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Патент USA US3037860

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3,037,851
Patented June 5, 1962
1
2
3,037,851
mers in solution in the presence of a free-radical catalyst,
as is more fully discussed, together with other methods
STABILlZElD LEADED (GASGLM
of preparation, in U.S. 2,737,496 and 2,737,452. The
Harold J. Scheuie, Salem, N.J., assignor to E. I. du Pont
polymerizable monomeric components must include one
de Nemours and Company, Wilmington, Del, a cor 5 which contains an aliphatic chain of at least eight carbon
poration of Delaware
No Drawing. Filed June 28, 1956, Ser. No. 594,350
6 Claims. (Cl. 44-62)
This invention is directed to gasolines containing tetra
ethyllead and more particularly to a method for stabiliz
ing said gasolines against becoming cloudy and deposit
ing precipitates on storage and on exposure to light.
Many commercially available gasolines containing tetra
ethyllead develop a haze on storage, which increases with
time, forming a de?nite precipitate containing high per
centages of lead. Both the haze and the precipitate are
objectionable. The former is associated by the customer
with poor quality. Gasolines which are hazy tend to de
atoms and another which contains ‘a basic amino nitro
gen structure.
In addition to these monomers which are
essential, other monomers containing neither long chains
nor basic nitrogen may be used. Examples of the ?rst
class are ethylenically unsaturated esters, ethers, am
ides, and hydrocarbons, containing the long chains, par
ticularly the acrylates and methacrylates of long‘chain
aliphatic alcohols. Examples of the second class are
ethylenically unsaturated esters and ethers of amino al
cohols, amino substituted ole?ns such as dimethylamino
ethyl styrene, unsaturated amines such as allyl amines,
and basic nitrogen heterocycles containing cthylic un
saturation, such as the vinyl pyridines. Tertiary amino
groups are usually preferred. Examples of the third class
posit the suspended material and hence clog screens and
?ne ori?ces through which they pass, even though the 20 of monomers, containing neither long-chain nor basic
nitrogens include such common polymerizables as styrene,
actual amount of solid may be very small. Larger
acrylonitrile, and methacrylic anilide.
amounts of precipitate form troublesome deposits in tanks
It has been found that the same basic copolymers dis
and also in lines and other parts in which the gasoline
closed in U.S. Patent 2,737,496 and U.S. Patent 2,737,452
may remain under some circumstances. Such deposits are
as stabilizers for lubricating and fuel oils respectively,
particularly objectionable on the Walls of sight glasses and
similar exposed glass parts of gasoline pumps, in which
light greatly accelerates the formation of deposits, which
are surprisingly effective for leaded gasoline by prevent
ing the formation of haze and precipitation according to
must be frequently removed. Another serious result of
the precipitation is the reduction of the tetraethyllead
content of the gasoline. The obvious ways of overcoming
the formation of haze and the precipitation are in most
the present invention, a distinctly different effect than
that achieved in lubricating and fuel oils. Thus, in the
case of oils, the troublesome effect is the formation of
sludges and varnish-like deposits, both of which are or
cases ineffective, such as adding antioxidants with the
ganic in nature and are believed to result from the oxida
hope of preventing the formation of the insoluble material
toin and decomposition of the oil. On the other hand,
(except that certain types are helpful) or adding con
ventional dispersing agents with the hope of keeping it
suspended.
It is an object of the present invention to inhibit the
the troublesome e?ect overcome in the present invention
35 comes from the formation of essentially inorganic solids
containing high proportions (50 to 60%) of lead. The
effects of the additives is little understood in any of these
systems. It may be in part a suspending action. How
formation of haze and precipitation in gasolines contain
ever, the knowledge of the effect of the basic copolymers
ing tetraethyllead by stabilizing said gasoline with an oil
40 upon oils containing sludge would not suggest their effect
soluble copolymer containing basic amino nitrogen.
on leaded gasoline, which effect forms the basis of the
More speci?cally, the present invention is directed to
present invention. Little is known about dispersing
a leaded gasoline containing about 00003 to about 0.01%
action in liquid hydrocarbon systems which is helpful in
by weight of an oil-soluble copolymer containing in com
predicting what agents will be effective in a particular
bined form as its essential monomeric components co
polymerizable ethylenically unsaturated compounds each
45 case.
What little information is available on such sys!
containing only one po-lymerizable ethylenically unsatu
tems emphasizes the highly speci?c nature of the dis
rated linkage, at least one of which compounds is amino
persing agent. This is shown by the fact, which is fully
brought out by experiments described- in the above
patents, that several different types of dispersing agents
free and contains from 8 to about 18 carbon atoms in an
aliphatic hydrocarbon chain, which in the polymer is not
part of the main chain, and one of the components, as 50 effective in hydrocarbon systems for other purposes are
inferior for sludge and varnish control and may even in
it exists in the polymer, containing a basic amino nitro
crease the amount of sludge. See particularly Table VIII
gen in the side chain, said copolymer containing 0.1 to
3.5% by weight of basic amino nitrogen having an in
of 2,737,452.
The proportions used of the basic copolymers will de
herent viscosity of 0.1 to 3.0 as determined at 0.1%
55 pend upon the extent of the stabilization desired and
weight/ volume concentration in benzene at 25° C.
For purpose of brevity the copolymers of the present
invention will be referred to as basic amino copolymers.
the susceptibility of the particular gasoline to deposit
formation. Furthermore, the particular basic copolymer
selected will also depend in part upon the particular
By “leaded gosoline” is meant a gasoline containing
gasoline to be stabilized, since certain basic copolymers
sufficient tetraethyllead to improve its antiknock rating
substantially (usually 0.5 to 4.6 ml. per gal); said gaso 60 are exceptionally effective with certain gasolines. Mix
tures of two types of basic copolymers are sometimes used
line may contain hydrocarbons of the aliphatic, naph
thenic and aromatic series and may be either saturated
or unsaturated and may be straight run or catalytically
or thermally cracked, or may be made by a combination
of simpler molecules.
The basic amino copolymers used in the present inven
tion are conveniently made by heating the required mono
to advantage.
The basic copolymers may be used to
gether with other gasoline additives, such as antioxidants,
metal deactivators, and dyes, as well as antiknock agents
65 and their scavengers.
In vgeneral, the basic copolymers
made from esters of acrylic and methacrylic acid with long
chain alcohols and dialkylamino alcohols are preferred.v
3,037,851
.
4
3
EXAMPLES
The stabilized gasolines in the following examples are
made by adding tetraethyllead and the speci?ed basic
Table III
EFFECT OF STORAGE AT110° F. (IN THE DARKl-STORAGE
PERIODS IN DAYS REQUIRED FOR PRODUCTION OF THE
FIRST NOTIOEABLE HAZE
amino copolymer to three unleaded gasolines described
below. The basic amino copolymers are added by stirring
CopolyCon-
the viscous material directly into the gasoline or, more
rner A—
Copoly0011-
mer
-—-
Oopoly
Gon-
mer A—
trol, 10 lbs. trol,
5 lbs.
trol, 10 lbs.
days per 1,000 days per 1,000 days per 1,000
conveniently, by ?rst dissolving the copolymer in a small
bbl.
'
bbl.
bbl.
amount of gasoline or other hydrocarbon solvent and
0.110325%
0.0019%
0.000325%
then mixing this solution with the gasoline. Their con
centration is expressed in percent and in pounds per 1000 10 Fuel A+3 rnl.+4.6
fr
7
barrels of gasoline. The tetraethyllead is added in the
Fuel
ml. B+3
TELn1l.+4.6
per gaL- { 7,
1357
1;;
57
form of a commercial mixture with the scavenging agents,
ml. 'l‘E-L per gaL. { 65
132
32
ethylene dichloride and dibromide.
Fuel 0+3 ml.+4.6
54
132
3.,
ml. TEL per gaL. { 54
74
35
Two accelerated tests were used to determine the sta
bility of the gasoline. In one, the gasoline was exposed 15
Results obtained when the fuel contains 4.6 ml. of TEL
in clear glass bottles to direct sunlight and the number of
per gallon, as in aviation fuels, are, in general, very simi
hours of sunlight required to produce the ?rst observable
lar to those results obtained with 3 ml. of TEL when using
haze was determined. In the other test, the gasoline was
the same concentrations of basic amino copolymers as
stored in glass bottles at 110° F. in the dark and the
number of days for the ?rst observable haze was de 20 shown in Table III. Certain fuels, however, are exception
ally sensitive to high TEL concentrations when exposed to
termined. The latter test is widely used in the industry.
light; of signi?cance is the fact that the addition of the
When a gasoline isstable for one month in this accelerated
basic amino copolymers of the present invention to these
test, it may be assumed that it would be stable for about
sensitive systems very materially increase the stability of
four months under ordinary storage conditions.
25 said systems. Thus fuel B with 4.6 ml. of TEL per gal
Table I
lon showed the ?rst haze in the sunlight test in less than
one hour; in contrast thereto, by adding copolymer A in
EFFECT OF SUNLIGHT—COMPARISON OF OOPOLYIVIERS-e
EXPOSURE PRODUCING FIRST NOTIOEABLE HAZE
the proportion of 10 lbs. of copolymer per 1,000 barrels
of fuel, the appearance of the ?rst haze was postponed
30 7 hours. The stabilization of gasolines containing sub
Copolymer
stantially less than 3 ml. of TEL per gallon, on the other
A
0
D
E
F
hand, is, in general, much easier and lower concentrations
of the basic amino copolymers are required to give the
trol,
hrs. 10 lbs
8 lbs. 20 lbs. 20 lbs. 20 lbs.
stabilizing e?ects described in the above tables for fuels
per
per
per
per
per
35 containing 3 ml. of TEL.
1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000
1,000
bbl.
bbl.
bbl.
bbl.
bbl.
It will be seen from these tables that very small pro
0,0038% 0.0031% 0.007691, 0.007670 0.0076%
portions of the basic copolymers are eifective in postpon
ing the appearance, even the ?rst sign, a slight haziness, of
Fuel A +3 ml. TEL
per g ________ __'____
3
31
22
24
20
21
Fuel B +3 ml. TEL
40 the formation of solid, lead-containing material. The
formation of enough material to be actually troublesome
' per gal ____________ ._
3
48
22
20
21
20
Con-
'
Fuel 0 +3 ml. TEL
per g l __________ _.
is of course postponed to a much greater extent.
3
4S
______________________________ __
Fuel A is a commercial unleaded gasoline. '
Fuel B is a commercial blend of 10% alkylated and 90% catalytically
cracked stocks.
7
Fuel 0 is a laboratory prepared blend containing: 34% of saturated
hydrocarbons (made up of 19% para?ins and 15% naphthenes), 30%
unsaturated, and 36% aromatic hydrocarbons.
Copolymer A contains, in combined form, 50 parts of octadecenyl
methaerylate by weight,'40 of styrene and 10 of beta-diethylaminoethyl
methacrylate.
'
weight of a copolymer of octadecenyl methacrylate, sty
'
Copolymer G contains 90. of lauryl methaerylate and 10 of beta
diethylaminoethyl methacrylate.
Since
the tests used are highly accelerated, it will be clear that
the present invention gives protection against the forma
tion of deposits arising in leaded gasoline for all reason
able storage conditions.
I claim:
1. Gasoline containing an antiknock quantity of tetra
ethyllead and from about 0.0003 to about 0.01% by
rene and beta-diethylaminoethyl methacrylate, said co
polymer having an inherent viscosity of 0.1 to 3.0 as de
termined at 0.1% weight/volume concentration in ben~
»
Oopolymer D contains 80 of vinyl lauryl ether and 20 of vinyl beta
Copolymer E contains 92.5'0f' vinyl laurate and 7.5 of beta-diethyl
aminoethyl methacrylate.
.
Copolymer F contains 90 of mixed cetyl and stearyl methacrylate and
10 of 4-viny1 pyridine.
diethylaminoethyl ether.
zene at 25° C.
2. The gasoline of claim 1 containing from about 0.5
to about 4.6 ‘ml. of tetraethyllead per gallon of gasoline.
3. The gasoline of claim 1, containing from 0.01 to
about 0.001% by weight of said copolymer as haze and
The lauryl alcohol used in making the above lauryl
esters and ethers was of technical grade, made by reducing
precipitation inhibiting agent.
7
coconutoil fatty acids and containing minor amounts of
the immediate higher and lower members of the series
4.
Gasoline
containing
an
antiknock
quantity
of tetra
60
with even numbers of carbon atoms.
ethyllead and from about 0.0003 to about 0.01% by
weight of a copolymer of 50 parts octadecenyl meth.
' Table II
acrylate, 40 parts styrene and 10 parts beta-diethylamino
ethyl methacrylate, said copolymer having an inherent
EFFECT OF SUNLIGHT-COMPARISON OF CONCENTRA-'
TIONS-EXPOSURE PRODUCING FIRST NO'I‘IOEABLE
HAZE
V
.
V
.
Control,
hrs.
v
I
V.
65
‘CopolymerA
f
10
p91‘
5
1
Del‘
0
1
.bbl.
bbl.
0.003894;
0.011119%
2.5916560
1
P91‘
bbl.
0.000515% 7
70
viscosity of 0.1 to 3.0 as determined at 0.1% wei-ght/
volume concentration in benzene at 25° C.
'
5. The gasoline of claim 4 containing from about’ 0.5
to about 4.6 ml. of tetraethyllead 'per gallon of gasoline.
6. The gasoline of claim 4'containing from 0.01 to
about 0.001% by weight of, said copolymer as haze and
precipitation inhibiting agent.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
' F1181 A +3 ml. TEL per gal__
s1
28
Fuel B +3 m1. TEL per gal“
' 3-4
34 a
48
51
Fuel_G +3 m1. TEL per gal“
. 3?4_
48
27
6
-
7
8
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,469,737
2,737,452
McNab et a1. ________ __ May 10, 1949
Catlin etv al. _____ __V_____ Mar. 6, 1956
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