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Патент USA US3037354

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June 5, 1952
c. w. MORRIS
3,037,344
DEVICE FOR MODIFYING EXHAUST GASES FROM
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
Filed Feb. 23, 1960
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
J7
INVENTOR.
Cl/AQLES W Maze/s
Wm?”
June 5, 1962
3,037,344
c. w. MORRIS
DEVICE FOR MODIFYING EXHAUST GASES FROM
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
Filed Feb. 23, 1960
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
-7'
Gé A
2’
w”.,.,....,”.........
.
INVENTOR.
C/mez E5 W Maze/s
BY
?rroezvsys.
United States Patent 0
3,037,344
Patented June 5, 1962
2
1
be remembered that temperatures above 1200° F. are re‘
3,037,344
DEVICE FOR MODIFYING EXHAUST GASES FROM
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
Charles W. Morris, 11769 Chenault St.,
Los Angeles 49, Calif.
Filed Feb. 23, 1960, Ser. No. 10,405
14 Claims. (Cl. 60-30)
quired to cause combustion of carbon monoxide; temper
atures of 1500° to 2000" F. are necessary in order to ob
tain complete combustion of carbon monoxide. The ex
haust temperature (at the outlet of an exhaust manifold
of an internal combustion automobile engine) may vary
from 400°—600° F. during deceleration to about 800° F.
during idling, 800°~900° F. during cruising speeds and
reach temperatures of ll00°—l200° F. during accelera
This invention relates to a device for reducing the con
tent of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide oxides of nitro
gen and other noxious components in exhaust gases from
internal combustion engines, and for increasing the tem
perature of such exhaust gases suf?ciently to not only sub
tion. None of these temperatures are sufficiently high to
actually burn or cause combustion of carbon monoxide,
- Another variable which must be taken into consideration
comprises the volumetric ?ow of exhaust gases; the volu
metric ?ow is ordinarily low ‘during idling and decelera
to prevent condensation of the exhaust gases in the muf 15 tion but is high during acceleration and cruising. More
over, the pressure of the exhaust gases also varies within
?ers, thereby eliminating corrosion. The invention also
wide limits. The pressure of the exhaust gases is ordi
pertains to a compact, lightweight, inexpensive construc
narily low during idling and deceleration but is quite high
tion of a device which is free from numerous adjustable
‘during acceleration and cruising.
parts, is readily installed and is capable of eliminating
These varying characteristics of an internal combustion
those components generally attributed as the primary 20
engine and its exhaust gases present problems which have
cause of air contamination, such contamination being
been deemed insurmountable heretofore. As previously
commonly referred to as smog.
indicated prior attempts have involved such complicated
Studies have established that the contamination of the
systems and such material modi?cations of the normal
atmosphere in and around metropolitan centers is pri
marily due to the presence of hydrocarbon gases. It has 25 carburetors, cooling systems etc. as to render the prior
devices totally unacceptable. A device capable of being
also been established that the major contributing‘cause
used on millions of automobiles and trucks must be sirn~
to such atmospheric pollution is the tremendous volume
ple and effective Without the necessity of employing an
of hydrocarbon gases and carbon monoxide discharged
engineer to operate the device; the average owner of an
into the atmosphere from the exhausts of automobiles and
automobile is not in position to spend a large sum of
other vehicles driven by internal combustion engines.
money upon a device of a complicated nature requiring
During idling and deceleration the exhaust gases carry
hours of labor in order to adapt and install the device to
very large quantities of hydrocarbons and of car
his vehicle.
bon monoxide; during acceleration and at ordinary
The present invention is directed to a device which may
cruising speeds the hydrocarbon content of the gases
ject them to substantially complete combustion but also
is not excessive. In metropolitan areas the progress 35 be installed not only on new vehicles but also on cars
and trucks now in service. It is to be remembered that
of an automotive vehicle is a succession of idling pe
for every new automotive vehicle there are approximately
riods interspersed with bursts of acceleration and peri
seven vehicles of older vintage now in service and it is
ods of rapid deceleration; as a result, extremely large
quantities of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon vapors
are discharged into the atmosphere. Research has shown
essential that these older vehicles be equipped with de
vices which correct, ameliorate and render innocuous the
that during deceleration as high as 55%-60% of the fuel
is actually pumped out of the exhaust system in an un
burned condition.
The extremely detrimental effects of this smog upon
vention is therefore directed to a device which is readily
attached to automobiles and trucks now in service; it is
exhaust gases being discharged thereby. The present in
directed to a small compact device which does not re
the health of the population, animals, vegetable growth, 45 quire modi?cation of existing vehicles. The invention is
directed to a device which is capable of effectively de
visibility etc. has become evident to almost all of the in
habitants of a metropolitan area. Many attempts have
been made to minimize the effects of this smog. Many
attempts have been made to modify the ‘gases discharged
from the exhausts of internal combustion engines, but 50
prior attempts in this direction have involved compli
cated arrangements, the utilization of catalysts, and other
expensive installations which are neither feasible nor
7 practical.
The ?exibility of an internal combustion engine intro
duces a number of problems. The operating conditions
of an internal combustion engine may be classi?ed as
idling, deceleration, acceleration and cruising speeds; the
stroying or minimizing'the hydrocarbon and carbon mon
oxide content of exhaust gases from internal combustion
engines without requiring periodic charging with fresh
catalyst or regeneration of catalyst.
The present invention furthermore is directed to a
device in which operative temperatures are rapidly reached
so that the device operates effectively in a period of time
which is shorter than that required for the usual water
jacket temperatures to reach optimum. It relates to a
device that can be manufactured economically in large
quantities, sold at a reasonable price and installed by
any mechanic without di?iculty. It does not require the
hydrocarbon content of exhaust gases varies greatly under
attachment to or interference with carburetors or cooling
exhaust gases is high whereas during acceleration and
cruising the hydrocarbon content is relatively low. An
average internal combustion engine of the character used
of the present invention of a different size for internal
these ‘different operating conditions. For example, during 60 systems. It does not impose a drain upon the electrical
system of a vehicle. It is not necessary to have a device
idling and deceleration the hydrocarbon content of the
combustion engines which differ in volumetric displace
ment by as much as 100%; the same device can be ad—
in an automobile may carry 400 p.p.m. of hydrocarbons 65 justed and effectively used on either a four-cylinder, six
in its exhaust during idling. This may drop to 200 p.p.m.
during acceleration and cruising but during deceleration
cylinder or eight-cylinder engine.
One of the objects of the present invention is to dis
close and provide a small, compact, inexpensive device
the hydrocarbon content of the gases being exhausted may
which may be readily attached not only to new internal
readily reach 5500 p.p.m. Similarly, the carbon mon
oxide content of the exhaust gases may vary from 6% 70 combustion engines and vehicles employing the same but
which can also be readily adapted and attached to existing
during idling, to 21/2% during acceleration, to 0.5% dur
vehicles employing internal combustion engines for the
ing cruising and rise to 4% during deceleration. It is to
3,037,344
purpose of reducing the hydrocarbon and carbon mon
oxide content of exhaust gases discharged from said
4
equipment, for example, in the position indicated by dash
engine.
lines at 10'.
Another object of this present invention is to disclose
and provide a small compact and simple device which
does not employ catalysts and in which operative tem
peratures are rapidly reached so that the major propor~
tion of carbon monoxide contained in the exhaust gases
may be consumed and burned, the temperature of the
exhaust gases being thus increased suf?ciently so as to
prevent condensation of exhaust gases in the mufflers of
about one-third of a cubic foot of space, and such small
volume can be readily installed in a number of positions
the vehicles, thereby increasing the life of such mu?lers.
The entire device 10 occupies not more
than one-half cubic foot of space and generally only
along the exhaust pipe 4 between the exhaust manifold
2 and the muffler 5.
Although a device embodying the mode of operation
of the present invention may assume many forms and
modi?cations, the exemplary form shown in FIGS. 2,
3 and 4 is simple, effective and illustrates the teachings
of this invention. My device, generally indicated at 10,
A still ‘further object of the invention is to disclose and
includes a hollow connector ?tting 12 which may be
provide a device capable of burning exhaust gases with
made of two stamped metal halves, each provided with
air added in approximate accordance with variation in the 15 ?anges 13 and 13’ the ?anges being connected (as by
hydrocarbon content of said gases under different operat~
spot welding) to make the connector sufficiently rigid.
ing conditions of the engine, such variation being ac
One end of ?tting 12 is provided with port 14 for con
complished automatically and without the use of com-.
nection to a source of exhaust gases, as an exhaust mani
plicated or expensive machinery or instrumentation.
fold; a side port ‘15 directs such incoming gases into
Again an object of the present invention is to disclose 20 the device 10; lower port 16 constitutes an outlet for
and provide a device for modifying the hydrocarbon and
treated gases and such outlet port 116 is generally con
carbon monoxide content of exhaust gases from an in
nected to the exhaust pipe leading to a muffler of cus
ternal combustion engine, a device of substantially the
tomary construction. It is to be understood that ad
same size being adaptable to internal combustion engines
jacent the ports 14 and 16 the ?tting may be provided
which differ in volumetric displacement by as much as 25 with ?anges, adapters or other expedient means for at
100%.
taching the ?tting to pipe of different diameters, ?anged
Moreover, the present invention is directed to a device
manifold parts, etc. Such expedients are within the skill
for modifying and correcting the hydrocarbon and carbon
monoxide content of exhaust gases of internal combus
tion engines, the device being inexpensive and capable
of being readily installed by any mechanic without diffi
culty.
These and various other objects, uses and advantages
of the present invention will become apparent to those
skilled in the art from the following detailed description
of certain exemplary forms that this invention may as
sume in actual practice. In order to facilitate under
standing, reference will be had to the appended drawings
in which:
FIG. 1 is a diagrammatic side view of ‘an internal
combustion engine and its exhaust system equipped with
one form of my device;
FIG. 2 is an enlarged axial section taken through one
form of device of the character illustrated in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a transverse section taken along the broken
plane *III—~III in FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is a partial section taken along the plane IV—IV
in FIG. 2;
FIG. 5 is a simpli?ed drawing illustrating a modi?ed
form of device, which may be factory installed on new
automobiles.
_
FIG. 6 is a partial section of another form of device,
as a part of an exhaust manifold, including means for
converging fumes from a crankcase into the device.
FIG. 7 is a still further modi?cation.
The ease with which the device of the present inven
tion may be installed in a conventional internal combus
of a mechanic.
It may be noted that an externally extending, headed
connector bead 17 is circularly arranged around port 15
in order to facilitate attachment of device 10 to such
port. Moreover, the ?tting 12 is provided ‘with a cylin
drical guide 18 which is coaxial with port 15. The guide
18 may carry a ?ange 1,9‘ which acts as a limit stop for an
unbalanced butter?y valve 20, carried by pivot axis 21.
The valve 20 and ?ange or stop 19 normally guide ex
haust gases ‘from port 14 to port 15 during idling and
deceleration, the valve being in the position shown in
full lines. The valve is biased into‘ this full line posi
tion by a spring or an adjustably positionable weight W
on arm 22 connected to pivot pin 21.
The end of arm
22 opposite the weight may be pivotally connected at 23
to link 24 which is, in turn, pivotally connected at 25
to crank 26.
Crank 26 is mounted on one end of rod
27 (which is journaled in the side walls of the connector
?tting), the rod 27 having an eccentric actuating pin 28.
The operation and utility of this arrangement will become
apparent subsequently.
The main portion of device ‘10 is virtually conical in
longitudinal section and circular in transverse section.
Centrally ‘disposed within the device is a burner member
de?ning and enclosing a burner chamber 34; the burner
member is substantially conical and comprises an im
perforate conical wall portion 35 adjacent the smaller
55 open outlet end 36 and an enlarged conical end portion
having the ported wall portion 37. A cylindrical exten
sion 38, connected to wall portion 35, carries gases from
tion engine-exhaust system is exempli?ed by FIG. 1.
the open outlet port into ?tting 12, the cylindrical ex
As there shown, the internal combustion engine‘ 1 is pro
tension 38 being slidably received in guide 18. The en
vided with the usual exhaust manifold 2 having an ex
larged end of the burner chamber 34 is closed ‘by means
haust outlet 3. Ordinarily such exhaust outlet is con~ 60 of a transverse partition 40 attached to the housing 41.
nected as ‘by means of a pipe 4 with a mu?ler 5. The
In the form of ‘device illustrated, the housing 41 is
present device, generally indicated by the numeral 10,
shown as being ‘double-walled and including an inner
is attached to and interposed between the exhaust muffler
wall 42 and an outer wall 43, these walls being in spaced
2 and the exhaust pipe 4. A portion of the normal ex
relation. Inner wall member ‘42 may be formed as by
65
haust pipe 4 may be cut away and means provided for
spinning from tubular or conical stock, carries the trans
attaching the device 10 so as to be‘ in the path of the
verse portion 40 at its enlarged end and is partitioned
normal exhaust gases ‘from the manifold. Such installa
by attaching the smaller end to headed connector 17 ad
tion may be accomplished by any mechanic and by the
jacent port 15. The inner surface of housing wall mem
use of suitable adapters, variations in diameter of exhaust
ber 42 is in spaced relation to the outer surface of the
pipe, etc., may be readily compensated for. The presence‘ 70 smaller imperforated wall portion 35 of ‘the burner mem
of auxiliary equipment to the side of the internal com
ber and cooperates therewith to provide an annular gas
bustion engine 1 (such as generators, batteries, etc.) does
intake and venturi throat 45 around the outlet end of
not interpose an obstacle since the device 10 may be
the burner member. The included angle of conical wall
placed in different position so as to avoid such auxiliary
portion 35 of the burner member is smaller (say 40°-46°)
3,037,344
5
6
so that gases admitted through annular inlet 45 and the
venturi throat pass into an enlarged expansion di?usion
and preheating chamber '46. The larger and outer end
device air intake 47 is always open and ports v49 are al
ways open and of constant cross section. Means ‘are also
provided to vary the proportion of ‘air sucked mto the
portion of housing wall member 42 may be cylindrical
and is in contact with the marginal large end portion of
the burner member, thus directing gases from the diifu~
haust gases through the venturi. This inverse relation
exhaust gases inversely with respect to the ?ow of ex
ship is not mathematically perfect, ‘but is an approxima
tion; the means of this invention permit addition of air
in approximate accordance with the variation in hydro
portion 37 into the burner chamber 34. Partition 40 car
carbon content of the supplied gases under diiferent op
ries a spark plug '50 (or other igniting means) extending
10 erating conditions of an engine. Again attention is drawn
into the burner chamber.
to average automobile engine exhausts. ‘During accelera
Outer housing wall member ‘43 may be formed in two
tion we have high volume gas ?ow and only about 200
halves which may be joined along an axial plane by spot
ppm. of hydrocarbons in the exhaust gases. During
welding outstanding parting plane ?ns or in any other
deceleration we have low volume gas ?ow and 5000-5400
suitable manner. The smaller, inner end of wall member
43 may grasp connector 17 or be connected to ?tting 12 15 ppm. of hydrocarbons.
In accordance with the mode of operation of my
in any other manner. The outer end of housing member
invention, the device can be regulated and controlled
43 is provided with an air intake port 47. The outer
and the hereinabove inverse relationship can be obtained
housing member 43 is spaced [from the inner wall mem
by by-passing some exhaust gases or by controllable
ber '42 and air from intake port 47 may ?ow through ‘such
relative movement between the housing and burner mem
space between the walls to the annular chamber 48
ber. In the form illustrated, the burner member (and
formed around the venturi throat 45 and be discharged
particularly imperforate wall 35 thereof) can be moved
into the stream of gases passing at high velocity through
axially with respect to the housing wall member 42 to
such throat through a plurality of spaced ports 49 ‘of
effectively vary the width of the throat of the annular
constant cross section. Suitable spacing between hous
venturi and thereby, by increasing the throat width, larger
ing wall member 42 and 43 may be established by scat
sion and preheating chamber 46 through the ported Wall
tered inwardly extending deformations in Wall member 43,
use of spacing pins etc.
A protective weather cap 51, having a large opening
in one side may be carried at the air intake port 47. The
entire housing is preferably covered with high~ternpera
ture heat insulation 52 (such as matted glass ?ber or
asbestos) and an external layer of rigidized metal ‘foil 53
(metal foil and wire mesh).
lFrom the description given, it will be observed that
volumes of exhaust gases can pass therethrough and a
smaller relative proportion of air will be added thereto.
When the throat width is reduced, smaller volume of
gases may pass therethrough at the same velocity, so
that a larger proportion of air is added to such gases.
Movement of the elements with respect to each other
to attain the bene?ts of this invention may be produced
in a number of di?erent ways.
Such movement may or
may not be accompanied by a bypassing of proportion
of exhaust gases directly into the usual muf?er system,
hot exhaust gases from an internal combustion engine
thereby reducing the load on my device. Such axial
admitted through port 14 of the ?tting will pass through
movement may be imparted to the burner member of my
the annular port 45 into the throat of the venturi and air
invention by volumetric changes of a temperature sensi
(admitted through intake 47 into annular chamber 48)
tive device responsive to temperature variations in the
will be sucked in preheated form through ports '49 into
such stream of exhaust gases. This mixture of gases is 40 exhaust gases being discharged by the internal combus
tion engine, or by a pressure-sensitive device responsive
mixed and further heated in di?usion chamber 46 and
to pressure change in such exhaust gases (note: exhaust
their velocity is greatly reduced by the time the mixture
gas pressures during acceleration and cruising are ?ve
passes through the burner chamber 34. The mix-ture is
to
ten times as great as during idling and deceleration),
ignited by the spark plug 50 in the burner chamber and
or by devices sensitive to variations in volumetric flow, or
is discharged through the relatively small outlet 36 into
the ?tting and out the outlet port 16. It is not necessary
to use ?ame arresters in the burner chamber since the
by a combination of devices.
In the device of FIGS. 2-4, the cylindrical extension
38 is provided with a medial ?n 30 having a notch 29
volume is su?icient to reduce the velocity of the gases
(in the upper and larger end of the chamber) to below
?ame-propagation velocity.
through which eccentric 28 extends. During accelera
tion and cruising, or whenever high ?ow and high pres
In order to facilitate the maintenance of high tempera
tures within the burner under di?Ferent operating condi
tions and enhance heat exchange, a piece of expanded
metal lath or other arrangement of heat resisting metal
or alloy (having mass but not o?ering resistance to ?ow
sure conditions exist in the exhaust gases supplied to port
14, unbalanced or biased valve 20 will move into partly
open position and such movement is translated (by link
24, arm 26 and eccentric 28) into axial movement of the
burner member, such movement increasing the width of
of gases therethrough) may be placed in and across the
burner chamber 34 to contact the larger end walls of
the venturi throat and thereby reducing the proportion
of air sucked into the gases traversing such throat.
Simultaneously, a portion of the incoming exhaust gases
are caused to bypass the device, the partially open valve
covered portion 35, such metal liberating radiant heat and
enhancing mixing of the gases.
permitting some gases to pass directly from inlet 14 to
Exhaust gases from an internal combustion engine 60 outlet 16.
which is under cruising load or which is accelerating are
The width of the throat in the venturi varies (during
at relatively high temperatures (800°—1200° F.) and con
operation) by less than 0.1 inch and is preset for mini
tain relative low proportions of hydrocarbons and carbon
mum width and optimum e?iectiveness, which may be on
monoxide. A very small proportion of air need be ‘added
the order of only 0.040—0.050 inch. Such minimum set
to such exhaust gases, which will be supplied to the de
ting can be readily obtained by a Vernier stop such as set
vice in relatively high volume and pressure. During idling
screw 31 threadedly held in the threaded bore of an insert
and deceleration exhaust gases are at lower temperatures
32 carried by the wall of ?tting 12. The conical end 33
(400°-80Q° 1F.), are supplied in lower volume and at
of the set screw acts as an adjustable stop against the end
low pressures but carry a high proportion of hydrocar
of ?n 30.
bons and a large proportion of air need be mixed there 70
It is to be understood that the spark plug is connected
with to assure combustion. Means are provided whereby
to the electrical system of the engine and is energized
an adequate amount of air is admitted at all times to
whenever the ignition system is turned on. The burner
maintain combustion in the burner chamber under all en
member and at least the inner wall member of the hous
gine load and operating conditions, by maintaining an air
ing is made of heat-resisting metal or alloy since tem
intake of constant cross-sectional area. In the illustrated 75 peratures as high as 2000° F. are reached in the cham
3,037,344
7
her 34. Nickel alloys or chrome-treated steel have been
found effective. The device may be placed in any de
sired position; it occupies less than one-half cubic foot
of space (for automobile engine use). Effective treat
ment of exhaust gases can require the addition of from
two to ?ve cubic feet of air per minute.
Devices embodying the heat-exchange relationships
and mode of operation of this invention may take many
forms. In simpli?ed form, the conical combustion cham
ber is located in an optimum position of venturi clear»
ance and the opening of the bypass valve under in?uence
of the higher pressures induced by higher exhaust gas
flows prevents the introduction of excessive amounts of
air at the venturi in relation to the total exhaust ?owing
from the engine.
This arrangement also makes the ven
turi sensitive to providing adequate air induction at low
exhaust gas flows without serving as a block to high ex
haust gas flow condition and impairing engine perform
ance.
FIG. 5 shows this arrangement.
When made
8
Each of the rods 61v may extend into the manifold and
act as a fulcrum point 62‘ for a lever 63‘ which is also
pivotally connected at a pivot pin support /64 ‘to cage 58,
the inner end of the lever being forked and grasping an
annular bead or ?ange 651 carried by the outer surface of
the cylindrical extension of the burner member. Ful
crum 64 .should be closer to the forked end than to the
?xed pivot 62‘.
In operation, the device of FIG. 6‘ causes all exhaust
gases to pass through the venturi during low gas pressure,
idling or deceleration conditions. During acceleration
(or while running under load) the bellows expands and
raises the housing and cage 58% thereby bypassing some
exhaust gases directly into the manifold outlet.
Levers
63 simultaneously move the inner burner member with
respect to the housing so as to increase the effective width
of the venturi, for purposes and with the results herein
before explained.
Fumes and gases are usually discharged from a crank
as an integral part of a new engine or automotive sys— 20 case through the oil ?lling aperture.
During accelera
tem, the device may assume the form illustrated in
tion, combustion gases blow by the pistons into the crank
FIG. 5.
case and the blowby gases from the oil~?lling vent may
The device 10' illustrated in FIG. 5 is a part of an
amount to 1.6 c.f.m. with a hydrocarbon content as high
exhaust manifold 2’ and is mounted with the cylindrical
as 6000 ppm. My invention contemplates conducting
extension 38 of the burner member axial with respect to 25 such blowby gases from the crankcase to the atmospheric
manifold outlet 3'. The cylindrical outlet extension may
air intake of my devices, to consume such hydrocarbons,
be slidably received by a guide sleeve 54 held by a spider
and thereby further prevent pollution of the atmosphere.
unitary with the manifold outlet. The outlet extension
Conduit 5‘1' exempli?es a gas-conducting element whose
may carry an obturating element 55 arranged to close
other end is in communication with a vent from the crank
the manifold outlet during low pressure conditions in 30 case.
the manifold. The outer housing 53 is single walled and
FIG. 7 illustrates a further modi?cation of the device
cooperates with the conical burner member to form ven
shown in FIG. 2 in that a temperature responsive device
turi intake 45’ and an expansion zone 46'. (The same
66 (which may be a bulb ?lled with a substance exhibiting
numbers are being used on similar parts in order to facili
expansion in the range of about 650°~750° F.) is posi
tate comparison and understanding.)
35 tioned in the exhaust manifold and connected, as by
The entire device is supported over a port 8 formed
?exible pressure tube 67 to a bellows 68 which imparts
in the exhaust manifold, by a cylindrical, pressure-re
axial movement to the inner burner member and there
sponsive bellows 56. The ends of the bellows are con
by changes the effective width of the venturi throat. The
nected to the manifold and the outer housing of the
temperature of the exhaust gases is low during idling and
device.
40 deceleration and under such conditions the venturi is not
The device of FIG. 5 differs from the previously de
as ‘Wide, gas velocities through it are high and an in
scribed device in that the burner member carries an an
creased amount of air is sucked in. It will also be noted
nular air chamber 49’ which is supplied with air by tube
that a biased by-pass valve 20’ is used, and the counter
57 extending through the burner chamber and into the
atmosphere. A plurality of spaced, ?xed ori?ce ports
communicate the annular air chamber with the venturi.
The operation of a device of the type shown in FIG.
5 can be readily understood in the light of the preced
ing discussion. During idling and deceleration all of
the exhaust gases pass through the venturi, pick up air,
expand, pass into the enlarged burner chamber, are ignited
and then discharged through the outlet and exhaust pipe
balance arm 22’ moves along an arc (in response to in
crease in exhaust gas pressure) which applies a differential
torque to the valve shaft.
I claim:
-
1. A device for modifying the exhaust gases from an
internal combustion engine by reducing their content of
hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide and increasing their
temperature su?iciently to prevent condensation of ex
haust gas components in a muffler, comprising: a housing
coaxially containing a burner member, said burner mem
celeration and cruising, the exhaust gases are at a mate
ber having an open outlet end and an enlarged inner end
rially higher pressure; this pressure expands the bellows
portion and de?ning a conical burner chamber, said
and raises the device so as to partially open the manifold 55 burner member having an imperforate conical wall por
outlet port and bypass a portion of the gases.
tion adjacent said outlet end and a ported wall adjacent
FIG. 6 is a more sophisticataed form of device shown
the enlarged inner end; partition means closing the en—
installed in an exhaust manifold. The arrangement of
larged end of the chamber de?ned by the burner member;
inner and outer housing wall portions and axially con
attached to the exhaust manifold outlet.
During ac
said housing being in contact with the enlarged end por
tained and movable burner member is the same as in 60
tion of the burner member and in spaced relation to the
FIG. 2. The headed connector 17' is now a part of
outlet end to provide an annular gas intake and venturi
an open cage 58 having a bottom 59 which normally
throat around said outlet end portion of the burner mem
rests on and closes the manifold outlet. Such bottom
ber, said throat leading to an enlarged diffusion and pre
is provided with a tubular extension 60 in which the
heating chamber between said housing and burner mem
65
cylindrical extension 38" of the burner chamber is slid
ably received; such tubular extension, in turn, is slidably
received in guide sleeve 54’, of the manifold outlet.
The outer housing portions (and open cage 58) are
supported by the expandable bellows 56' which surround
port 8' in the manifold. The housing may be provided
with an outstanding ring 60, guide rods 61 being carried
ber; gas ignition means in the enlarged end portion of
said burner chamber; means for ‘admitting air to said
venturi throat adjacent the diffusion and preheating cham
ber; means for supplying exhaust gases from said internal
combustion engine to said annular gas intake and throat;
and means for varying the effective width of the throat of
said venturi to "vary the proportion of air supplied inverse
by the manifold and extending through such ring. Springs
ly with respect to ?ow of exhaust gases through said
bearing against such ring and adjustable stops on the
venturi.
guide rods limit and modify the action of the bellows.
2. A device as stated in claim 1 wherein said open
75
3,037,344
9
outlet end of the burner member is provided {with a cylin
drical extension; said housing which de?nes said enlarged
diffusion and preheating chamber is provided with a con
ical wall portion having a greater included angle than the
angle included by the imperforate conical wall portion of
the burner member, and said varying means including
means to impart controllable relative axial movement
between the housing and burner member to vary the ef
fective spacing therebetween at the throat of said venturi.
3. A device as stated in claim 1 wherein the means for
admitting air to the throat of said venturi include ports
in communication with ‘an air intake of constant cross
sectional area and the volumetric capacity of said burner
10
ignition means in said enlarged end portion of the burner
chamber; a plurality of constant cross section air ports
in a wall of the venturi throat adjacent the diffusion and
preheating chamber; means for continually supplying
atmospheric air to said air ports; valve means responsive
to increased pressure of exhaust gases generated during
acceleration and cruising of such internal combustion
engine for by-passing a portion of such exhaust gases
and for eliminating such by-passing when exhaust gases
10 are generated during idling and deceleration of such in
ternal combustion engine; and means responsive to in
creased pressure of exhaust gases generated during ac
chamber is sufficiently large to maintain the velocity of
gases passing through the enlarged portion of the cham
ber below ?ame~propagation velocity.
celeration for simultaneously increasing the effective width
of said venturi throat and for simultaneously decreasing
the effective width during idling and deceleration of such
internal combustion engine.
4. A device for modifying. and rendering innocuous
exhaust gases from internal combustion engines by sub
jecting said gases to high temperature combustion in the
absence of added catalyst comprising: a diffusion and
preheating chamber; wall means de?ning a venturi having
absence of added catalyst comprising: a diffusion and pre
heating chamber; wall means de?ning a venturi having
9. A device for modifying and rendering innocuous
exhaust gases from internal combustion engines by sub
jecting said gases to high temperature combustion in the
a throat for admitting exhaust gases from an internal
a throat for admitting exhaust gases from an internal
combustion engine into the diffusion and preheating cham
combustion engine into the diffusion and preheating
ber; a burner chamber in heat-exchange relation to said
chamber; a burner chamber in heat-exchange relation to
diffusion and preheating chamber, said burner chamber 25 said diffusion and preheating chamber, said burner cham
ber having an enlarged closed end portion and a smaller
having an enlarged closed end portion and a smaller end
end portion provided with an outlet port; passageways for
portion provided with an outlet port; passageways for
admitting gases from the diffusion and preheating cham
admitting gases from the diffusion and preheating cham
ber into the enlarged end portion of the burner chamber;
ber into the enlarged end portion of the burner chamber;
ignition means in said enlarged end portion of the burner
ignition means in said enlarged end portion of the burner
chamber; a plurality of constant cross section air ports in
chamber; a plurality of constant cross section air ports
a wall of the venutri throat adjacent the diffusion and
in a wall of the venturi throat adjacent the diffusion and
preheating chamber; means for continually supplying
preheating chamber; means for continually supplying at
atmospheric air to said air ports; means responsive to
mospheric
to said air ports; means for changing the
effective width of said venturi throat to vary inversely 35 increased pressure of exhaust gases generated during
acceleration for increasing the effective width of said
the proportion of sucked-in air to the volumetric flow
venturi throat; and valve means responsive to increased
of exhaust gases passing through said throat; and valve
pressure of exhaust gases generated during acceleration
means for by-passing a portion of such exhaust gases in
for by-passing a portion of such exhaust gases.
response to the physical characteristics of such exhaust
10. A device as stated in claim 4 wherein the means
gases whereby the proportion of air admixed with the 40
for continually supplying atmospheric air includes means
total volume of exhaust gases is reduced when the total
for preheating the air by conducting such air in heat
volume of exhaust gases is increased.
transfer relationship to the burner chamber and pre
5. A device as stated in claim 4 wherein the diffusion
heating chamber.
chamber of the venturi and its throat are annular and
11. A device as stated in claim 4 wherein the means
the means for changing the effective width of said ven
turi throat comprise means for moving the walls of said 45 for continually supplying atmospheric air includes means
for introducing blowby gases from a crankcase of an
venturi relatively to each other in response to changes in
internal combustion engine.
the volumetric flow of exhaust gases from said internal
12. A device for modifying and rendering innocuous
combustion engine and supplied to said venturi.
exhaust gases from ‘an internal combustion engine by sub
6. A device as stated in claim 4 wherein the diffusion
chamber of the venturi and its throat are annular and 50 jecting said gases to high temperature combustion in the
absence of added catalyst comprising: a diffusion and
the means for changing the effective width of said venturi
preheating chamber; wall means de?ning a venturi having
throat comprise means for moving the walls of said
a throat for continuously admitting exhaust gases from
venturi relatively to each other in response to changes in
an internal combustion engine into the diffusion and pre
the temperature of exhaust gases from said internal com
heating chamber; a burner chamber in heat exchange
bustion engine and supplied to said venturi.
relation to said diffusion and preheating chamber and
7. A device as stated in claim 4 wherein the diffusion
opening into said diffusion and preheating ‘chamber, said
chamber of the venturi and its throat are annular and
burner chamber being partially defined and enclosed by
the means for changing the effective width of said venturi
the inner portion of the wall means de?ning said venturi
throat comprise means for moving the walls of said
venturi relatively to each other in response to changes in 60 throat; gas ports in the wall means of the venturi throat
adjacent the diffusion and preheating chamber; means for
the pressure of exhaust gases discharged by said internal
combustion engine and supplied to said venturi.
8. A device for modifying and rendering innocuous
exhaust gases from internal combustion engines by sub
jecting said gases to high temperature combustion in 65
continually supplying gas containing air; to said gas ports;
ignition means in said burner chamber adjacent the open
ing of said burner chamber to said diffusion and pre
the absence of added catalyst comprising: a diffusion and
preheating chamber; wall means de?ning a venturi having
a throat for admitting exhaust gases from an internal
ture of gases containing exhaust gases and air and valve
means responsive to the physical characteristics of the
exhaust gases for by-passing a portion of said exhaust
combustion engine into the diffusion and preheating cham
gases whereby during acceleration and cruising of said
heating chamber for igniting the preheated, premixed mix
ber; a burner chamber in heat-exchange relation to said 70 internal combustion engine a portion only of said exhaust
diffusion and preheating chamber, said burner chamber
having an enlarged closed end portion and a smaller end
portion provided with an outlet port; passageways for
admitting gases from the diffusion and preheating cham
gases is by-passed and during idling and deceleration such
by-passing is eliminated.
13‘ A (device for modifying the exhaust gases from an
internal combustion engine by reducing their content of
ber into the enlarged end portion of the burner chamber; 75 hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide and increasing their
8,037,344
.
12
11
temperature sufficiently to prevent condensation of ex~
haust gas components in a mu?ler comprising: a housing
coaxially containing a burner member, said burner mem
ber having an open outlet end and an enlarged inner end
portion and de?ning a conical burner chamber, said
burner member having an imperforate conical wall por
tion adjacent said outlet end and a ported wall adjacent
the enlarged inner end; partition means closing the en
larged end of the chamber de?ned by the burner member;
said housing being in contact with the enlarged end por
‘tion of the burner member and in spaced relation to the 10
outlet end to provide an annular gas intake and venturi
throat around said outlet end portion of the burner
member, said throat leading to an enlarged diffusion and
preheating chamber between said housing and burner
member; gas ignition means in the enlarged end portion 15
of air admixed with the total volume of exhaust gases is
reduced when the total volume of exhaust gases is in
creased.
14. A device as stated in claim 13 wherein the means
for admitting air includes means for introducing vent
gases from the crankcase of said internal combustion
engine.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,789,812
Frazer ______________ __ Jan. 20, 1931
1,848,990
2,203,554
2,488,563
2,772,147
2,851,852
Boyd et a1 _____________ __ Mar. 8,
Uhri et al. ___________ __ June 4,
Sills ________________ __ Nov. 22,
Bowen et a1. _________ __ Nov. 27,
Cornelius ____________ __ Sept. 16,
1932
1940
1949
1956
1958
of said burner chamber; means for admitting air to said
OTHER REFERENCES
venturi throat adjacent the di?usion and preheating cham
ber; means for continually supplying exhaust gases from
Textbook, “Mechanical Engineering Practice,” ?fth edi
said internal combustion engine to said annular gas intake
tion, by Shoop and Tuve, 1956, published by McGraw
and throat; and valve means for bypassing a portion only 20 Hill Book Co., Inc., pages 241 and 245.
of such exhaust gases in response to the physical char
acteristics of such exhaust gases whereby the proportion
“Rocket Encyclopedia Illustrated,” by Aero Publishers,
Inc., Los Angeles 26, Calif., 1959, page 561.
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