contact 185C with the re
sult that the fast traverse bypass solenoid winding 50:: is
energized and movement toward the position shown in
The operator will manipulate the spindle carriage control
FIG. 1 of the drawings of the carriage 26 occurs at high
66 while observing the object to be ground through the
40 speed.
microscope 86 but not only until contact with the grinding
(6) The stop button 114 also momentarily closes its
wheel is made, but throughout the entire grinding opera
contact 114b, which causes immediate energization of
tion. The grinding wheel 31 moves so that effectively the
the brake solenoid winding 1750 resulting in immediate
object to be ground is moved across the surface of this
stopping of the spindle motor 78 so that the operator can
grinding wheel. As soon as the trailing edge of the grind
unchuck the object 83 being held by the chuck 82 with
ing wheel has moved past the object to be ground, cam
out injury.
165 actuates cam switch 155 opening contact 155a, which
(7) When the carriage 25 reaches the left end posi
interrupts the circuit through the winding of the traverse
tion shown in FIG. 1 of the drawings, the cam 161
relay 173 with the resultant de-energization of right trav
actuates end limit switch 151, which opens contact 151b
erse solenoid winding 45a, thus stopping movement to
the right of the carriage 26‘. The traverse relay 178 is
deenergized upon opening of contact 155a, since the en~
ergization circuit through contact 1813:! and conductor 231
is interrupted. Moreover, the energization circuit for.
traverse relay 1'78 through conductor 198 has already been
interrupted by a previous operation of the cam switch
154.
Thus, traverse relay 17$ closes its normally closed
contact 178e, which results in the immediate energiza
tion of the left traverse solenoid winding 46a through the
and interrupts the circuit to the left traverse solenoid
winding 46:: as well as the circuit to the fast traverse
bypass solenoid winding 50a, thus stopping carriage
movement.
(8) When normally open contact 151a of end limit’
switch 151 is closed, the dressing stick mechanism in
cluding the dressing stick solenoid winding 133a and the
dressing stick liquid control winding 140a are energized
so that the dressing stick performs a dressing operation
on the grinding and polishing wheel.
(9) ‘The thermal time delay switch 142 is energized
closed contact 15112 of end limit switch 151 with the 60 so that the bimetallic element 142a thereof operates to
result that the carriage 2d reverses itself permitting
interrupt the circuit through the windings 138a and 140a
limit switch 155 to reclose. When the reversal has oc
and terminate the dressing operation after a few seconds.
curred to an extent that the object being ground just
moves off the right or leading edge of the grinding wheel
31 as viewed in FIG. 1 of the drawings, limit switch 154
is released by cam 164 so as to return to the position
The operation of the automatic grinding and polishing
machine 20 of the present invention will readily be un
derstood in view of the detailed description included
above and no further discussion thereof is included
shown in KG. 9 of the drawings. This immediately re
herewith. It will be appreciated that there has been
energizes the traverse relay 178 through conductor 1%
provided a fully automatic machine which operates at
with the result that the left traverse solenoid winding 46a
is deenergized and the right traverse solenoid winding 70 high speed at all times except during the actual grinding
and polishing operation. Moreover, this operation is
45a is again energized. It will thus be apparent that
completely safe as far as the operator is concerned.
the carriage 26 will reciprocate back and forth at slow
It will 1oe-appreciated that instead of utilizing the mi
grinding speed so that the object being ground just moves
croscope
as the means by which the operator can view
back and forth across the face of the grinding Wheel 31
and perhaps ?ve thousandths of an inch beyond at each 75 the grinding operation, a closed circuit television system
3,037,330
16
may be employed, and in FIG. 10 of the drawings such
an arrangement is schematically illustrated. As there
shown, there is provided a unit generally designated at
220 which includes a pickup tube, video ampli?er, wave
form generator and a power supply. This unit would
be placed so as to scan the object being ground. This
6. A grinder for accurately grinding small work pieces,
comprising a pair of abrasive wheels arranged on a com
mon shaft in closely spaced relationship, motive means
for rotating said wheels at high speed, a base, a recipro
cating carriage on said base supporting said motive means
and wheels, vibrationless means for supporting said
wheels and motive means from said carriage, means for
unit 220 would be connected by suitable coaxial cable
reciprocating said carriage including a combined hy~
221 to a reproducing unit generally designated at 222
which would include the picture tube, scanning genera
draulic and pneumatic unit, a source of air under pres
tor, power supply and the like, and which would give 10 sure connected to said pneumatic unit to move said car
a large view as designated at 223 whereby the operator
riage at high speed in either direction, said hydraulic unit
could continuously watch the grinding operation. With
including a controlled bypass for producing a prede
termined drag on said carriage to reduce the speed of
such an arrangement it would be possible to provide re
movement thereof, a large bypass for said hydraulic unit,
producing units for a whole battery of machines in a
means for selectively controlling said large bypass effec
supervisor’s office or in a quality control division so that
tively to remove said predetermined drag, a second car
he would be able to watch the grinding operations of all
the operators in a factory.
riage for supporting a work holder, a manually actuatable
lead screw for moving said second carriage toward and
While there have been illustrated and described sev
away from the path of reciprocating movement of said
eral embodiments of the present invention, it will be
wheels, and pneumatic means for continuously biasing
appreciated that numerous changes and modi?cations
said second carriage in a predetermined direction along
will occur to those skilled in the art, and it is aimed in
the axis of said lead screw.
the appended claims to cover all such changes and modi
7. In a precision grinder, the combination of a ?rst
?cations as fall within the true spirit and scope of the
present invention.
movable carriage, an abrasive wheel rotatably mounted
on said carriage, a prime mover for rotating said wheel,
What is claimed as new and desired to be secured by
a second carriage movable at an angle transverse to the
Letters Patent of the United States is:
axis of rotation of said wheel, a work holder supported
l. A grinder for accurately grinding small work pieces,
by said second carriage for supporting a work piece,
comprising an abrasive wheel, motive means for rotating
means for producing relative movement between said
said wheel at high speed, a reciprocating carriage for
wheel and work holder effectively to cause movement of
moving said wheel, means for reciprocating said carriage
said wheel into grinding engagement with the work piece
including a combined hydraulic and pneumatic unit, said
supported by said work holder, and pivot means for sup
combined hydraulic and pneumatic unit including a hy
porting said work holder from said second carriage at
draulic portion and a pneumatic portion, and means for
selected predetermined angles for disposition of the work
effectively rendering ‘the hydraulic portion of said unit
ineffective when high speed movement in either direction to G1 piece tangentially with respect to said wheel, the grinding
surface of said abrasive Wheel being disposed on the piv
of said carriage is desired.
otal axis of said pivot means whereby Wheel size is im
2. The grinder of claim 1 wherein said combined hy
material.
draulic and pneumatic unit comprises a pair of aligned
8. In a device for performing a grinding operation, the
cylinders having a common connecting rod with a piston
combination of a ?rst movable carriage, an abrasive
in each cylinder secured to said connecting rod, the piston
wheel rotatably mounted on said carriage, a prime mover
of the pneumatic cylinder being operated from a source
for rotating said wheel, a second carriage movable at an
of air under pressure, a hydraulic ?uid in said other cyl
angle transverse to the axis of rotation of said Wheel, a
inder, and bypass means for selectively permitting said
work holder supported by said second carriage, means for
hydraulic ?uid to move freely from one end of said
other cylinder to the other end.
moving said wheel into grinding engagement with the
3. A precision grinder for small work pieces, compris
work supported by said work holder, means for pivotally
supporting said work holder for disposition of the work
ing an abrasive wheel, motive means for rotating said
held thereby at selected predetermined angles tangen
wheel, a reciprocating carriage for moving said wheel,
means for reciprocating said carriage including a com
tially with respect to said wheel, and means for rendering
bined hydraulic and pneumatic unit, said combined hy
draulic and pneumatic unit including a hydraulic portion
and a pneumatic portion, means for effectively rendering
the hydraulic portion of said unit ineffective when high
speed movement in either direction of said carriage is
desired, a second carriage for supporting a work holder,
said means for moving said wheel ineffective to move said
wheel if said carriage is in a position which would cause
interference between said wheel and said work holder.
9. A precision grinder for small work pieces, compris
ing an abrasive wheel, motive means for rotating said
wheel, a reciprocating carriage for moving said wheel,
and a manually actuatable lead screw for moving said 55 means for reciprocating said carriage including electric
second carriage toward and away from the path of re
control means, a second carriage, a rotatable work hold‘
ciprocating movement of said wheel.
cr supported on said second carriage, and a manually
4. A precision grinder comprising an abrasive wheel,
actuatable lead screw for moving said second carriage
toward and away from the path of reciprocating move
ciprocating carriage for moving said wheel, means for 60 ment of said wheel, said control means to initiate actua~
motive means for rotating said wheel at high speed, a re
‘reciprocating said carriage including a combined hy~
draulic and pneumatic unit, said combined hydraulic and
pneumatic unit including a hydraulic portion and a pneu
tion of said reciprocating carriage requiring both hands
of an operator thus insuring safety to said operator.
10. The precision grinder of claim 9 wherein means
matic portion, means for effectively rendering the hy'_
are provided to rotate said work holder and a microscope
draulic portion of said unit ineffective when high speed 65 for viewing the work piece supported in said work holder,
movement in either direction of said carriage is desired,
said microscope being supported on said second carriage.
a second carriage for supporting a work holder, 21 manu
ll. A precision grinder for small work pieces, compris
ally aetuatable lead screw for moving said second car
ing an abrasive wheel, motive means for rotating said
riage toward and away from the path of reciprocating
wheel, a reciprocating carriage for moving said wheel to
movement of said wheel, and pneumatic means for con~ 70 and from a grinding station and during a grinding opera~
tinuously biasing said second carriage in a predeter
tion, means for reciprocating said carriage including a
mined direction along the axis of said lead screw.
combined hydraulic and pneumatic unit, electric control
5. The grinder of claim 4 wherein said pneumatic
means including ‘a pair of manual actuating means for
means comprises a piston biasing said second carriage in
controlling said unit, a second carriage for supporting a
a direction away from said wheel.
75 work holder, and means for moving said second car
3,037,330
18
17
15. The device of claim 14 wherein wheel dressing
riage toward and away from the axis of rotation of said
means are supported adjacent said wheel and means for
wheel, said pair of manual actuating means requiring
rendering said Wheel dressing means momentarily effec
simultaneous actuation thereof to initiate operation of
said means for reciprocating said carriage, said manual
tive following each actuation of said stop means.
actuating means being spaced apart a sufficient distance 5
16. The device of claim 15 wherein a coolant is sup
so that simultaneous actuation thereof requires both
plied to said wheel during the momentary operation of
hands of the operator.
said wheel dressing means.
12. The precision grinder of claim 11 wherein said
17. In a device for performing a grinding operation on
abrasive wheel compirses a grinding wheel and a polish
precious stones, the combination of a ?rst movable car
ing wheel and said manual actuating means includes 10 riage, an abrasive wheel rotatably mounted on ‘said car
means for selectively initiating a grinding or a polishing
riage, a prime mover for rotating said wheel, a second
operation.
carriage movable at an angle transverse to the axis of
13. A precision grinder comprising a ?rst movable car
rotation of said wheel, a rotatable work holder supported
riage, a rotatable abrasive wheel mounted on said car
by said second carriage, means for reciprocating said
riage, a prime mover for rotating said wheel, motive 15 ?rst carriage and said wheel to a position adjacent said
means for moving said car-riage, a second carriage mov
work hoider for grinding engagement with the work sup
able at an angle transverse to the axis of rotation of said
ported by said work holder, and a microscope supported
wheel, a rotatable Work holder supported by said second
on said second carriage and movable therewith so as to
carriage, means for moving said Wheel into grinding en
remain in focus on said work during a grinding operation.
gagement with the work supported by said work holder, 20
means for rotating said work holder, means for pivotally
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
supporting said work holder to support the work held
thereby at selected predetermined angles tangentially
UNITED STATES PATENTS
with respect to said wheel whereby wheel size is imma
1,467,023
Willson _____________ __ Sept. 4, 1923
terial, and control means for said motive means to cause 25
said ?rst carriage to move at high speed in either direc
tion except when said work holder is directly adjacent
the surface of said wheel, said control means causing
said wheel to move back and forth automatically at slow
speed whereby work held by said work holder e?iectively
moves back and forth across the surface of said wheel.
14. The precision grinder of claim 13 wherein stop
means are provided to terminate said grinding operation,
and means included in said control means for automati
cally stopping the rotation of said Work holder upon ac
tuation of said stop means.
35
1,715,574
1,723,852
1,981,174
Skriba ______________ __ June 4, 1929
Haas _______________ __ Aug. 6, 1929
Hille ______________ __ Nov. 20, 1934
2,024,268
Bausch et al. _________ ..,Dec. 17, 1935
2,144,095
2,187,231
2,288,508
2,354,509
2,560,944
2,663,976
Z'wick _______________ __ Jan.
Frei ________________ __ Jan.
Arms et al ____________ __ June
Dreher ______________ __ July
Garrison ____________ _._ July
Jacoby ______________ __ Dec.
17,
16,
30,
25,
17,
29,
1939
1940
1942
1944
1951
1953
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