close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US3037469

код для вставки
June 5, 1962
R. M. NELDEN
3,037,459
BALANCED PRESSURE ROTOR VANE
Filed Sept. 17, 1958
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
fizz-=1.
BY
5/0744 40/450”, (.660/5 {WI/e45
June 5, 1962
R. M. NELDEN
3,037,459
BALANCED PRESSURE ROTOR VANE
Filed Sept. 17, 1958
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
INVENTOR.
2/6/7420 M NELOé‘A/
BY
nit
he
States
3,037,459
Patented _ June 5, 1962
2
1
A further object of my invention is to provide a ?uid
coupling having vanes of improved design.
3,037,459
BALANtIED PRESSURE RQTUR VANE
Richard M. Nelden, Birmingham, Micln, assignor_ to
American Radiator & Standard Sanitary Corporation,
-
New York, N.Y., a corporation of Delaware
Filed Sept. 17, 1958, Ser. No. 761,526
Another object of my invention resides in the pro
vision of an improved ?uid coupling wherein the vanes
of the impeller and turbine members are selectively aper
turcd to function as check valves or pressure equalizing
ports to reduce the maximum ?uid pressure to which the
6 Claims. (Cl. 1®3--1l5)
vanes are subjected.
My invention relates to ?uid couplings and more par
Still a further object of my invention is to provide
ticularly to an improved coupling wherein the ?uid ener 10 an improved ?uid coupling wherein the vanes are aper
gizing vanes of the impeller, or the energy absorbing
tured to reduce the pressure exerted on the Working side
of the vanes thereby maintaining the maximum loading to
vanes of the turbine, or both, are provided with spaced
which the vanes are subjected within safe limits.
apertures to reduce the differential of pressure exerted on
Another object of my invention resides in the pro
opposite sides of the vanes thereby reducing stresses
15 vision of angularly related apertures through the vanes
exerted on the vanes.
In the operation of ?uid couplings a ?uid energizing
of impeller or turbine members or both, the angularity
of the apertures functioning to control the quantity of
impeller connected to a driving member is associated with
a turbine or runner connected to a driven member.
The
liquid bypassed through the vanes in proportion to the
pressure exerted within the ?uid coupling.
nels which cooperate to transfer torque from the driving 20 A further object of my invention is to improve the
efficiency of operation of ?uid couplings by reducing
member to the driven member.
cavitation within the ?uid circuit by progressively by;
The vanes of the impeller force the ?uid to rotate with
passing through the vanes increased quantities of ?uid
the impeller shell and energy is imparted to the ?uid
as it is thrown radially outwardly by centrifugal force
in proportion to increases in ?uid pressure exerted on
developed by rotation of the impeller. The shell of the 25 the working faces of the vanes.
Yet another object of my invention resides in the
impeller guides the circulating liquid and directs it to
provision of an improved ?uid coupling wherein selec
?ow axially as it is leaving the impeller. Conversely the
tively spaced vanes are provided with apertures of gradu
shell of the turbine or runner member guides the liquid
ated sizes to avoid the development in the circuit of ?uid
and redirects it to ?ow radially inwardly. The circum
ferential circulation of the ?uid impinges upon the vanes 30 pressures exceeding safe maximum values.
Other objects and advantages of my invention will be
in the turbine whereupon energy is extracted from the
apparent from the following description, considered in
liquid as it is forced to ?ow radially inwardly in the
conjunction with the accompanying drawings submitted
turbine or runner. The liquid ?owing radially inwardly
for purposes of illustration only and not intended to de?ne
in the turbine is again de?ected axially and is directed
impeller and turbine members have vaned concave chan
to ?ow into the impeller. The liquid is thus circulated
between the impeller and turbine members, energy being
imparted to the liquid by the impeller and absorbed there
from by the turbine.
in the operation of ?uid couplings the sides of the
the scope of the invention, reference being had for that
purpose to the subjoined claims.
In the drawings wherein similar reference ‘characters
refer to similar parts throughout the several views:
?uid pressures or are substantially unloaded and as a
able disposition of pressure relieving apertures in the
FIGURE 1 is a sectional view of a ?uid coupling
impeller vanes which impart energy to the circulating 40 embodying my invention;
FIG. 2 is a perspective View of one of the vaned mem
?uid are subjected to‘ heavy fluid pressures and loadings,
bers of my improved ?uid coupling illustrating one desir
and‘the reverse sides of the vanes are subjected to low
vanes thereof;
FIG. 3 is a fragmentary view similar to a portion of
are exerted upon the vanes. The same is true of the 45
FIG. 2 illustrating a modi?ed form of my invention;
turbine vanes through which torque is absorbed from the
FIG. 4 is a sectional view taken substantially on the
circulating ?uid and is transferred to the driven member.
line 4_—4 of FIG. 3 looking in the direction of the arrows,
One side of the turbine vanes are thus heavily loaded
and illustrating the angular disposition of the apertures
and the other side of the vanes are subjected to very light
or substantially no loading. The impeller and turbine 50 illustrated in FIG. 3;
result of this differential pressure relatively high stresses
vanes are thus stressed as beams and in ?uid couplings
which transmit high horsepower the vanes are subjected
to both high bending and centrifugal stresses.
FIG. 5 is a view similar to FIG. 3 illustrating a further
modi?ed form of my invention; and
' FIGS. 6 and 7 are fragmentary views illustrating fur
ther modi?ed forms of the invention.
55
Before explaining the present invention in detail, it is
to impact loads or shock stresses‘ as the vanes of the
to be understood that the invention is not limited in its
impeller move circumferentially relative to the vanes of
application to the details of construction and arrangement
the turbine thereby slicing through a body of liquid due
In addition the vanes of ?uid couplings are subjected
to slippage in the coupling.
of parts illustrated in the accompanying drawings,‘ since
plings can be prevented from exceeding predetermined
safe values by providing apertures of calibrated sizes in
be understood that the phraseology or terminology em
ployed herein is for the purpose of description and not
I have found that the bending loads and shock stresses 60 the invention is capable of other embodiments and of be—
ing practiced or carried out in various ways. Also, it is to
exerted ,on the impeller and turbine vanes of ?uid cou
of limitation.
Referring now more particularly to FIG. 1 it will be
pressures exerted on the working faces of the vanes. Vane 65 observed that a driving shaft 10 is operably connected to
stresses can thus be materially reduced.
drive an impeller or primary rotor 12 secured thereto in
vAn object of my invention therefore resides in the
any convenient manner as by hub 14 carried by the im
provision of an improved method of forming ?uid cou
peller. The impeller 12 has a concave-shaped shell 16
pling vanes in such a manner that the maximum loading
terminating in a radially extended ?ange 18. A turbine 20
and the stresses to which the vanes are subjected can be 70 has a concave-shaped shell '22 positioned in confronting
the working faces of the vanes to reduce high ?uid
prevented from exceeding predetermined safe limits.
relation to the impeller shell 16. The turbine 20 is con-l
3,037,459
3
4i
nected through a hub 24 with a driven shaft 26 aligned
22. Apertures ‘of graduated sizes may be employed and
with the driving shaft 10.
Inner and outer casings 28 and 30 having radially out
wardly extended ?anges are secured to the ?ange 18 of
the impeller shell 16 by bolts 32. Part of the stationary
bearing housing 36 extends into the outer casing 30 and
supports the inner turbine bearing 37. Tue inner casing
the apertures may be more closely spaced relative to each
other in the areas subjected to the highest pressures. This
expedient may of course be resorted to with respect to
both the impeller and turbine.
The apertures 48 and 50 may, as shown in FIG. 4
be slanted or inclined opposite to the direction of move
ment of the liquid relative to the vanes as shown by the
28 is contoured to overlie the turbine shell 22 and has a
arrow 56 to retard or delay the ?ow of power transmitting
close running ?t with respect to the bearing housing 36
to provide a substantially ?uid tight joint therewith. 10 liquid therethrough until the pressure exerted on the work
ing faces of the vanes reaches a substantially predeter
Apertures 39 in the outer periphery of the casing 28
mined value. The apertures 48 and 50 reduce the pressure
are provided to permit the escape of liquid from the ?uid
loads and impact stresses exerted on the impeller or tur
circuit to a scoop tube chamber 41 between the casings 28
bine vanes 40 and 42 respectively to maintain the stresses
and 30. An adjustably positioned scoop tube 43 extended
within workable limits. When low or medium pressures
into the chamber 41 is provided to establish the desired
are exerted on the working faces of the vanes the forward
degree of ?lling in the circuit, thereby controlling the
inclination of the apertures through the vanes retard or
turbine output speed and torque.
The impeller and turbine shells 16 and 22 respectively
are provided with radially extended vanes 40 and 42 to
impart energy to and absorb energy from the liquid cir- ~
culating in the ?uid circuit de?ned by the impeller and
turbine members 12 and 20* respectively. The impeller
and turbine vanes 40 and 42 are provided with confront
ing shroud members 44 and 46 to guide the circulating
liquid ?owing from the impeller to the turbine and from
the turbine back to the impeller.
It will be understood that the impeller and turbine
members may be formed in any desired manner as by
machining, Welding, casting or stamping, and that the
vanes 40 and 42 may be formed integrally with the
shells 16 and 22 or may be secured thereto in any desired
manner. Also it will be apparent that the shroud mem
bers 44 and 46 may be employed to assist in guiding the
?uid, or if desired they may be omitted if the design is
properly modi?ed.
As shown in the embodiment of my invention illustrated
in FIG. 1 the impeller and turbine vanes 40 and 42 have
a plurality of spaced apertures 48 and 50 to permit the cir
culating liquid to ?ow through the vanes from the side of
the vanes subjected to the liquid pressure in imparting
energy to the liquid or absorbing energy therefrom to the
back or non-pressurized side of the vanes to relieve the
force exerted on the vanes by ?uid pressure exerted by
the circulating liquid on the working face of the vanes.
A su?icient number of apertures 48 and 50 in the impeller
and turbine vanes 49 and 42 of suitable size may be em
ployed to permit a su?icient ?ow of liquid through the
delay the ?ow of ?uid through the vanes at slow speeds.
As increasing pressures are developed within the ?uid
circuit and exerted on the working faces of the vanes,
?uid ?ows through the forwardly inclined apertures, and
the degree of ?ow is dependent in part on the pressures
exerted. Where this expedient is resorted to, the ?uid
pressure exerted on the impeller and turbine vanes can
be controlled by permitting the escape of ?uid through the
vane when ?uid pressure reaches a predetermined value,
thereby reducing the stresses to which the vanes are sub
jected.
The use of apertures through the vanes alters the nat
ural frequency of the vanes to provide stronger impeller
and turbine members which are less susceptible to vibra
tional stresses.
Referring to FIG. 5 it will be observed that apertures
50 of graduated sizes may be formed in the turbine vanes
4-2 to maintain substantially constant pressure over the
entire working face of the turbine vanes 42. While this
expedient reduces the pressure within the working circuit
and therefore changes the torque transmitting character
istics of the unit, it does prevent subjecting the vanes to
undesirable stresses. The impeller vanes 40 may of course
be similarly treated with apertures of graduated sizes
spaced to maintain substantially uniform pressure over
the Working faces of the vanes. The use of apertures to
relieve pressure during certain phases of operation of the
unit also functions to reduce cavitation.
While my invention has been illustrated as applied to
several types of pressure relieving con?gurations, it will
be apparent that it is susceptible to many changes, in the
vanes to relieve or reduce the pressure on the working
face of the respective vanes to maintain the stresses im
number of apertures employed, in the disposition of the
posed within desired safe limits thereby preventing the
development of undesirable bending stresses.
apertures in the areas of the vanes subjected to predeter—
mined pressures, and in their angularity through the vanes
FIG. 2 illustrates a desirable embodiment of my inven
tion as applied to an impeller 12. It will be observed that
a plurality of apertures 48 are positioned in the vanes
to provide desired results.
It will also be apparent that instead of employing aper
tures extending through the body sections of the vanes,
40 adjacent the outer pro?le 52 of the impeller shell 16.
The apertures 48 may be of graduated sizes and may
notches 50 in the edges of the vanes 40 may be employed
be present in su?icient number to relieve excess ?uid
pressure exerted on the outer periphery of the impeller.
tending grooves may be formed in the shell 16 as shown
at 62 in FIG. 7 to permit by-passing a portion of the cir
culating ?uid to the opposite sides of the vanes to relieve
as shown in FIG. 6, or notches or circumferentially ex
It will be apparent that successively spaced impeller vanes
40 may have different patterns of apertures to relieve 60 excess pressures, thereby reducing the danger of subject
?uid pressure to a desired degree. For example a sym
metrical group of vanes 40 may have a cluster of several
apertures and another symmetrical group of vanes 40
ing the vanes to excess pressures. It will of course be
apparent that these expedients can be resorted to with re
. spect to the impeller or to the turbine members.
may have a group of a different number of apertures
I claim:
which may also be of different size, and groups of aper 65
1. In a fracture-resistant rotor for a ?uid coupling, the
tures varying in number and size may be employed in ad
rotor having an annular shell of toroidal section with sub
stantially ?at vanes extending generally radially of the
jacently positioned vanes to break up vibrational stresses.
shell and having the plane surfaces thereof disposed gen
erally axially with respect to the shell, each of the vanes
and size of apertures may be formed in all of the vanes of 70 being of generally semi-circular con?guration and having
a free, generally straight edge de?ning a generally radially
the impeller or turbine members, or both.
_
disposed inlet edge portion and a generally radially dis
FIG. 3 illustrates my invention applied to the turbine
posed outlet edge portion, the improvement of a multi
20. It will be noted that the turbine vanes 42 in this
plicity of apertures extending through each of the vanes
embodiment are provided with apertures 50 spaced along
the vanes adjacent the juncture of the vanes with the shell 75 and formed as a pattern, and adjacent vanes having differ
The same is true with respect to the vanes 42 of the tur
bine. It will also be apparent that the same grouping
3,037,459
5
cut aperture patterns, whereby ?uid is enabled to ?ow
through the vanes from the high pressure face to the low
pressure face along portions of the vanes subjected to
highest pressures, reducing pressure imbalances and the
magnitude of bending stresses and detuning the vanes to
break up vibrational stresses incurred while the rotor is
running at speed and load conditions tending to put ‘the
vanes in resonant vibration.
2. The combination de?ned in claim 1 wherein the
apertures have ?uid inlets formed in the high pressure
vane faces and ?uid outlets formed in the low pressure
vane faces, with said ?uid outlets being spaced nearer
the outlet edge portions of the vanes than said aperture
5. In a fracture-resistant rotor for a ?uid coupling, the
rotor having an annular shell of toroidal section with sub
stantially ?at vanes extending generally radially of the
shell and with the plane surfaces thereof disposed gener
ally axially With respect to the shell, each of the vanes
being of generally semi-circular con?guration and having
‘a free, generally straight edge de?ning a radially disposed
inlet edge portion and a generally radially disposed outlet
edge portion, the improvement of a multiplicity of aper
tures extending through the vanes and spaced over the
vanes in a semi-annular pattern, said patterns extending
from the inlet edge portions of the vanes to the outlet
portions thereof, and the apertures within the patterns
being di?erent in adjacent vanes, whereby ?uid is enabled
?uid inlets.
'3. In a fracture-resistant rotor for a ?uid coupling, the 15 to ?ow through the vanes from the high pressure face to
rotor having an annular shell or toroidal section with sub
the low pressure face along portions of the vanes sub
stantially ?at vanes extending radially of the shell and
jected to highest pressures, reducing pressure imbalances
having the plane surfaces thereof disposed generally ax~
and the magnitude of bending stresses and detuning the
ially with respect to the shell, each of the vanes being of
vanes to break up vibrational stresses incurred while the
generally semi-circular con?guration and having a free, 20 rotor is running at speed and load conditions tending to
generally straight edge de?ning a generally radially dis
posed inlet edge portion and a generally radially disposed
outlet edge portion, the improvement of a multiplicity of
apertures extending through each of the vanes and spaced
around the curved peripheral portions of the vanes adja~ 25
cent the shell, said apertures being formed as a generally
semi-circular pattern extending substantially from the ra
dial inlet edge portion of the vanes to substantially the
radial outlet edge portion thereof, and the apertures with
in the pattern being different in adjacent vanes, whereby 30
?uid is enabled to ?ow through the vanes from the high
pressure face to the low pressure face along portions of
the vanes subject to highest pressures, reducing pressure
imbalances and the magnitude of bending stresses and de
tuning the vanes to break up vibrational stresses incurred 35
while the rotor is running at speed and load conditions
tending to put the vanes in resonant vibration.
4. The combination de?ned in claim 3 wherein the
apertures have ?uid inlets formed in the high pressure
vane faces and ?uid outlets formed in the low pressure 40
vane faces with said ?uid outlets spaced nearer the outlet
edge portion of the vanes than said aperture ?uid inlets.
put the vanes in resonant vibration.
6. The combination de?ned in claim 5 wherein the
apertures have ?uid inlets formed in the high pressure
vane faces and ?uid outlets formed in the low pressure
vane faces, with said ?uid outlets spaced nearer the out
let edge portions of the vanes than said aperture ?uid
inlets.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,334,573
2,357,485
2,421,360
2,494,539
Miller ______________ __ Nov. 16,
Miller _______________ __ Sept. 5,
Swennes ____________ __ May 27,
Bolender ____________ __ Ian. 17,
1943
1944
1947
1950
2,556,666
2,672,098
Snyder ____________ __'__ June 12, 1951
Bilsky ______________ .._. Mar. 16, 1954
FOREIGN PATENTS
256,647
754,055
Great Britain _________ .._ Oct. 21, 1926
Great Britain _________ -._ Aug. 1, 1956
875,522
France ______________ -._ June 22, 1942
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
573 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа