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Патент USA US3038099

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June 5, 1962
3,038,087
J. LUSCHER
PLURAL BASE TRANSISTOR STRUCTURE AND cmcun
Filed Dec. 24; 1958
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JAKOB
INVENTOR
L USCHER
ATTORNEY
3,038,087
United States Patent 0 " IC€
' Patented June 5, 1962
2
1
that the control circuit of which itforms part can always
3,038,087
PLURAL BASE TRANSISTOR STRUCTURE
AND CIRCUIT
Jakob Liischer, Geneva, Switzerland, assignor to Societe
Suisse pour l’lndustrie Horlogere S.A., Geneva, Switzer
land, a Swiss ?rm
Filed Dec. 24, 1958, Ser. No. 782,760
Claims priority, application Switzerland Dec. 28, 1957
6 Claims. (Cl. 307-885)
The present invention relates to a transistor comprising
three layers constituting, respectively, the base, the emit~
be utilised.
-
The possibilities of such a transistor are much greater
than those of a known transistor.
.
Thus, for example, in order to provide a bistable multi
vibrator with the aid of the transistors generally em
ployed, it is necessary to use two of these elements.
These two transistors, which are connected in accordance
with the known circuit diagrams, must alternately conduct
10 and block a current, depending upon the polarity of the
pulses of the control voltage. Since the conductive state
of only one element is generally utilised, the current re
sulting from the conductive state of the other element
represents a loss. Now, this is a great disadvantage in
electric circuit.
~
15 the case of circuit arrangements utilising a very large
number of multivibrators, such as, for example, those in
The transistor according to the invention is distinguished
computing machines or in electronic counters. Another
from known transistors by the fact that the said base is
disadvantage obviously resides in the ‘fact that two tran
provided with two electrodes situated at different distances
sistors are required to each multivibrator.
from the emittter, so that it is possible to connect the base
to two independent electric circuits permitting of control 20 Now, a single transistor according to the invention, as
ter and the collector, each of the latter two being pro
vided with an electrode to enable it to be connected to an
ling the emitter current, means being provided for vary
ing within wide limits, by means of the space charge zone
due to the potential difference between the collector and
the base, the electric resistance of that part of the base by
means of which one of its electrodes is electrically con
nected to the emitter-base junction, without substantially
modifying the resistance of that part of the base by which
the other of its electrodes is electrically connected to the
said junction.
hereinafter described, can be used as a bistable multi
éiféator, for example in accordance with the diagram of
.
6.
-
As will be seen, the collector C is connected through a
25 resistance R1 to the negative pole of a direct-voltage source
S. The positive pole of the source S is connected to the
emitter E, which is earthed. The electrode b is negative
ly biased in relation to the emitter E by means of a
source S1. The electrode b1 is positively biased in rela
A number of constructional forms of the subject of the 30 tion to the emitter E by means of a source S2, which is
effected through a resistance R2. On the other hand,
the electrode b, is connected through a capacitor K to
ample in the accompanying drawings.
an alternating-voltage pulse generator I.
FIG. 1 is a view of a transistor according to a ?rst con
When _no pulse is sent from the generator I to the
structional form, as seen from the emitter side.
FIG. 2 is a section along the line 11-11 of FIG. 1.
35 electrode b,, with the base B subjected to a negative
voltage through electrode b, the transistor is in the con
FIGS. 3 to 5 show in section three other constructional
ductive state. Since the voltage drop across the resistance
forms.
.
R1 is very slightly lower than the voltage of the source
FIG. 6 is a diagram of the application of the transistor.
S, the voltage of the collector C is therefore very low.
As will be seen from FIG. 2, the transistor comprises
in the usual manner a central semi-conductor layer, for 40 If then a positive voltage pulse is emitted from the gen
erator I to the part B1 of the base through the electrode
example of n-type, which is intended to form the base
b1, the transistor will be momentarily blocked. This will
B. Provided on either side of the base B by any of the
produce an increase in the voltage of the collector C to
known methods-for example by the alloying process
the value of the voltage of the source S. As the value
is a p-type semi-conductor layer intended to form the
emitter E and the collector C respectively. Each of the 45 of the latter is so chosen that the space charge Z0118 due
to the potential difference between the collector and the
said three layers B, E and C is provided with an electrode
base can extend as far as the groove 0 (shown in chain
b, e, and 0 respectively by means of which it can be con—
lines in the drawing), the value of the electric resistance
nected to an electric circuit. The electrode b is in the form
of that part of the base which electrically connects the
of a ring surrounding the emitter E.
Formed in the base B on the emitter side, between the 50 electrode b to the emitter-base junction will be practically
in?nite, so that the circuit b—E will be practically inter
said emitter E and the electrode b, is a circular groove
rupted. Owing to the positive biasing of the electrode
0 surrounding the emitter. At its part B1 situated- be
b1 by the source 8,, the transistor will remain blocked even
tween the groove 0 and the emitter E, the base is pro
when the cause of the blocking, namely the positive volt
vided with a second electrode 11,, also in the form of a
55 age, has ceased. It will remain blocked until a negative
ring.
invention are diagrammatically illustrated by way of ex
The electrodes b and b, may be connected to different
voltage pulse, supplied by the generator I, is applied to
base junction may be varied by the voltage of the collector
C within such limits that the control ‘circuit of which it
forms part can be substantially interrupted.
E and restoring the interrupted circuit. The transistor
the part 131 of the base through the electrode b1, so as
electric circuits, and the emitter current may therefore
to repel the space charge zone due to the potential differ
be controlled by two different control voltages. In addi
ence between the collector and the base, thus reducing the
tion, the electric resistance of that part of the base B
which electrically connects the electrode b to the emitter 60 resistance of that part of the base which connects b and
is therefore again in a conductive state and it will re
main so until a further positive pulse is supplied by the
generator I. The transistor will there?ore function as a
Since the space charge zone due to the potential dif
ference between the collector and the base is proportional 65 bistable multivibrator.
It is to be noted that it is not necessary, in order to
to the square root of the collector voltage for a given
obtain the above-described operation, to extend the space
base, the latter voltage may be made such that this zone
charge zone as far as the groove 0, that is, to increase
extends as far as the groove 0, as indicated in chain lines
in FIG. 2, and substantially breaks the circuit b-E. 70 the resistance of that part of the base which electrically
connects the electrode b to the emitter-base junction to
Since the part B1 of the base is not reached by the said
a practically in?nite value. It is in fact sufficient to in
zone, its resistance remains substantially unchanged, so
8,088,087
crease this resistance 'to a value at which the etfect of
said region that electrical conductivity is substantially un
the negative biasing by the source S1 on the control of
altered between said one electrode of the base and the
emitter.
2. A transistor comprising a base, an emitter and a col
the emitter current is negligible in relation to the elfect
of the positive biasing by the source 8,.
FIGS. 3 to 5 show three other constructional forms
lector mounted in opposed positions with respect to each
of the transistor according to the invention.
other on opposite sides of said base and provided with
In the constructional form illustrated in FIG. 3, the
electrodes for connection in an electric circuit, and a
base 3 comprises a thickened portion B1 on which are
pair of base electrodes for connecting said base to a
disposed the emitter E and the electrode b1. It will readily
pair of independent electric circuits for controlling the
be seen that the electric resistance of that part of the base 10 emitter current, said base interconnecting in electrically
which electrically connects the electrode b to the emitter
conductive relation said base electrodes with said emitter
base junction can be varied by means of the space charge
and having on the emitter side of the base a portion op
zone due to the potential difference between the collector
posite said collector supporting one of said base electrodes
and the base without modifying the resistance of that
and the emit-ter, and said base having a region adjacent
part B, which connects the electrode b; to the said junc 15 to said collector electrically between said other elec
tion.
trode of the base and said emitter for said region to ac
The transistor according to FIG. 4 comprises two ring
commodate space ‘charge produced in‘ response to appli
shaped auxiliary collectors C1 and C2, one on either side - cation of a predetermined potential to said collector thus
of the base, and situated between the electrode b and b,
altering the electrical resistance of said region, said por
of the base. These auxiliary collectors C1 and C2 are 20 tion of the base being adjacent to a groove in said base
electrically connected to the main collector C. The elec
extending from the emitter side of the base to said region
tric resistance of that part of the base'which connects the
of the base at a locus ?rom the emitter between said one
electrode b to the emitter-base junction can here be varied
base electrode and said other base electrode, and said
by the space charge zones due to the potential differences
portion being substantially isolated electrically from said
between each of the auxiliary collectors and the base, 25 other base electrode when said groove is contacted by
which zones may extend one towards the other and even
space charge in said region and being of such extent
be joined together, without modifying the resistance of
outward from said region that electrical conductivity is
the part B1 connecting the electrode b, to the said junc
substantially unaltered between said one electrode of the
tion.
base and the emitter.
In the transistor illustrated in FIG. 5, a part of the 30
3. A transistor comprising a base, an emitter and a col
layer constituting the base B, notably the part B1 on which
lector mounted in opposed positions with respect to each
the emitter and the electrode b1 are positioned, has a
other on opposite sides of said base and provided with
greater impurity content than the remainder of the base
electrodes for connection in an electric circuit, and a
B. In this case, the electric resistance of that part of
pair of base electrodes for connecting said base to a pair
the base which is of lower impurity content and which 35 of independent electric circuits for controlling the emitter
connects the electrode b to the emitter-base junction may
current, said base interconnecting in electrically con
be varied by the space charge zone due to the potential
ductive relation said base electrodes with said emittter and
difference between the collector and the base without
having on the emitter side of the base a thickening por
the resistance of that part B1 of the base which has higher
tion opposite said collector supporting one of said base
impurity content and which connects the electrode b;
electrodes and the emitter, and said base having a region
to said junction being substantially modi?ed.
adjacent to said collector electrically between said other
In the constructional forms described and illustrated
electrode of the base and said emitter for said region to
by way of example, the two electrodes b and b1 of the
accommodate space charge produced in response to appli
base are ring-shaped. It is obvious that they could have
cation of a predetermined potential to said collector thus
any other form.
I
It will be understood that the invention is not limited to
the embodiments described and illustrated by way of ex
45
from the emitter side of the base to said region of the
ample. Any other embodiment or variant having the
essential features of the present invention must be regarded
as forming part thereof.
.
altering the electrical resistance of said region, said
thickening portion of the basehaving a face extending
base at a locus from the emitter between said one base
electrode and said other base electrode, and said thickening
50
portion being substantially isolated electrically ?rom said
What I claim is:
other base electrode when said face is contacted by space
1. A transistor comprising a base, an emitter, collector
charge in said region and being of such extent outward
means including a collector, said emitter and collector
from said region ‘that electrical conductivity is substan
means being provided with electrodes for connection in
tially unaltered between said one electrode of the base
an electric circuit and said emitter and the collector of 55 and the emitter.
said means being mounted in opposed positions on op
4. A transistor- comprising a base, an emitter and a col
posite sides of said base, and a pair of base electrodes
lector mounted in opposed positions with respect to each
for connecting said base to a pair of independent elec
other on opposite sides of said base and provided with
tric circuits for controlling the emitter current, said base
electrodes for connection in an electric circuit, a pair
interconnecting in electrically conductive relation said 60 of base electrodes for connecting said base to a pair of
base electrodes with said emitter and having on the emitter
independent electric circuits for controlling the emitter
side of the base a portion opposite said collector sup
current, one of the electrodes of said pair being spaced
porting one of said base electrodes and the emitter, and
a shorter distance from the emitter than the other elec
said base having a region adjacent to said collector means
trode of the pair, and a pair of ring-shaped auxiliary col
electrically between said other electrode of the base and 65 lectors each on an individually corresponding one of said
said emitter for said region to accommodate space charge
opposite sides of said base and having opposed positions
produced in response to application of a predetermined
with respect to each other wherein one of said ring
potential to said collector means thus altering the electrical
shaped auxiliary collectors surrounds said collector and
resistance of said region, said portion of the base having a
face extending from the emitter side of the base to said
region of the base at a locus from the emitter between
said one base electrode and said other base electrode, and
said portion being substantially isolated electrically from
the other of said ring~shaped auxiliary collectors surrounds
said emitter and is located between said base electrodes,
said auxiliary ring-shaped collectors being electrically
connected to said collector outside said base, said base
interconnecting in electrically conductive relation said
said other base electrode when said face is contacted by
base electrodes with said emitter and having on the emit
space charge in said region and being of such extent from 75 ter side of the base a portion opposite said collector sup
3,038,087
porting said one of said base electrodes and the emitter,
collector supporting one of said base electrodes and the
and said base having a region adjacent to said collector
emitter, and said base having a region adjacent to said
and said auxiliary collectors electrically between said
collector electrically between said other electrode of the
other electrode of the base and said emitter for said
base and said emitter for said region to accommodate
region to accommodate space charge produced in re
space charge produced in response to application of a
sponse to application of a predetermined potential to said
predetermined potential to said collector thus altering the
collector and the auxiliary collectors thus altering the
electrical resistance of said region, said portion of the
electrical resistance of said region, said portion of the
base having a relatively high impurity content as com
base having a face against said one of said auxiliary col
pared with said region of the base and having a face ex
lectors corresponding to the emitter side of the base and 10 tending from the emitter side of the base to said region at
said face extending from the emitter side of the base to
a locus from the emitter between said one base electrode
said region of the base, and said portion being substantially
and said other base electrode, and said portion being sub
isolated electrically from said other base electrode when
stantially isolated electrically from said other base elec
said face is contacted by space charge in said region and
trode when said face is contacted by space charge in said
being of such extent from said region that electrical con
region and being of such extent from said region that
15
ductivity is substantially unaltered between said one elec
electrical conductivity is substantially unaltered between
trode of the base and the emitter.
said one electrode of the base and the emitter.
5. A transistor as recited in claim 4, wherein said base
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
electrodes are of ring shape and surround said emitter.
6. A transistor comprising a base, an emitter and a col 20
UNITED STATES PATENTS
lector mounted in opposed positions with respect to each
2,754,431
Johnson _____________ .... July 10, 1956
other on opposite sides of said base and provided with
2,801,348
Pankove ______________ .__ July 30, 1957
electrodes for connection in an electric circuit, and a pair
2,870,345
Overbeek ____________ __ Jan. 20, 1959
of base electrodes for connecting said base to a pair of
Rutz ________________ .._ June 2, 1959
independent electric circuits for controlling the emitter 25 2,889,499
2,900,531
Wallmark ___________ __'_ Aug. 18, 1959
current, said base interconnecting in electrically conduc
2,915,647
Ebers et al _____________ __ Dec. "1, 1959
tive relation said base electrodes with said emitter and hav
ing on the emitter side of the base a portion opposite said
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