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Патент USA US3037472

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June 5, 1962
L. D. BARRY
RAILWAY CONTROL SYSTEM FOR COINCIDENT
'
3,037,462 .
LOCAL AND EXPRESS SERVICE
Original Filed Feb. 28, 1950
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
June 5, 1962
|_. D. BARRY
RAILWAY CONTROL SYSTEM FOR COINCIDENT
.
3,037,462
LOCAL AND EXPRESS SERVICE
Original Filed Feb. 28, 1950
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
m mmM.
June 5, 1962
|_. D. BARRY
I
3,037,452
RAILWAY CONTROL SYSTEM FOR COINCIDENT
-
LOCAL AND EXPRESS SERVICE
Original Filed Feb. 28, 1950
AUXILRYcERal/PL
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U457
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
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11%
INVENTOR.
June 5, 1962
|_. D. BARRY
RAILWAY CONTROL SYSTEM FOR COINCIDENT
LOCAL AND EXPRESS SERVICE
Original Filed Feb. 28, 1950
'
3,037,462
5 Sheets-Sheet 4
306
INVEN TOR.
£27.
1%
Mai/7,
June 5, 1962
I
L. D. BARRY
3,037,462
RAILWAY CONTROL SYSTEM FOR COINCIDENT
LOCAL AND EXPRESS SERVICE
Original Filed Feb. 28, 1950
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5 Sheets-Sheet 5
229
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3,037,462
Unit€d 83:31:68 P
Patented June 5, 1962‘
1
2
3,037,462
interfere with detached units if required to slow down
before coupling to the unit leaving the second station.
The operation of this system provides in effect what
RAILWAY CONTROL SYSTEM FOR COINCIDENT
LOCAL AND EXPRESS SERVICE
Leonard D.‘ Barry, 19300 Pennington Drive,
Detroit 21, Mich.
Continuation of abandoned application Ser. No. 146,767,
Feb. 28, 1950. This application Feb. 9, 1956, Ser. No.
564,511
30 Claims. (Cl. 104_1s)
might be called a wave-train in which the cars can be
regrouped according to requirements for different sec
tions of local service. The operator of the joining unit
can become the operator of the train, and the train opera
tor can go to the rear unit to detach and operate it. Op
eration is ?exible in that the number of cars in operation
10 can be increased or decreased easily, branch service can
This invention relates to a system and means for rail
way transit and in particular to a system employing a
be’ worked into the schedule, and the spacing of trains
means for transferring passengers and goods to and
ruption of service.
and length of local runs can be changed without inter
Accompanying drawings illustrate this invention as ap—
from a train.
This is a continuation of my parent patent application
Ser. No. 146,767, ?led February 28, 1950, now aban
doned, and is entitled to the effective ?ling date of the
plied to electric operation. Other motive power which
parent application.
control for regulating speed differences between cars with
in a special control circuit limited in range by track and
control circuit blocks. The circuits shown provide one
I
The primary object for this invention is to provide a
connected local and express service over the same track
using the same cars both in separate units of one or more
self-propelled cars for local service and alternately in a
multiple-unit train for express service. The train con
sists of a number of local units joined end to end. The
units are joined to the front, progressed to the rear, and
later detached from the rear of the train to make local
stops between trains. Passengers, express, or goods are
hereby transferred to and from the train without requir
permits convenient passage between cars might be used.
The system as illustrated is provided with automatic
method and degree of control which enables connecting
and disconnecting of units without necessarily reducing
train speed.
FIGURE 1 is a portion of a schematic plot plan of
the tracks and stations showing trains and units in two
way operation.
FIGURE 2 is a perspective view of a portion of FIG
URE 1 showing a train about to take on a car and the
car which has left the train about to stop at a station.
ing the train to make any stops, yet leaving ample time
FIGURE 3 is a schematic elevation view of a section
for the passengers to move from car to car.
30
A further object is to provide equipment needed to
make such operation safe without necessarily reducing
of the system which is repeated end on beginning through
out the system and includes control block circuits, track
train speed upon connecting or disconnecting a unit.
Another object is to increase the capacity of the track
by such operation that a two-track rapid transit system
circuits, signals, and other cooperating items. Also in
can serve at least as well as a four track system, thus'de
another car with part of the trucks cut away to show the
motors and certain auxiliaries. The control circuit be
creasing ?rst cost for new installations where four tracks
would otherwise be required.
Another object is to enable much shorter stations to
sut?ce than are used in railway transit where the whole
train stops, thus reducing the distance that some patrons
are required to walk to leave stations and thus permit
ting a ?rst cost and upkeep saving.
Other objects resulting in improved service, safety.
cluded are cars schematically represented.
FIGURE 4 is a side elevation of one and a portion of
tween the cars is also shown in which a current is rep
resented by arrows.
FIGURE 5 is a top plan view of the cars shown in
FIGURE 4 one car having its roof removed to show
the interior.
FIGURE 6 is a front view of a car.
FIGURE 7 is a rear view of a car with rear passage
'
and economy are to be found in the following description 45 opened.
FIGURE 8 is a perspective Iview of the end passage
of this invention. Other advantages may become evi
frames in closed relation.
dent to those skilled in the art of transportation.
FIGURE 9 is a top view of the end passage frame
In operating this railway system in accordance with
opened out.
this invention, a local runs a distance, for example a mile,
‘FIGURE 10 is a section view on line 10—10 of
wherein passengers or goods which have left the train
FIGURE 8.
are deposited at stops or stations and other passengers
or goods are taken on.
At the end of this distance a train
of units is due from which the rear unit is detached and
to which the unit that has completed the foregoing local
run is attached. The cycle of local service is repeated
between each train. Complete local service can be pro
vided by each unit upon detaching from a train stopping
?rst at the station Where the unit about to join the train
has just left, thus making that station a junction or over
lap point of local service. By extending the overlap to
two or more stations better local service can be provided
FIGURE ll is a top view of the ends of two cars as
they round a curve to show the relation of movement of
car bodies to car end passages turned with the trucks.
FIGURE 12 is a schematic diagram of automatic inter
car control in cooperation with multiple-unit control.
FIGURE 13 is a side elevation of two goods express
cars connected and at a freight station.
FIGURE 14 is a top plan view of the cars and station
shown in FIGURE 13. '
FIGURE 15 is a section broken vertically through the
center of a passageway in closed position.
trains. Thus a person wishing to go to a station served
FIGURE 16 is a perspective view of portions of a
by the last unit on the trains that pass his boarding sta
truck and attached swivel coupler and passage.
tion must take two locals, transferring at the junction, 65
FIGURE 17 is a side elevation of the coupler and fric
unless he board the local preceding a train at an over
tion bu?ing and draw gear having a long travel.
lap station, connect with the train, walk to the rear unit
FIGURE 18 is a schematic top plan view of a hydraulic
about to leave the train for local stops. Also alternate
buffer, retractor, and extender as applied to the draft gear.
trains may distribute units which have completely over
FIGURE 19 is a partial cutaway longitudinal view of
lapping local runs. The overlap is usually extended to
a train line coupler.
’
'
include at least two stations so that the trains will not
FIGURE 20 is a simple auxiliary safety coupler with
at the stations served by two overlapping locals between
3,037,462
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4
magnetic release for use in place of conventional chains
and hooks.
Referring to the drawings and in particular to FIG
URE 1, tracks 1 and 1’ are provided to enable two-way
uninterrupted operation. Track 1’ is the return portion
Variation of the length of the zone of control for a
single car is from a minimum of one-half block to one and
zone of intercontrol varies from one to two blocks be
of track 1. Tracks 1 and 1' are looped together at the
ends of the line. Upon track 1 is shown car 2 about to
be joined to the train 3 at a suitable difference of speed;
tween the cars. The track circuit extends the control
ahead one block upon being shorted and retracts the zone
at the rear one block when the preceeding track circuit
one-half blocks in advance as well as to the rear of the
car.
Upon approaching another car of any type, the
while car 4, having detached from train 3, is automatically
is cleared.
slowed to a very low speed at which automatic stopping 10
To stop a disconnected car without also slowing down
the train, intercar speed control is prevented in a stopping
controls, to be described further, are disengaged. On
track 1’ is shown car 24, having just detached from train
zone by control line insulators 29' which are spaced less
23, and car 22 about to be automatically started pro
than a car length apart and suspended by catenary wire
suspensions 38 throughout the stopping zone.
vided the operator of this car holds down a control
switch while the car is ready for operation with doors 15
To assure safety in traversing this stopping zone from
closed. Along the track are conveniently spaced sta
other cars being therein to a required distance beyond,
tions A, B, C, and D. This series of stations is repeated
and the series consecutively numbered. Stations 1A, 1B,
1C, 1D, 2A and 2B constitute a local run which car 4
is shown beginning at station 1A and car 11 is shown
?nishing at 2B. Car 2 which has just left the station
1B, the last stop on its local run, has overlapped with
the local run from 1A to 28 at stations 1A and 18.
Stations A and B are overlapping stations of the local runs.
the following are provided: signals 4 and 41; orders for
cars or trains to approach the stopping zone at least
one block apart; and an automatic train stop line 42
which grounds the control line to the rear of the stopping
zone when the stopping zone to a point beyond is oc
cupied and so grounds the control circuit of any train
electrically connected to the grounded portion of the con
trol line, the resulting control current being of a particu
Referring in particular to FIGURE 2, which shows
lar direction which causes the train to be stopped as later
further details of a portion of FIGURE 1, along each
power conductor 12 both supported from poles 13 by
explained. A stopping zone track circuit which operates
signal 40 through track relay 33 runs from the beginning
of the stopping zone to automatic stopping distance be
bracket arms 14 and insulated from each other and from
yond or as shown in FIGURE 3 to one-half block be
track 1 and 1' are run a control line conductor 10 and a
the ground by conventional strain insulators. Each 30 yond, with signal 41 operated through track relay 34 to
indicate the condition of the next block at a distance
powered car has two shoe trolleys 15 and 16 contacting
therefrom to allow stopping before the middle of the
respectively the control line 10 and the power conductor
next block is reached. Signals 41 can also be provided
12. The trolleys are mechanically connected together by
to indicate the whereabouts of cars to be joined. Relay
insulating member 17 to insure that the control line trolley
33 when energized makes a clear track indication at sig
is contacting line 10 whenever the car is operated.
nal 40 through front contacts of its upper contactor 33a
Referring to FIGURES l and 4 generally and in detail
and when deenergized makes a stop indication at signal
to FIGURE 3, intercar speed control is provided between
40 through the back contacts of contactor 33a. Through
powered cars by a control circuit consisting of control
line 10, rails 7 and 8 or 7’ and 8’ acting as grounded
returns, trolleys 15, and automatic control ACC operat
ing in series with axle driven dynamos herein shown as
direct current dynamos 26. This circuit connects the
automatic control and dynamo of each car in parallel with
back contacts 33b of relay 33 is run automatic train stop
line 42 between the control line 10 and the ground in
series with front contacts of relay 357 The shorting of
the control line stops the cars connected thereto as ex
plained later.
To insure that the rear cars of a train are not braked
those of other cars electrically connected together by
line 10. The dynamos generate the control line voltage 45 by this stopping device as the train enters the stopping
zone, a track circuit of car length is provided just ahead
which is dependent on car speed or they take power from
of the stopping zone track circuit, and the coil of relay
the line dependent on circuit conditions and the differ
35 is connected across this short track circuit to be de
ence from maximum car speed between intercontrolled
energized when a train is crossing it, preventing the con
cars. Though the dynamos tend to balance speed dif
ferences between cars when permitted, the automatic 50 necting of train stop line 42 until the train has cleared
the short track circuit.
control ACC controls the car motors 27, 27’, 28, and 28’
Indication is given at B stations that the train is ap
to balance speed differences. The control depends on
proaching in time for the operator of the car, conductor,
intercar current which is under given conditions in pro
or station attendant to close station gates 45 and car doors
portion to the voltage difference between cars connected
46 and 47 and the operator make ready for automatic
by the control line.
operation of the car before the control line connects the
The zone of intercar control should be no longer than
car and train electrically, otherwise stopping the train.
needed and should extend where used a safe distance on
Relays 48, connected across one or more track circuits
each side of the cars. To limit the zone of control,
ahead of B stations, make contact in parallel to complete
insulators 29 or 29’ are provided in line 10, FIGURE 3.
Where required for intercar control insulators 29 are 60 a circuit through battery 48’ to indicator lamp or ‘hell 49.
Referring in particular to FIGURE 12 and for further
bridged by a relay switch 30 which upon dropping shorts
reference to FIGURE 4, the cars are provided with both
insulators 29 extending the zone of control. Bridging
multiple-unit operator control, using an ordinary master
relay 30 has back contacts held open by a current through
controller K, and automatic intercar speed control which
battery 31 and front contacts of relay 32. Relay 32 is
The two controls are
energized by a track circuit.
v operates separately in each car.
Single rail track circuits are provided by insulators
tied together in notch-up relays U and tie-in relays DT.
The control will be further explained in detail because
36 in rails 7 and 7’, transformer feeds 37, and track
of its novel nature.
relays 32, 33, 34, ‘and 35 across rails 7~——3 and 7’-~8'.
The automatic control circuit operates on the principle
Impedance bond track circuits might likewise be used.
Where intercar speed control is needed insulators 36 are 70 that two or more shunt generators connected across a line
will run either as a motor or generator according to
spaced about halfway between control line insulators 29
whether they receive or send current to the line without
which are spaced at a distance equal to or greater than
the automatic service or safety stopping distance required
reversing in direction of rotation when changing from
by the cars at maximum speed. The distance between
insulators 29 or between insulators 36 is called a block.
motor to generator action. Thus the direction of the
current through the control circuit will depend on whethr
3,037,462
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8
er the car is operating below the highest car speed or
on relay 82. Relay 82 has back contacts which make the
same connections as when relay 82 is energized and relay
operating ‘at the highest speed in the interconnecting cir
cuit.
Between cars of a train or cars operating at equal
speed there will be no appreciable current, while between
a car or group of cars having different speeds there will
be considerable difference of generated voltage and con
sequently current when electrically connected by the con
trol line.
The control circuit dynamo 26 is driven oif a shaft ex
tension from one of the traction motors ‘27 and is sepa
rately excited byv a train car lighting type ?xed polarity
generator G likewise driven from another traction motor
28. This separately excited direct current dynamo, while
operating similar to the shunt generator described, can
83 is deenergized. When relay 8'2 is energized through
switch 72 the control circuits ‘are unchanged until relay 83v
is energized by a control current. Relays 82 and 83 close
through their front contacts in series a circuit branch
from the control line through trolley 15, the coil of relay
86, coil 89, the coil of relay 83, front contacts of relays
82 and 83, resistance 100, and ammeter AM to dynamo
This path does not include the car controls. Relay
84 being at the same time energized closes a circuit through
an adjustable voltage supply, battery 104, and a ?eld'on
dynamo 26 opposing the main ?eld, contrary ?eld 106.
This contrary ?eld reduces the generated voltage of the
10 26.
have a characteristic whereby voltage increases approxi 15 dynamo and enables a predetermined difference of speed
mately as the square of the speed thereby causing the
to exist between cars at zero control current.
same difference of speed between cars to have more
regulating effect the higher the speed.
The automatic control ACC is provided with switches
When a train or car enters at speed into intercontrol
with a slow or standing car a large control current flows
along control line 12 from the faster to the slower train
which set up the control line circuits through the proper 20 or car whatever the condition of control. If the current is
line ‘and relays according to the desired or required con
above a maximum allowable value relays 88 operate at
ditions of control. The conditions of control are namely
once in the speeding cars to connect stopping relays. If
Controlled, to be accelerated or retarded to zero control
current; Neutral, to be retarded to zero control current;
and Controlling, to not be controlled unless ‘a control cir
cuit overload bypasses this setup and to enable the over
taking of cars at a safe difference of speed. The switches,
relays, and auxiliaries which cooperate to direct the con
trol current according to conditions of control are
grouped in FIGURE 12 by phantom lines and called a
director DIR.
Director DlR has hand operated Controlled switch 70
the current is not above this maximum it must also be
reduced to zero within a time limit. The operator can
25 read ammeter AM while holding down ‘Controlling switch
72 ‘and tell when the intercontrol connects up and whether
the car ahead is responding to the control current by ac
celerating, which is indicated by a dropping of the am
meter reading without his car or train being slowed. If
the current does not fall off to set values within de?nite
time intervals after the control current starts, the train
and Controlling switch 72, which upon being held down
must vbe slowed either by the operator or ‘automatically.
The direction of this control current depends on which
against spring compression places ‘battery 74 in parallel
end of the car is forward in motion ‘and the mechanical
across train line wires 76 and 77 or 76 and 78 respec
and electrical connections to dynamo 26. The dynamos
tively. Across wires 76 and 77 is connected Controlled
relay 80 which upon ‘being energized through switch 70
of the cars are similary connected and the cars are lined
back to front on the track. The cars can safely operate
in either direction on a stretch of track by reversal of the
connects the automatic car controls to the control line
for complete control to accelerate or retard the car or
train. Across wires 76 and 78 are connected Controlling
relays 82 and 84. Relay 82, energized through switch
72, together with relay 83, energized by a control current,
connect in a circuit having no controls therein but which
can be bypassed by the automatic car controls upon
traction motors, since generator G has ?xed polarity the
dynamos will reverse polarity with reversal of direction of
movement. The cars should not be turned end for end
without extra precaution.
When the control current does not drop off within limits
72 connects the circuit which enables the overtaking of
the Controlling condition is automatically made ineffective
by the path through resistance 100, which provides no
control, being bypassed with a circuit through the car
cars. By means of the train line the conditions of con
trol are the same in each connected car. The controls of
each car operate the same.
controls.
A de?nite time-limit multicontact relay 108 starts op
erating upon a substantial control line current being estab
overload. Relay 84 upon being energized through switch
Polarized relay 86 prevents any current in the direction
lished through its operating solenoid 110. This relay,
which would start or speed up the car from reaching the
car controls unless the operator holds down the Con
trolled switch 70. Relay 86 allows a stopping current
to operate the car controls when relay 82 or 83 is de
energized, that is making lower contacts, or upon the
closing of the polarized one or more of overload stop
ping relay 88 or overload relays 92., 94, or 96. The nor
mally engaged back contacts of relay ‘86 are in series
in a low resistance bypass 98 of car controls which per
mit the completion of the control circuit between cars
so that faster cars within the circuit will be slowed when
having a timing mechanism similar to what is commonly
provided with this type of relay, connects after an interval
the coils of overload relays 9'2, 94, and 96 in timed se
required. Front contacts of relay 86, readily engaged
quence to a shunt circuit across resistance 100 and the
front contacts of relay 83 which are at the same time en
gaged. The overload relays are set for successively lower
values so that if the car to be joined is not accelerated
to su?icient speed at any time before balancing speed
should be reached an overload relay will operate. Over
load 96 is connected when the car to be connected has
vhad time to reach balancing speed as a ?nal check of (the
control current down to a value where relay 83 drops
by a stopping current, permit the slowing of the car
provided relay 82 or 83 is deenergized or if relays 82 and
83 are energized and any of relays 88, 92, 94, or 96 are
and thereby opens the Controlling path through resistance
engaged by an overload current.
current should not become large enough to operate relay
83 or the solenoid 110, the track being clear of rail tra?‘ic
Polarized overload stopping relay 88 has overload pull
in coil 89 in series with the control current and holding
coil 90 in series with the front contacts to hold this relay
100 and closes the circuit to the car controls. From then
on ‘as long as intercontrol is established the control line
for at least two blocks ahead of the car to be connected.
Overload relay 92, 94, and 96 make contacts upon over
and permit the car to be slowed to zero control current 70 load to connect the car controls to the control line through
which occurs at what will be called balancing speed.
relay 86 which checks the direction of current to prevent
Polarized relay 88 operates only on a stopping current of
a car from being accelerated thereby. Relay 92 has a
more than the highest permitted value but is held until
the control current approaches zero.
holding coil which is connected upon overload to hold the
relay contacts closed until relay 94 is connected and relay
Relay 83 has back contacts in series with front contacts 75 95, whose coil is in series with the closing of relay 94,
3,037,462
8
opens the circuit of relay 92. Similarly relay 94 has a
holding coil which holds the relay if overloaded until re
leased by relay 97 whose coil is in series with relay 96.
Pilot motor 128 turns the cylinder 124 through shaft
130, form 131, worm gear 132, and shaft 133. Against
the circumference of cylinder 124 the lines from the hold
Since relay 96 operates on most any low current, no hold
ing coil is needed. More overload relays can be used to
provide a closer check on the falling otf of the control
line current. The timing relay 108 resets when solenoid
ing coils of relays U1, U2, U3, U4, U5, and U6 make
contact through brushes, in order from right to left, FIG
URE 12. Cylinder 124 has a cylindrical stepped con
ducting face 125 which has an increased circumferential
rap or step with each brush length to the left. On each
110 releases on low current.
step is a conducting rectangular patch 126 insulated from
The director DIR, in conclusion, ‘always sets up safe
control circuits in spite of the operator’s use of the two 10 the stepped face. The remainder of the circumference is
insulating material 127. The face of the cylinder is
switches therein. If neither switch 70 or 72 is used a
smooth so that the brushes may ride over it. The stepped
car or train is controlled to the speed of the slowest car
face is insulated from the cylinder with a lead to slip ring
in the zone of control. If both switches 70 and 72 are
135. The patches 126 likewise insulated are all con
held down the Controlled condition is established.
nected together by a lead to slip ring 138. A brush on
The automatic intercar speed controls are connected in
slip ring 136 completes its circuit through the coil of relay
series with dynamo 26 through contacts on a polarized
relay 112 upon the closing of relay 80 or the closing of
front contacts on relay 86. Relay 112 has its coil in
parallel with either of two banks of control relays ac
cording to the direction of the control current. Relay
112 makes front or back contacts thereon according to
whether the control current is respectively in the direction
which is to accelerate the car or in the direction which
should slow down the car respectively called a starting
and stopping current. Current direction reading relay 112
140 the lower coil of relay 152, and back contacts of relay
142 to battery 120. A brush on slip ring 138 completes
its circuit through the coil of relay 144 and the same coil
of relay 152 and back contacts of relay 142 to battery
120.
The energizing of a U1 to U6 relay holding coil sends a
current through its brush on tie-in cylinder 124 which is
then making contact with either the stepped face 125 or
25 its rectangular patch 126 on the cylinder. If the brush is
is sensitive to operate before the relays it connects can
operate.
making contact with the stepped face, relay 140 operates,
closing front contacts to drive pilot motor 128, which
The back contacts of relay 112 connect in notch-down
relays D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, D6, D7, and others if re
quired to give the desired number of steps. These relays
operate in sequence through front contacts of the preced
ing relay. These relays are held closed only as long as
there ?ows ‘a sufficient stopping current through the coils.
The coils of these relays ‘are in series with coils in tie'in
operates contactors 146 on shaft 133 by cam action or
wheel motion as in the accelerator used on PCC cars, or
a cylinder controller may be used for operating the main
power contactors. Motors, reverse, cut-out, and con—
tactors are of common practice. The pilot motor op
erates until all brushes on cylinder 124 are nonconduct
ing through stepped face 125 dropping relay 140. The
relays DT1, DTZ, DT3, DT4, DTS, and DT6 respectively
last conducting brush now being in contact with a rec
and operate in parallel with each other. The more relays
This
tangular patch 126 holds relay 144 open thus opening the
pilot motor circuit and stopping the pilot motor. When
the current through holding relay 144 ceases, the relay
parallel operation is not objectionable if all these relays
drops and makes contacts which drive the pilot motor
D1, D2, D3, etc. operated in parallel the stronger is the
minimum control current required to hold them.
can be held by a minimum current that requires no further 40 in reverse until the current again flows or until the pilot
control of the car speed. Relays D1, D2, D3, etc. can
be of the dash-pot type to provide the desired time delay.
Relay D7 closes front contacts to coil 114 which operates
the brakes which are standard equipment and therefore
not shown.
The front contacts of relay 112 connect in notch-up
relays U1, U2, U3, U4, U5, U6, and others if required
for closer speed control.
These relays notch up in se
quence or in groups to accelerate the car.
They are op
erated from the master controller K in groups or singu
larly through leads a, b, and c to the upper coils of these
relays. They are operated by the control current through
the lower coils. Relays UB1, UB2, UB3, UB4, and UB5
connect in the bottom coils of relays U2, U3, U4, U5, and
U6 respectively and in sequence, and are operated by the
control current through the lower coils of relays U1, U2,
U3, U4, and U5 respectively. Relays UB can provide
time delay if desired. Notch-up relays U1, U2, U3, etc.
each have a holding coil which holds its relay closed
upon closing and holds the notched-up condition of its
relay until its holding circuit is opened. The holding
coils are the middle coils on the relays and each holding
coil is in series with the front contacts of its relay. The
holding coils are connected in series across battery 129
as the notch-up relays close. One wire from the holding
coil on each of relays U1, U2, U3, U4, U5, and U6 is
run in series with the required resistance and back con
tacts of relays DT6, DT5, DT4, DT3, D12, or DTi re
motor circuit is disconnected. The ?eld 129 of the
shunt pilot motor 128 is connected across battery 150 in
series with front contacts of relay 152. The armature of
the shunt motor 128 is connected across battery 150 in
series with front contacts of relay 152, and back contacts
of relays 140 and 144 in series which are in parallel with
front contacts of relay 140 50 as to provide reversible op
eration dependent on the position of relay 140 and to pro
vide for stopping the pilot motor upon the lifting of relay
144 or the dropping of relay 152. FIGURE 12 shows the
details of this arrangement.
Relay 152 opens the pilot motor circuit upon the open
ing of the circuit through its upper coil in series with bat
tery 154 and turn-limit switch 156 opened by projection
P on cylinder 124 when moving to the limit of travel in off
position of the contactors. The lower coil of relay 152
is added in series with the tie-in circuit of battery 120 to
enable the pilot motor circuit to be closed in the off posi
tion by a current through the tie-in circuit of battery 120.
Relay 142 opens the tie~in circuit of battery 120 when
the controller K is turned to the full off position through
contacts 157 added to controller K and connected in
series with battery 158 as shown in FIGURE 12. The
circuit is broken at e—e' for clarity.
The contactors are opened by the controller in the full
off position as is standard practice, and the pilot motor can
then take its time returning to off position.
The operation of the controls is illustrated by the fol
spectively. Relays DT thereby permit the notch-down
lowing examples.
relays to open the notch-up relays one at a time from the 70
Suppose the operator turns the controller K from off
to full speed position connecting control circuit lines a,
last notch-up to the ?rst. The notch-down relays when
deenergized do not effect the notch-up relays. The lines
from the holding coils continue to tie-in cylinder 124
which determines the position and operation of a shunt
pilot motor 128.
b, and c with the power supply voltage.
Then line a closes
relay U1; line b closes relays U2 and U3; and line 0
closes relays U4, U5, and U6. Relays 140, 144, and 152
are energized and raised, and the pilot motor is thereby
13,037,462
1t)
connected across battery 150 and driven to bring the con
coil on. each stick relay 176 on the cars of the detached
unit, the coil 178 on each relay :17 6 being connected across
lines 174 and 76. Line 76 can be grounded. The ener
gizing of relay 176 closes a circuit across battery 158
tactors into full-speed position. As the cylinder 124 is
turned by pilot motor 128 the brushes on the cylinder
which were all in contact with the stepped face 125 in off
position successively from the right make contact with
through the upper coil of relay 142 connected in the cir
cuit broken at d—-d’, 'FIGURE 12, which circuit also in—
cludes back contacts of relay 182, the coil of brake oper
ating relay 184, and the hold coil of relay 176. Relay
142 when energized opens the circuit through pilot motor
ing coil of relay U6 is contacting only patch 126, hold
ing relay 144 up and dropping relay 140, stopping the 10 control relays 140 and 144 which return the pilot motor
to off position of the contactors. Relay 182, being deen
pilot motor at full speed position. The circuit for bold
ergized, permits the braking to continue until at a low
ing the pilot motor is as follows: battery 120, lead to
speed it is opened by the circuit through its coil. Relay
front contacts of relay U1, holding coil on relay U1, front
182 is energized through battery 186 and back contacts
contacts of U2, holding coil on U2, etc. to front contacts
of U6, holding coil on U6, front contacts of DT1 to brush 15 of relay 188. This circuit is broken at ;f—f'. Relay 188,
having been held open by current ?owing from generator
on left of cylinder 124, patch 126, lead to ring 138,
G, closes at low speed when the generated voltage fades
brush thereon to coil of relay 144, lower coil of relay 152,
out. The lifting of relay 182 drops relay 142. The oper
back contacts of relay 142 to battery 120 in series. The
ator is now able to accelerate the car.
armature of the pilot motor 124, being connected in series
The cars shown in the accompanying drawings are
with open contacts of relay 144, is therefore stationary
specially constructed to adapt them to operate satisfac
even though its ?eld is energized by battery 150‘ through
torily and have a large safety factor in wave-train service.
closed contacts of relay 152. Before the cylinder 124 ar
Truck frames 200 include an extension 202 on which
rived at full speed position relay 140 was energized
end platform 204 is mounted by springs 206 shown in
through face 125 and ring 136 in series with the above
mentioned portion of the circuit from battery 120 to the 25 FIGURE 16. An opening 208 is provided in the exten
sion 202 for a tight-lock coupler .210. Other openings
brush on 124, and the pilot motor armature was connected
212 and 214 are provided through which auxiliary cou
to battery 150 in parallel with the open contacts of relay
plers 216, FIGURE 20, operate and hold. One auxiliary
144 through front contacts on relay 140 then closed.
coupler is attached to the right-hand side of the platform
Suppose a stopping current from another train is re
their rectangular conducting surfaces herein referred to as
patches 126 and the insulated surface 127. The pilot
motor operates until the brush connected with the hold
204 to engage in the hold 212 on the left ofa joining
ceived which opens DT1 and DT2 without necessarily
closing D2. The holding coils of relays U6 and US are
truck. The tight—lock coupler with draft gear 218 pivots
deenergized even though the operator holds relays U6
with the truck. Platform 204 is curved to slide against
and U5 closed through line c. Relay 144 drops while re
lay 140 with back contacts closed drives the pilot motor
in reverse until the brush connected. by the line to hold
curved member 202 on the car body which has a radius
ing coil of relay U4 connects with the rectangular patch
shown in iFIG‘URES 8, 9, 10, 15, and 16. They open
to the pivot axis of the truck. Platform 204 has grooves
222 and ‘223 in which operate door frames 224 and 225
from the middle outward to form a wide passageway.
and lifts relay 144 stopping the pilot motor at a speed posi
Trolley wheel ways 226 and 227 are provided in passage
tion under full speed.
cover member 228, FIGURE 15. This cover member is
Suppose the stopping current dies out. Then DT1 and
DT2 close, and the controls may be notched up in full 40 pivoted at 229 on the axis of the truck pivot and is turned
with the shifting of the truck through the lower platform
again either by the operator holding the controller K
and the rigid door frames 224 and 225 (see FIGURES
notched full or by an accelerating current being later re
ceived.
11 and 16).
The controls may remain at this intermediate
The back passage cover member is desig
nated 228'; which is shown longer than 228, since obstruc
speed position when the controller is notched above full
off and is at or below this intermediate speed position and 45 tion of the operator’s view need not be considered at the
rear. Car member 230 is curved to the radius of its dis
when the control current does not require further control.
tance from the truck pivot axis and to this curve the pas
sage cover 228 is ?tted for turning.
The truck with attached pasageway and couplers pre
Similarly the pilot motor may return the contactors to
any required position without ?rst returning to the otf
position by the successive opening of relays DT1, DT2,
etc. with time delay provided therebetween allowing the
pilot motor to return the contactors so that the brushes
of the holding circuits for relays U6, U5, U4, etc. engage
their respective patch 126 on cylinder 124 as these hold—
50
sents a front ‘which is always practically at right angles
to the track tangent thereby permitting approaching car
couplers and passages to line up practically parallel on
curves and thereby enabling the couplers to safely meet at
speed. The shifting passage permits tight locking between
ing circuits are opened by relays DT1, DT2, etc. respec
tively. Then when the stopping current approaches zero 55 all joining faces stabilizing the movement of the car ends,
FIGURE 11.
relays D1, D2, etc. cease to close, stopping the further
The front of the rapid transit cars are provided with
return of the pilot motor. The relays D1, D2, etc. which
Windows 231, 232, 233, and 234, as shown in FIGURE
were closed drop, and relays DT1, DT2, etc. which have
6, to enable the operator to have a good view of the
opened are closed as by spring pressure restoring further
right-of-way. Windows 232 and 233 are in doors 242
control of the pilot motor to the accelerating relays U1,
and 243 which upon being opened or closed move in top
U2, etc. This will enable smooth operation and ?ne ad
guide track 246 and bottom guide 247. Along the meet
justment of speed required to give a small but de?nite
ing edges on each of doors 242 and 243 are attached in
value of speed difference determined by the tap on bat
closure members 248 and 249 respectively. Inclosure
tery '104 connected for joining cars at speed.
Uncoupling of the cars, followed by automatic brak 65 members 248 and 249 are the mirror image of each other
and are connected to passage’ frames 224 and 225 respec
ing of the unit which leaves the train, is controlled
tively as shown for 249 in FIGURE 15, member 248 being
through hand switch 160, normally open, which when
shown in FIGURES 2, 4, and 5. Each passage frame 224
closed against spring pressure enables a current to flow
and 225 has projections 250 and corresponding depres
through the coil of relay 162 provided the front end
doors are closed. Relay 162 upon being energized closes 70 sions 251 which interlock with those of joining cars so
a circuit through battery ‘158, train line coupler release
that when the operator opens doors 242 and 243 and pas
solenoid 166, auxiliary coupler solenoid 168, and main
sage frames 224 and 225 the passage frames of the join~
coupler solenoid 170‘ having contacts 172 which close
ing car are thereby opened to prevent an opening to the
when the coupler opens. Switch 172 connects battery
outside. The doors 242' and 243 can be held steady when
158 to train line wire 174 which energizes the pull-in 75 not being opened or closed by means such as pinch han
3,037,462
11
12
dles 252 similar to those used on car Window curtains.
When doors 242 and 243 are opened, windows 231 and
232 are overlapped as a double window. Likewise win
dows 233 and 234 overlap. As the car trucks shift the
13 and 14, and is provided with a hand pushed railway
within the cars to facilitate movement of goods from car
to car enroute. The track 296 is laid on top of the floor
and between cars a laminated, telescoping, and hinged
end passage frames, the doors 242 and 243 remain steady UK section 297 is provided to provide the ?exibility, exten
while the inclosure members 248 and 249 extend or re
tract to inclose the gap between the passage frames and
the car doors. Side guards may he used in addition to
inclosure members 248 and 249.
The train line couplers may be placed on the front of 10
sibility, and removeability required. The track is shown
on out-swinging side doors 298 in the sides of the cars.
If any of these doors are open the unit can not operate.
The track is provided with turn tables 300 and where
the track is extended to the station platform 302 a portable
turn table 304 is provided to align with the tracks within
end platforms 284, since the platforms need not have
the cars. An operator’s bay 306 is provided on each
practically any movement between each other when
powered goods express car.
joined. Flush train line couplers 254 and 255 are pro
Having described the embodiments of this invention as
vided to prevent ice interference and provide inclosed
contacts. Each end platform is provided with a male 15 shown in the accompanying drawings a few considerations
may help to reveal the broader aspects thereof.
coupler 254 and a female coupler 255 spaced to meet
Two control lines each divided into blocks by insulators
respectively a similar female and male coupler of the
positioned each opposite the middle of the other control
joining car. FIGURE 19 shows line couplers 254 and
line block will dispense with the track circuit in so far
255 about to meet. The male coupler 254 comprises a
as connecting tne control line blocks is concerned. An
housing, a hollow cylinder therein, contacts on the cylin
extra control current collector will be required for the
der embedded ?ush therein and connected each to a line
additional control line. Third rails can replace the trolley
of the train line, insulating material surrounding the con
lines.
tacts and held in the housing, a lever arm 256 connected
The same cars can connect with a train from the rear
by offset rod to the back of the hollow cylinder and piv
and leave from the rear thus providing what can be called
oted at 258, a spring 259 to hold the cylinder in the hous
rear end transfer service. This variation of service will
ing, and relay 166 having a latch held outward by a spring
require sidings and switch controls which can be provided
260 to engage and hold an extension of the lever 256
at the end of each local run distance. The transfer service
in out position of the cylinder. The female coupler 255’
requires that the car or unit travel comparatively much
comprises a housing, an insulating cylinder, a spring hold
faster than the train to catch up with the train, while
ing the cylinder flush with the face of platform 204
against stops at the back of the cylinder, longitudinal bar
contactors spring loaded against the cylinder and spaced
to correspond with the contacts on the male cylinder.
in wave train service the car or unit need not travel as fast
as the train until connected thus enabling the car to con
meet with the train in a much shorter distance than is
possible with rear transfer service for a given train speed.
The intercar speed control not only provides a means
for safely connecting cars at speed but also can be used
to guard against collision between cars or trains and
The tight-lock couplers 210 normally extend from the
permit close scheduling of trains. Intercar control may
uncoupled cars as shown in FIGURES 2, 4, 5, and 16
take on various forms and variations without departing
and have a wedge 268 at the other end of their shank 270
which is engaged between suitable material such as rubber 40 from the intended development of this invention. Mod
i?cations of the control may readily suggest themselves to
272 faced with a material that will take wear such as
those skilled in the art.
steel rods bent vertically at the ends away from the center
I claim:
to prevent lateral movement, FIGURE 17. The rubber
1. In railway transit a railway suitable for wave-train
272 is held in a hollow slot 274 in draft gear member
218. Member 218 has a hole 278 through which passes 45 operation which comprises in combination, a track, sta
tions spaced at intervals therealong, trucks and multiple
the kingpin for the truck.
unit cars mounted thereon and on said track, self-pro
From each side of the draft member 218 extend rigid
The cylinders of joining couplers have the same diameter
and are engaged by the operator through the lever 256.
Only one set should ordinarily be engaged between cars.
arms 280 and 281 to hold respectively hydraulic or air
cylinders 282 and 283 as shown, FIGURE 18. The cylin
ders are connected together at their backs by pipe 284
and at their heads by pipe 286 to balance pressures be
tween cylinders. Each'cylinder has a piston 288 having
therein at least one valve 290 to permit passage only to~
ward the head. From the sides of the wedge extend rigid
pelled units of one or more said cars to provide local
service as a unit and express service in wave trains made
up from one or more units to which said units join at
the front, progress to the rear by coupling and uncoupling
of other said units, and uncouple at the rear, automatic
couplers mounted on said cars to turn with the movement
of said trucks on said cars, end passageways on said
arms 292 and 293 parallel to arms 280 and 281. The 55 cars to permit passenger movement between cars, a con
pistons are parallel and connect each with an arm 282
trol conductor paralleling said track, a current collector
or 283. A reversible delivery pump 291 is connected
on each said unit contacting said conductor, insulators
spaced in said conductor to limit the extent of control
between pipes 274 and 286 and is used to pump the pistons
inward to join the cars completely when the couplers
are not retracted fully by the momentum spent in cou
pling.
current, means for bridging electrically past said insula
60 tors when a said unit is within the vicinity of said insula
Upon coupling cars the couplers are moved inward by
tors, a direct current dynamo on each said unit driven
and excited to provide a voltage dependent on car speed
the relative movement of the cars dissipating energy in
whereby a given voltage produced represents substantially
the friction draft member 218 and in the piston valves
290. Pump 291 is operated by motor 291' started by the
closing of the tight-lock couplers or by the conductor
and operator and stopped upon the closing of the auxiliary
coupler by use of contacts 294 and 295, FIGURE 20.
Upon uncoupling cars relays 166 and 170 are energized
a particular car speed, electrical conducting means con
necting said dynamos on units connected electrically
through said control conductor, said dynamos being con
nected with like polarities together when said cars are
operated in the same direction along said track, current
direction detection control means connected in the circuit
and the pump motor 291' is reversed by any of these or 70 through the said dynamo on each of the said self-propelled
another relay not shown and can be driven to pump the
units and arranged to reduce current through the said
coupler back out to the limit of travel by limit switch
control not shown. Valve 290 remains closed under low
pressure.
A portion of a goods express unit is shown in FIGURES
dynamo of that unit by controlling the traction motors
of the unit whereon located to reduce the speed di?‘erence
between trains by automatically accelerating the unit upon
the approach or another unit until the control current
3,037,462
13
v14
between the units is substantially Zero, and means for
locals to pick up and discharge passengers and alternately
varying the output voltage of the circuit of a said dynamo
as cars in a passenger express train by the acceleration
to provide a speed di?erence between units at zero con
and coupling of the units at the front of the train and
the later uncoupling of the units from the rear, passen~
trol current which is safe for coupling.
2. In a coincident local and express system in which
vehicles are uncoupled ‘from a train to make local stops,
a train having at least one self-propelled enclosed car
gers being enabled to select the proper car for the de
sired local run.
6. In a railway control system in combination with a
vehicle way and self-propelled rail vehicle units travel
endward thereof, said car having in combination, a rail
ing in a given direction thereon, a control circuit be
road coupler for coupling to the car ahead, a passage
to the forward car, means for closing and securing closed 10 tween said vehicle units which includes an electrical gen
erating device on each of said units dispensing a voltage
said passage on both of the coupled cars, operator con
representing and dependent on vehicle speed, conductors
trolled means for opening said coupler from within said
running along said way and circuit means on said units
car when said passage is closed, control means actuated
by the pulling out of the coupler pin for disconnecting
connecting said generating devices across said conduc
power to the traction motors and applying brakes to slow
the car to a low safe speed to separate from the train,
operator switch means and means responsive to the speed
of the car and controlled by said switch means for re
tors whereby a control current can flow between said
vehicle units, and current direction discriminating means
in said control circuit for automatically controlling the
leasing the brakes and returning control to the operator
rection through the said generating device on the vehicle
speed of a said vehicle unit according to the current di
unit being controlled thereby.
when car speed is reduced below a predetermined value.
7. In a railway control system means for automatically
3. In railway transit a system combining local service
regulating speed differences between trains within a zone
with express service comprising in combination, a rail
way track, a multiple-unit train thereon having end pas
of interspeed control and comprising in combination, a
sage between cars, means including an operator for detach
length of track, trains thereon, a loop circuit connected
ing therefrom at speed a unit of one or more self-powered 25 between each of said trains, at least one direct current
cars, means for automatically slowing the detached unit
dynamo on each said train, said dynamos being con
to a safe speed upon uncoupling without necessarily
nected in said loop circuit and driven and excited to vary
reducing train speed, means including an operator for
their output voltage with train speed and provide op
posed and equal voltages when their respective trains
operating said unit alone to continue running to make a
local run, means for automatically controlling the speed 30 are operating at substantially the same speed in the same
of said unit wherever approached along said track by a
direction ‘along said length of track, automatic traction
motor controls having automatic accelerating relay means
said multiple-unit train to start and bring said unit up to
a suitable difference of speed between said second train
for closing circuits of the motor controls and automatic
and said unit at a distance apart providing a suitable
decelerating relay means for opening these circuits and
safety factor, coupling means for automatically connect
for applying brakes on each said train, current direction
ing said unit to said second train at said difference of
detection means in said loop circuit on each said train
for selectively connecting said accelerating means or said
speed.
4. in a railway system, the combination of a vehicle
decelerating means to said loop circuit to respectively ac
celerate or decelerate the train when said dynamo there
route; a ?rst and a second vehicle thereon, said ?rst ve
hicle being ahead of said second; coupling means for 40 on is substantially operating as a motor or generator re
coupling said vehicles; means along the route and on each
spectively with said loop circuit closed, operator con
said vehicle to complete a circuit which represents the
trolled electrical switch means for connecting said ac
speed difference between vehicles as a direct current hav
celerating means through said detention means to con
ing a direction on each said vehicle determined by which
trol acceleration of the train with a current in said loop
vehicle is traveling faster, said means extending for a
circuit having a direction through the dynamo on that
distance to complete the circuit 1between said vehicles 45 train indicating that the dynamo is functioning as a mo
to beyond a safe stopping distance apart; current direction
tor, said current direction detection means being ar
ranged to conduct current to decelerate the train when
sensitive means controlled by said last mentioned means
to accelerate said ?rst vehicle to a safe speed difference
said dynamo on that train functions as a generator.
8. In a control system as in claim 7 on one or more of
for coupling said vehicles at speed.
50
said trains; a second electrical operator controlled switch
5. The combination; a railway track, multiple-unit
means, a relay having front contacts and having its
trains thereon, end passages between the cars of said
coil connected in said loop circuit to be energized by a
trains, automatically operated couplers and connections
at the ends of said units; a two-way control communica
tion system between units for comparing speeds, auto
matic control means connected in said system and includ
strong current therethrough as results from the train
completing a control circuit ‘with a standing vehicle and
circuit means connected by contacts of said second switch
ing accelerating means and decelerating means to be ac
means in series ‘with said front contacts so that an opera
tuated in accordance with a speed di?erence between units
tor in conjunction with a strong current in said loop cir
cuit ‘which closes said contacts can disconnect said con
above a predetermined safe difference for accelerating
the slower and decelerating the faster of two rail units 60 trols from said loop circuit, delay means actuated by a
control current substantially greater than that required
to establish a predetermined speed di?erence therebe
for operation of said controls, a plurality of contact
tween for coupling at speed, switch means for connect
points closed in succession by actuation of said delay
ing said accelerating means in said system so that an
means, overload relay means energized from said loop
operator can select whether the unit can be accelerated
by a faster unit, switch means for disconnecting said de 65 circuit through said contact points arranged to require less
control current to operate upon the closing of successive
celerating means from the system so that an operator
contact points, said overload relay means being rated
can postpone slowing of his unit by a slower unit, circuit
and connected to return said controls to said loop cir
means for bypassing said last mentioned switch means
and including delay means for closing the bypass, said
cuit when required to slow the ‘train.
9. A control system ‘for controlling the speed ditfer
delay means being connected in said system to be actu~ 70
ence between two or more trains within a Zone of control
ated by an initial signal from another train for a period
and which comprises, a trackway, railway vehicles there
of safe delay to permit the other train to balance its
on, conducting means paralleling said trackway for com
speed therewith, means limiting the range of said control
pleting a control circuit between vehicles, control cir
communication to the distance between units wherein con
trol therebetween is desired; said units being operated as 75 cuit means on said vehicles connecting said conductive
3,037,462
15
16
dynamo developing simultaneously similar polarity on
means on each said train for controlling deceleration of
the train, electrically operated means on each said train
each said vehicle when moving in the same direction
for controlling acceleration of the train, means directing
means in a closed electrical circuit between vehicles, a
current from said dynamo on the train to operate said
connected in the circuit of said control circuit means Cl means for controlling deceleration or to operate said
means for controlling acceleration according to the cur
on the vehicle whereon the dynamo is located, means
along said trackway and the output of said dynamo being
driving and exciting said dynamo in such a way that
the voltage generated thereby varies with the speed of the
rent direction through said dynamo on that train, switch
vehicle on which the dynamo is located and whereby the
same voltage on each vehicle electrically connected by
be automatically accelerated when approached by an~
said conductive means represents the same speed on all
means for controlling deceleration, a second switch means
of these vehicles and whereby a ditierence of voltage
between vehicles causes a current in the circuit between
for closing said bypass so that an operator can delay
automatic deceleration, relay and delay means for open
these vehicles, and a polarized relay having its coil con
ing said control-circuit bypass by excessive or sustained
means for an operator to select whether the train is to
other train, a control-circuit current bypass about said
nected in series in said circuit to detect whether a said 15 control current or by reduction of the control current to
a low value whicheveer comes ?rst, whereby a said train
dynamo is operating as a motor or generator and means
is decelerated whenever a said train ahead is not accel
controlled by said relay to decelerate a said vehicle when
erated sufficiently.
its said dynamo is operating as a current generator.
14. In a railway as in claim 13, means for selecting
10. In a control system for railway vehicles as in claim
9, ?eld adjustment means for varying the output voltage
of the dynamo within a limited range that provides a safe
speed difference adjustment between that train and other
trains when the control circuit is closed between trains;
the desired safe speed difference for coupling at speed
comprising, means for adjusting the output voltage of
said dynamo over a limited range and means for con
the current in the control circuit then balances to sub
trolling said means for adjusting to provide an adjusted
voltage whenever said switch means for closing said by
stantially zero at the safe speed difference selected.
pass is closed, said voltage adjustment being such that
ll. In combination, a ?rst voltage source, a second
voltage source, said ?rst source being a dynamo driven
and excited to develop a voltage caried with and repre
senting the speed of a vehicle, said second source pro
said trains are permitted to approach at a safe speed
di?erence for coupling.
15. In a railway system, in combination, a track, track
circuit blocks therealong, multiple-unit self-propelled cars
viding a voltage representing a limiting speed for the 30 thereon, an electrical conductor paralleling said track, in
sulators spaced at substantially block intervals for a dis
vehicle, a circuit connecting both said sources in series
tance in said conductor, relay and track circuit means for
opposing and including current direction detection means
bridging electrically across each said block spaced insu
in said circuit, and control means connected to said de
lator upon the occupancy of the track for a length at
tcction means for controlling the speed of the vehicle ac
least to substantially half a said ‘block from each said
cording to the current direction through said detection
block spaced insulator, a current collector on each said
means, whereby the maximum speed of the vehicle can
self-propelled car for contacting said conductor, a dyna
be limited.
mo which develops substantially full voltage on open cir
12. In a railway system, a stretch of track, trains there
cuit on each said self-propelled car driven at a speed pro
on, signaling means on each said train establishing a
control signal representing the speed of the train on 40 portional to car speed to develop a voltage representing
the speed of the car on which located, current operated
which the signaling means is located, conducting means for
accelerating means and current operated decelerating
carrying said signals between trains, and means associat
means in series with said dynamo between the ground or
ed with said conducting means to maintain said con~
rail and said conductor, said accelerating means and dc
ducting means nonconducting ‘between trains until said
celerating means being connected to accelerate or decel
trains are within a predetermined distance apart, reading
erate the car on ‘which located and controlled by the cur
means for detecting and evaluating said control signals
rent supplied by the dynamos of two or more cars ac
to determine the speed di?'erence between trains when
cording to the direction of this current through the dyna
connected "by said conducting means, means controlled
by said reading means for regulating the speed of each
said train to balance out a speed diiference between said
trains when electrically connected by said conducting
mo of the car on which located, said blocks and insula
tors limiting the range of the current between cars.
16. In a railway system, the combination of a track,
insulating means dividing said track into track circuit
means and comprising, accelerating means and decelerat
blocks which are electrically connected to pass direct cur
ing means, a ?rst switch means engageable by the opera
rent from block to block, a control conductor paralleling
tor for rendering said accelerating means for that train
operative upon the approach of another said train, a sec 55 said track, insulators therein dividing said conductor into
insulated sections of substantially block length, tracl:
ond switch means engageable by the operator for ren
circuit relays having contacts which bridge said insula
dering said decelerating means inoperable for a limited
tors upon the approach of a rail vehicle, multiple-unit
duration, means for checking the reduction of the speed
rail vehicles on said track having thereon the following:
difference between trains and for actuating said decel
erating means when one said train approaches another 60 a polarized generating device driven at a speed dependent
on vehicle speed and having a polarity reversed by a
said train ‘and the speed difference therebetween exceeds
change of direction of rotation of the wheels of the ve
desired limits, whereby a said train is allowed time to
hicle, a ?rst series of relays for successively closing con
be automatically accelerated upon approach of a said train
trol circuits in parallel with the operator’s controller to
before the approaching train is slowed,
13. A railway control system comprising in combina 65 accelerate, a second series of relays for successively open
ing the control circuits in the reverse order of closing and
tion a stretch of track, trains thereon, electrical contact
for applying brakes, circuit means for directing current
conductor means paralleling said track, a current col
to said first or second series of relays according to the
lector on each said train contacting said conductor means,
direction of current through said generating device, con
a direct current dynamo on each said train driven and
connected to develop a voltage representing the speed 70 tact and conductor means connecting said generating de
vices across said control conductor and the rails of said
of the train on which located relative to the voltage pro
duced by each other said train, conducting means for
completing a control loop circuit between each two said
trains through said control conductor means and through
track, said track and control conductor completing a cir
cuit ‘between said vehicles upon the approach of said
vehicles whereby current through said generating devices
said dynamos on each said train, electrically operated 75 represents a speed difference between said vehicles when
8,037,462
17
18
close enough to be electrically connected through said
necting said contactors in series with said electrical means
to the rails and means for connecting either said series
of relays in the circuit through said electrical means ac
cording to the direction of current in the circuit closed
‘through said conductors and the rails between said rail
vehicles whereby near units are electrically connected
control conductor and effects speed control according .
to the direction of said current.
17. In a railway system as in claim 16, insulators spaced
at less than car length dividing said control conductor
for a distance longer than the stopping distance of a car
‘and speed diiferences controlled and units far enough
apart are electrically separated by said insulators.
22.. A system and circuits for controlling railway ve
distance they can be slowed without also slowing the
train, said insulators being arranged to maintain a con 10 hicle units to couple and uncouple them at speed which
comprises in combination; a stretch of track; self-pro
tinuous running surface over which said cont-act means
pelled rail vehicle units thereon; means to transmit a
has moving contact.
speed signal between said rail units; means selectively
18. In a railway system as in claim 16, a section of
conducting responding to a transmitted signal indicating
track for protecting rail vehicles coextensive with which
the conductivity of said control line is terminanted, a track 15 a train in the vicinity having a substantially different
speed, a current supply, ‘automatic controls connected
circuit extending coextensive with said section, a ?rst
through said selectively conducting means across said
track circuit relay having its coil connected across the
current supply, said automatic controls comprising a
entrance end of said section and having back contacts, a
?rst series of relays having front contacts each after the
short track circuit block ahead of said section and longer
than the longest span between car wheels of a train there 20 ?rst connected through front contacts of the preceding
relay of the series, a series of drive control circuits of
on, a second track circuit relay having its coil connected
successive speed steps each connected through front con
across said short block and having front contacts, con
tacts of a relay of said ?rst series in order of increasing
ducting means connecting said control conductor ahead
speed to accelerate the rail unit in steps, means to hold
of said section to the rails ahead of said short block
through said contacts of said ?rst and second relays in 25 each said drive control circuit closed after closing, a sec
ond series of relays each relay thereof after the ?rst
series, whereby a rail vehicle in said section will ground
relay thereof connected through contacts of the preced
said control conductor to the rear of said section to
ing relay, contact means operated by said second series
stop said rail vehicle approaching said section.
of relays to open said control circuits in steps from the
19. In a train to train control system an arrangement to
to block automatic control current between vehicles so
that when the cars are uncoupled upon entering this
extend and retract the zone of control about vehicles, 30 highest notch to the lowest and means actuated there
comprising: three parallel contact conductors each insu
lated from the others, insulators dividing a ?rst said con
ductor into block lengths, block circuits each compris
ing a current supply connected across the ?rst and an
other said conductor and relay means connected across
after by said second series of relays to apply braking,
said selectively conducting means passing current to said
?rst or second series of relays according to whether re
spectively the vehicle is traveling slower or faster than
the speed of the fastest vehicle whose signal is received,
and means for uncoupling the vehicle units at speed; and
means for interrupting signaling between vehicles after
uncoupling whereby a unit uncoupled at speed can be
stopped without effecting the speed of the forward unit.
23. A railway control system for controlling speed dif
and electrical conductive means connected across adja 40
ferences between rail vehicles and which comprises, a
cent block lengths of this second said conductor in series
dynamo on each vehicle unit driven and excited to de
with contacts of said relay means arranged whereby a
velop a voltage variable with and representing the speed
vehicle shorting said current supply will electrically bridge
of the vehicle unit Whereon located, conductors connect
a plurality of adjacent block lengths of the second said
conductor together inclusive of ‘the block in which the 4.5 ing said dynamos externally between units, said dynamos
being connected with similar polarity to the same con
vehicle is, vehicles each having an electrical control sig
the same two said conductors in the same block length
thereof so as to be engerized from said current supply
and alternately shorted by a vehicle in the block, insu
lators dividing a second said conductor into block lengths
ductor so that their voltages are opposing when vehicles
are operating in the same direction, at least one traction
motor on each said vehicle unit, rotary contactors for
and the third said conductor to move thereon, control
signal means in series with said control circuit, and where 50 controlling power to said traction motors, a reversible
nal source and moving contact means electrically con
necting said source across the second said conductor
by a control circuit is completed between vehicles with
in the zone of the blocks bridged by the vehicles and open
beyond this zone.
20. In a system as in claim 19, said control signal
source being direct current dynamo and means for driv 55
ing and exciting the dynamo to develop a voltage rela
tively representing the vehicle’s speed, said control signal
pilot motor for turning said contactors to increase or de
crease power to the traction motors according to the di
rection of revolution of said pilot motor, a reverse relay,
a power source connected across said pilot motor
through from contacts of said reverse relay to increase
speed and through back contacts to return the pilot mo
tor, a holding relay having back contacts in series with
said source to stop the pilot motor, a drum switch con
nected to rotate with ?xed relation to said pilot motor,
troll circuit in series with the dynamo on that vehicle
and in view of the operator of the vehicle.
60 said drum switch having a row of brushes engaging a
?rst conductive face on the drum which turns with in
21. In a railway system, the combination of a track,
creasing speed positions out from under successive said
two control line conductors paralleling said track and
brushes one for each stopping position of said rotary
having insulators therein spaced at intervals each opposite
contactors, a second conductive surface onto which the
substantially the middle of the distance between insula
tors of the other, multiple-unit rail vehicle units on said 65 brushes are turned in succession as the drum turns to
ward full speed position and sized and positioned to hold
track, a control circuit between said units consisting of
the highest energized brush just after that brush leaves
the following: electrical means providing a voltage varia
said ?rst conductive face at a stopping position for said
ble with and representing vehicle speed, a ?rst series of
rotary contactors, a ?rst series of relays each having front
relays connected for closing the control circuits in suc—
cession and in parallel with the operator’s controller to 70 contacts and a holding coil, current operated means for
closing said relays in succession, means in said control
accelerate, a second series of relay connected for open
circuit for controlling said last ‘mentioned means ac
ing the control circuits closed by said ?rst series of relays
cording to the current direction in said control circuit
in the reverse order of closing and for applying the
to close said ?rst series of relays when the current in
brakes, contactors on each said unit each for contacting
one of said control conductors, conducting means con 75 said control circuit is of the direction received from a
means including a direct-current ammeter in said con
3,037,462
and energizing each above the ?rst said second relay
~means through front contacts of the preceding, said back
faster moving vehicle, a ?rst circuit for energizing said
reverse relay completed in series through said ?rst con
ductive surface and the holding coil and front contacts
contacts each being connected in series each with a suc
cessive said control circuit to open a number of said con
trol circuits in the reverse order of closing to reduce
of any relay of said ?rst series and through all preced
ing relays in the series, a second circuit for energizing
said hold relay completed in series through said second
surface and the holding coil and front contacts of any
relay of said ?rst series and through all preceding relays
in the series, a second series of relays controlled by a
speed to any automatic running notch.
28. In a control circuit for rail units wherein a direct
current represents a speed di?erence between units, con
trol means for decelerating a rail unit upon reception of
current in said control circuit of a direction indicating 10 control current of a certain polarity, switch means for
delaying automatic deceleration by switching the control
too high a speed, contacts controlled by said second series
of relays to open said last mentioned circuit in steps from
current away from said control means, and means for
automatically bypassing said switch means by connect
the highest speed brush through the lowest.
24. In railway-transit automatic speed controls, means
ing in said control means to slow the unit when required
and comprising, a multiple-contact time~delay relay ar
ranged to reset when deenergized and arranged and con
nected to be energized from the unit to unit control cir
cuit current of value higher than that required to auto
to automatically notch traction motor control power and
comprising, a ?rst series of relay means connected each
above the ?rst through contacts of the preceeding to be
energized in succession for increasing speed of the vehi
cle in steps, holding circuits for holding said ?rst series
matically control the units, relays arranged to actuate
of relay means energized after closing, switch means con
at successively lower values of power and to be succes
trolled by the operator for opening said holding circuits,
sively connected through contacts on said time-delay
relay into the control circuit for checking the reduction
of control current periodically, said relays upon actuat~
ing each closing said control circuit to said control
a second series of relay means each having contacts in
series with a holding circuit to open said holding circuits
of the relay means of said ?rst series consecutively in
the reverse order from which they .were closed, and cir 25
cuit means for providing a control current of a value and
means.
direction to represent respectively the extent and direc
prising; a series of ?rst relays having front contacts; a
controller and power supply means connected through
tion of control desired to energize either said ?rst or sec
ond series of relays according to the direction of the
control current and means for providing time delay be
29. A combination manual-automatic controller com
said controller across the coils of successive groups of
one or more successive said ?rst relays in successive posi
tween operation of the relays of said second series where
by speed adjustment while the relays are being succes~
sively energized can reduce said control current whereby
said ?rst series of relays can remain energized to any par
ticular relay in said series when said control current dies
tions of said controller for energizing said relays in suc
cessive groups; automatic accelerating control means for
out.
all of said relays preceding in the series, contacts for
opening each holding circuit; means for controlling trac
tion motor contacts; successive relays in said ?rst series
energizing said relays in succession; a series of holding
circuits each connected in series across a coil of a said
relay, ‘front contacts of that relay and front contacts of
25. A control circuit for controlling traction motors
and comprising in combination: a ?rst and a second con
being connected to incrementally operate said last men
trol circuit voltage source, means for varying the output
of said first source with vehicle speed to represent the
speed of a vehicle, said second voltage source repre
senting ‘a limiting speed for the vehicle according to the
tioned means to successively higher speed motor con
nections, and automatic decelerating means for opening
any of said holding circuits and all higher speed holding
circuits to automatically notch down the traction motor
voltage and polarity supplied, a circuit connecting the
power to any desired speed.
two said sources in series opposing, current direction dis
criminating means in said control circuit for passing or 45
30. In railway~transit automatic speed control, means
arranged to automatically notch traction motor control
blocking current according to its direction, a ?rst series
power and including a pilot motor for closing contacts
of relay means having front contacts, energizing coil
means if each said relay means being connected in paral
to traction motors, a pilot motor positioning cylinder ar
lel and each after the ?rst being connected through front
ranged to ‘turn with said pilot motor, a series of control
contacts of the preceeding and all being connected in se 50 circuits and contact means connecting each said cir
ries with said control circuit through said current dis‘
cuit with said cylinder, a stepped conducting face on
criminating means, serving to block or pass current to
said cylinder and holding conductive means next to each
said relay means, said relay means having contacts on
step on the face of said cylinder and arranged whereby
successive said relay means for controlling traction power
said series of circuits makes contact with said stepped
in steps, and circuit means for completing the control 55 face and successively engages said holding means as said
circuit to pass a current blocked from said series of
cylinder is rotated and successively reaches the remain
relays.
der of the face of said cylinder as the pilot motor turns
26. In a combination as in claim 25, successive said
in the direction which accelerates the traction motors, a
relay means requiring successively larger control cur
pilot motor reversing relay, a pilot motor stopping relay
rent to operate to cause the number of relay means ener
60 having back contacts, current supply means for driving
gized to represent the intensity of the control current,
successive said relay means being connected with less
resistance.
27. Controls for automatically accelerating and de
celerating a vehicle in steps comprising in combination, 65
a series of stick relay means having front contacts, ac
said pilot motor and circuit means whereby the armature
of said motor is connected for accelerating through back
contacts of both said relays to said current supply, and
connected for deceleration through front contacts of said
reversing relay, slip ring and circuit means connecting
the coils of said reversing relay and said holding relay
celerating control circuits which are to be closed in suc
respectively to said stepped face and said holding con
cession each connected in series through front contacts
ductive means, a series of stick relay means for closing
and the stick coil of a relay means of said series, a clos
said control circuits in succession each after the ?rst
ing circuit for energizing each said relay means and for 70 through contacts of the preceding, and a second series of
energizing each above the ?rst said relay means through
relay means connected in parallel each after the ?rst
contacts of the preceding and so close said control cir
through contacts of the preceding to be energized in
cuits in succession to increase speed, a second series of
succession and contacts on said second series of relay
relay means having front and back contacts, an opening
means connected to open said control circuits in the
circuit for energizing the ?rst said second relay means 75 reverse order from which the control circuits were closed,
8,037,462
22
vsaid second series of relays providing time delay between
the opening of successive control circuits to permit the
pilot motor to return notch by notch providing ?ne speed
adjustment and stable operation of the relays.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
694,129
828,340
1,139,411
1,263,541
1,282,777
1,319,311
1,353,423
1,720,633
1,747,041
2,152,384
Alexanderson ________ __ Feb. 11, 1930
Lewis ______________ __ Mar. 28, 1939
28,735
Great Britain __________ __ July 9, 1908
Tomlinson ___________ __ Oct. 21, 1919
Samuelson __________ __ Sept. 21, 1929
Howe ________________ __ July 9, 1929
FOREIGN PATENTS
Brown ______________ __ Feb. 28, 1902
Rice ________________ __ Aug. 14, 1906
10
Gunn _______________ __ May 11, 1915,
Estwick _____________ __ Apr. 23, 1918
Doyle _______________ __ ‘Oct. 29, 1918
of 1907
_
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