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Патент USA US3038374

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June 12, 1962
s. H. BERGMAN
3,038,364
ELECTRICAL MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS
Filed Feb. 25, 1959 I
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
m9
June 12, 1962
s. H. BERGMAN
3,038,364
ELECTRICAL MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS
Filed Feb. 25, 1959
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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United States Patent G” ice
3,038,364
Patented June 12, 1962
1
embodiment of a pedal arrangement according to the in
3,038,364
ELECTRICAL MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS
Sune Hearley Bergman, Hagersten, Sweden, assignor to
AB Frili, Solna, Sweden
Filed Feb. 25, 1959, Ser. No. 795,392
Claims priority, application Sweden Feb. 25, 1958
1 Claim. (Cl. 84-—1.24)
vention comprising electrical contacts, circuit elements
and connections to terminals shown in FIGS. 1 and 2.
The instrument according to the invention comprises
conventional means for amplifying the generated sound
frequency oscillations and for reproducing said oscillations
after ampli?cation. These means and the exterior of the
musical instrument will not be described since they are
independent of the invention and may be the object of
The present invention relates to an electrical, pref
erably an electronic musical instrument, i.e. an instru 10 different design for suiting various demands.
ment in which the sounds to be produced by the instru
In FIG. 1 V1 and V2 designate two electronic tubes,
ment are generated in the form of or transformed into
in the form of a double triode, which are interconnected
corresponding electrical voltages or currents which after
in such a manner so as to form a m-ultivibrator. The
ampli?cation, if desired, are fed to the sound reproducing
means of the instrument.
cathode of V1 is connected to earth, the grid of the triode
15 is connected to the point of connection between a con
An object of the invention is to provide an instrument
denser O1 and a resistance R1 and its ‘anode is connected
to the positive terminal + of the anode voltage source
manner produce accompanying sound and rhythm e?fects
via the resistance R3 and a further resistance R12. 'Ihe
corresponding to those sound effects which are produced
cathode of V2 is connected to earth via the resistance R6
by e.g. the so called rhythm section of a modern orchestra, 20 and the components C2, R2 and R4 are connected in the
on which a single executor may in a relatively simple
simultaneously as playing a desired melody and harmonies
same manner as C1, C2 and R3.
thereto, e.g. on a key-‘board.
remote from the grid is connected to the anode in V2. C2
A musical instrument according to the invention is
characterized by at least two self-returning pedals con
trolling electrical contacts connected to means for pro
The terminal of C1
is connected in a similar manner. The terminals of the
resistances R1 and R2 remote from the grid are connected
25 to each other and also connected to a chain of resistances
ducing electrical signals corresponding to desired sound
r1, r2, r3 etc., the other end of this chain being connected
effects, the contacts of the one pedal being arranged to
to earth.
pass or block the electrical signals to the sound reproduc
Between the resistances of this chain tapping points are
ing means of the instrument and the contacts of the other
arranged, which may be connected to earth by means of a
pedal being arranged by means of suitable circuit ele 30 contact actuated by a corresponding pedal or key of a
ments and ‘by suitable connections to the electrical sound
pedal group or keyboard for playing a melody. The end
producing means and to the contacts of the ?rst pedal
of the chain of resistances remote from the earthing point
to determine desired modi?cation or completion of the
of the chain is connected to + via the setting resistance
sounds produced by actuating the ?rst pedal.
R5 and the resistance R12. Since the contacts of the
By “modi?cation” in the sense of the invention is 35 pedals or keys are ‘arranged to short-circuit the resist
meant a change of the sound initiated by actuating the
ances below the corresponding tapping point of the chain
?rst pedal, e.g. so that this sound is weakened or amp-1i
r1, r2 etc. the grids of the multivibrator are set to different
potentials which results in different frequences of the
?ed, changed with respect to the sound character or the
like. By completion is meant the production of sounds
oscillator. The steps are chosen in such a manner that
they correspond to the pitch- intervals of the chromatic
before, simultaneously with or after the sounds initiated
by the ?rst pedal, especially for obtaining rhythmical ef
scale.
fects which are suitable for accompanying purposes.
In order to avoid initial transient oscillations of the
In an embodiment of the invention the first pedal is
oscillator or multivibrator at the start of same being re
produced in the sound reproducing means of the musical
arranged by means of its contacts to pass a bass tone from
an oscillator, multivibrator or ‘other bass tone generator, 45 instrument, or generally spoken, in order to produce an
said bass tone being selected by means of other pedals
enjoyable striking and ending of a notena so called gating
or keys, the ?rst pedal also being arranged to pass ac
stage, V3, with suitable circuit elements has been ar
ranged. The cathode of V3 is connected to the cathode
companying sounds of other character, e.g. sound effects
of V2 so that the triode V3 is controlled on its cathode
like those which are produced by a cymbal, a drum or
other beat instrument, so that these tones or other sounds 50 by means of the generated oscillation. The anode of V3
are reproduced in the sound reproducing means of the
instrument without attenuation, while the other pedal is
is connected to + via the resistances R16 and R12. A
condenser C3 is connected between the grid and earth.
Furthermore the grid is connected via the resistance R9
arranged by means of its contacts to bring about an at
to the negative terminal of a grid voltage source Vg and
tenuation or ‘damping of the sound e?fects produced by
the ?rst pedal and/or an attenuated continuation of this 55 via the resistance R8 and the condenser C4 to earth. The
terminal 1163 is connected between RS and C4 and it is
sound e?ect as the ?rst pedal is released after having been
actuated. In these respects many modi?cations ‘are of
,understood that this terminal is to be connected to the
corresponding terminal 103 of the pedal arrangement ac
course possible for meeting di?erent demands ‘for rhythmi
cording to FIG. 3.
cal effects to be produced by a single executor in a simple
60
The output of V3‘ is via the condenser C5 connected to
manner.
the grid of the amplifying stage V4 via the resistances
The invention will hereinafter be more fully described
with reference to the accompanying drawings showing an
R14 and R15. The cathode of V4 is connected to earth
via the cathode resistance R7 and a resistance R13 is
embodiment of the electronic part of the instrument with
connected between earth and the grid of V4. The anode
control circuits according to the invention. FIG. 1 shows
the circuit diagram or‘ an embodiment of a bass tone gen 65 of V4 is connected to + via the anode resistance R11.
The point of connection between C5 and R15 is con
erator and a so called “gate stage” by means of which
nected to earth via the ‘condenser C6. The point of con
a ‘bass tone may be initiated and ended in a suitable
nection between R14 and R15 is connected to earth via a
manner. FIG. 2 shows the circuit diagram of an embodi
parallel resonant circuit consisting of the inductance L1
ment of a device for producing other accompaniment
sounds, more speci?cally such sounds which are produced 70 and the capacitance C7.
by means of a cymbal or a drum which is treated with a
so called “whisk.” FIG. 3 shows the circuit diagram of an
This L-C-circ-uit together with R15 and C6 produces
the desired tone character of the signal transmitted from
3,038,864
4
the oscillation generator V1, V2, so that signals produced
by the circuit arrangement will be satisfying in musical
respect. It will for instance correspond to a bass violin
end of which remote from the grid is connected to the
point of connection between the condenser C20 and a
resistance R21, the other end of which being connected to
tone or the like. Said signal, after further ampli?cation,
if desired, is fed to a sound reproducing means of the
earth.
The cathode of V11 is connected to earth via the
musical instrument.
In order to stabilize the anode voltage the two voltage
resistance R25 and the anode is connected to a terminal
101 via the series connection of the resistances R23 and
R24. The point of connection between these resistances
is decoupled to earth via the resistance C21.
The terminal 101 is intended to be connected to the
The circuit arrangement according to FIG. 1 operates 10
terminal with the corresponding designation of the pedal
in the following manner:
arrangement according to FIG. 3 which ‘will be disclosed
In the non-operative condition the stage V3, the so
in more detail herein below. In said pedal arrangement
called gating stage, is blocked by the negative voltage
the terminal 101 can be connected to the positive terminal
of the bias voltage source Vg. The multivibrator V1, V2,
operates on a frequency which is set by a melody tone 15 of the anode voltage source. The stage V11'is connected
via the condenser 022 to the grid of a stage Vl12. Be
selecting pedal or key of the musical instrument, said
tween this grid and earth a network for modifying the
pedal or key being associated with a corresponding tap
transmitted noise signal is inserted. The network con
between the resistances of the chain r1, r2, r3 etc. Now,
sists of a L-C-circuit comprising the inductance L2 and
if the terminal 103, which is connected to a “rhythm de
termining” pedal, which will be described in more detail 20 the condensers C223 ‘and 024, the condenser C23 being
stabilizing tubes V5 and V6 are connected in series be
tween earth and the terminal of R12 not connected to +.
with reference to FIG. 3, is connected to earth the po
tential of the grid of V3 is raised so that the tube is con
ducting and transmits the generated tone frequency signal
connected in such a manner that it can be shifted out of
circuit by means of a switch S1, so that it will be possible
to choose between two alternatives with respect to the
oscillation characteristics of the L-C-circuit and thus with
‘which is generated in V1, V2, a sufficient time interval
previous to the earthing of contact 103 so that the signal 25 respect to the character of the sound signal which is fed
to the grid of tube V12. One of these characteristics
has passed its initial transient part on the frequency which
may for instance correspond to the sound producedvon
is selected by actuating the pedal or key connected to the
a drum by means of a “whisk” in the “rhythm section” of
tap of the chain r1, r2, r3 etc. referred to. When the
a modern orchestra. The other signal character may
terminal 103 is connected to earth the tube V3 will not be
conducting at once, since it takes a certain time for the 30 for instance correspond to the sound which is obtained by
beating a cymbal plate. The cathode of tube V12 is
condenser C3 to discharge over the resistance R8, said
connected to earth via the cathode resistance R26 while
condenser C3 having previously been'charged negatively
the anode is connected to + via the resistance R27. From
by the bias voltage source Vg. The resistance R9 is
the anode of V12 the ampli?ed signal is taken via the
much large than R8, so that Vg can not maintain the
condenser C25 and the resistance R23 after the signal has
negative voltage on the grid of V3 when the terminal 103
is connected to earth. Thus when the terminal 103 is con
nected to earth the note is not initiated abruptly but
softly with a pleasant strike in musical respect, said note
being transmitted not until it have been stabilized after
its transient initial portion. When the terminal 103 is
‘been ‘damped, if desired, by means of the condenser C26,
one terminal of which being connected to the anode of
V12 and the other terminal of which being connected to
a second terminal 102 which via a contact of the pedal
arrangement according to FIG. 3 is connectable to earth.
When the terminal 101 is connected to the positive ter
minal of the anode voltage source and the terminal 102
would be unpleasant in musical respect but “dies away”
is not connected to earth the signal obtained from the
in similar manner as the note produced by a natural in
output of the circuit arrangement according to FIG. 2
strument, since it takes a certain time for the bias voltage
source to charge the condensers C3 and C4 via the large 45 will produce an undamped, relatively strong or sharp
sound corresponding for instance to the sound obtained
resistance R9. ‘Thus, the gating stage V3 makes possible
by a relatively hard treatment of the drum of a modern
both the beginning and ending of the note in a satifactory
orchestra by means of a “whisk.” When the damping con
manner in musical respect.
denser C26 is made operative by connecting the terminal
The circuit “arrangement ‘according to FIG. 1 is in
102 to earth, a softer “whisk“-sound is obtained from
tended ‘for producing typical ba‘ss notes for accompani
the sound reproducing means of the instrument. In this
ment purposes. FIG. 2 shows a circuit arrangement for
manner it is possible to “phrase" the “whisk”-sound in a
a device intended for producing other types of sound
desired manner.
which are suitable for accompaniment, especially sounds
In FIG. 3 an embodiment of a pedal arrangement ac
corresponding to those which are produced ‘by means of a
cording to the invention is shown schematically. The
cymbal or by a drum which is treated with a so called
device comprises two pedals PII and P2 which may be
“whisk.”
connected to earth the note does not cease abruptly which
This circuit arrangement comprises according to the
mounted side by side either as one unit or associated with
invention a primary stage with an electronic tube (or
pedals which may be arranged for selecting single notes
transistor) which is coupled for generating a rich fre
for instance from a device according to FIG. 1. In the
latter case each of these pedals may, as mentioned before,
be connected to one tapping point between the resistances
quency spectrum, for instance a noise spectrum, in the
sound frequency range, means for passing or blocking
of the chain of resistances r1, r2, r3 etc., it being possible
to substitute said pedals by keys of a keyboard which is
also mentioned before.
posing a desired damping or attenuation of the signal com
ing from the circuit arrangement, said signal being fed, 65 The pedal P1 is coupled with the make contact 01 and
02 while the pedal P2 operates the make contacts c3,‘c4
after ampli?cation, if desired, to the sound reproducing
and 05. One of the terminals of the contact 01 is con
unit of the instrument.
nected to the positive terminal + of the anode voltage
In FIG. 2 V10 designates a tetrode, the cathode and
source, the other being connected to the terminal 101
the both grids of which are connected to earth, while the
anode is connected to the positive terminal of an anode 70 which is connectable to the terminal with the correspond
ing designation in FIG. 2. The one terminal of the con
voltage source via the resistance R20. By this coupling
tact c2 is connected to earth, the other being connected
the tube V10 will generate a continuous noise signal, i.e.
to the one terminal of contact 05. This contact may be
a substantially continuous spectrum of sound frequencies.
short-circuited by the switch S2. The other terminal of
The noise signal is fed to the grid of the triode V11 via
the condenser C20 and the coupling resistance R22, the 75 contact 05 is connected to the terminal 103 which can be
these signals, other means for modifying the noise signal
for obtaining a desired sound eifect and means for im
3,038,364
5
6
connected to the terminal with the corresponding desig
which does not happen if the switch is opened, since the
nation in FIG. 1. The one side of contact 03 is connected
earth via the series connection of a resistance R30 and a
condenser C30. The one side of contact C4 is connected
contact c5 is already open.
Such a rhythm which comprises two beat parts and
which may be repeated is a typical modern rhythm pro
duced by the rhythm section of a conventional orchestra.
to earth, the other side being connected to the terminal
It is evident that it is possible to produce different other
to the terminal 101, the other side being connected to
rhythm effects by means of an instrument according to
the invention.
sponding designation in FIG. 2.
The switch S1 is intended to adjust the circuit L2, C23,
By actuating the pedals P1 and P2 the instrument oper
10 C24 to different sound characters, and it is to be under
ates as follows.
stood that this makes it possible to produce still more
When only the pedal P11 is actuated the contact 01 will
variations of the rhythm effect.
cause a damped “whisk”-sound (or a “cymbal”-sound)
In a practical embodiment of the circuit arrangement
to be reproduced in the sound reproducing means of the
according to FIG. 1 the components had the following
instrument, said sound being generated and “stroken” in
a suitable manner in the circuit arrangement according 15 values.
102 which can be connected to the terminal with the corre
to FIG. 2.
At the same time a bass tone or the like
V1, V2, V3, V4=ECC83~ 1211:47
R12:5
R13=100
which is generated and “stroken” in the circuit arrange
(double triode)
ment according to FIG. 1 is reproduced by the sound re
V5, V6:90C1
producing means, provided that the switch S2 is closed or
R1:2.2 M9
20 122:2.2 Mn
the pedal P2 is operated.
When only the pedal P2 is actuated without previous
R3=47k?
actuation of the pedal P11 nothing happens.
R4:47 k9
When the pedal P2 is actuated after P1 has been actu
R5:10 kt2+68K.
ated and is in its contact closing position the contact 04
526:1 k9
causes the condenser C26 to be connected to earth and
37:11:52
thus to dampen the signal coming from the circuit ar
R3=68 k9
rangement according to FIG. 2, so that this signal become
181?:15
R10=68 MS)
kn
more soft and corresponds to the sound produced by light
1214:22
R1‘5:150
L1:l0 h.
C1:2200 pf.
C2=220O pt.
C3:0.12 mf.
(14:0.12mf.
C5=0.l mrf.
(16:02.5
C7:0.18 mf.
treatment of a drum of a conventional orchestra by
In an embodiment of the circuit arrangement according
means of a so-called “whisk.” If the switch S2 was open 30
to FIG. 2 the components had the following values.
the contact 05 causes a bass tone to be reproduced by the
sound reproducing means of the instrument.
The closing of contact 03 causes the condenser C30 to
be charged from the positive terminal of the anode volt
age source via resistance R30. This results in that when
the pedal P1 is again released, while the pedal P2 is held
V10=2D21
R27:100 k9
V11, V12:ECCE1 (double R28=50 kn
triode)
620:0.01 mf.
R20=68 k1}
R21=470 k9
C21:0.0l Inf.
C22:0.0l mt.
in ‘the contact closing position, the terminal 101 is dis
1222:100 k9
C23=1000 pf.
connected from the positive terminal of the anode voltage
R23=100 k9
C24:5‘OO pf.
source, it is true, but instead receives a certain decreasing
R24:10 k0
C25i=2200 mf.
anode voltage from the relatively large condenser C30. 40 R25:1 k9
C26=2200 Inf.
The “whisk” sound from the circuit arrangement accord
R26=l kt)
L=1 h.
ing to FIG. 2 is therefore not interrupted abruptly but is
dying out successively, and this effect is much usable in
The invention is not restricted to the embodiments
different musical connections, in that it makes it possible
shown and described, since said embodiments may be
45
to produce many different rhythm effects which are re
modi?ed in different ways within the scope of the inven
quired in modern music.
tion.
A typical rhythm effect which may be produced by the
I claim:
shown device is the following. Shortly before the first
An electrical musical device for producing rhythm ef
part of a beat of a musical piece the pedal P2 is ‘actuated
fects comprising generating means for producing elec
which results in a relatively damped “whisk"-sound 50 trical signals with a substantially continuous frequency
being reproduced in the sound reproducing device of the
spectrum in the sound frequency range corresponding
instrument owing to the remaining charge of the con~
to that of noise, means to reproduce electrical signals ap
denser C30.
plied thereto in said sound of frequency range, ?rst and
Then, exactly on the ?rst part of the beat the pedal P1
second pedals, and means responsive to the actuation of
is actuated for a short moment the pedal P2 still being
said ?rst pedal to apply said electrical signals produced
held down in its contact closing position. This results
by said generating means to said reproducing means, re
in that the condenser C30 is charged via the contacts c1
sponsive to the actuation of said ?rst and second pedals
and c3 and at the same time a damped, decreasing
to dampen the electrical signals applied to said reproduc
“whisk”-sound is reproduced. Moreover the contact c2 is
ing means, and responsive to the release of said second
connected to earth, so that the terminal 103 (via 05, which
pedal after actuation of said ?rst and second pedals to
is closed in this moment) receives earth potential with the
cause the signal applied to said reproducing means to die
result that a bass tone is heard in the sound reproducing
out after prolongation.
means.
On the second part of the beat the pedal P1 is again
References Cited in the tile of this patent
actuated for a short moment and at the same time the 65
pedal P2 is released, whereby an undamped, short
“whisk”-sound is reproduced, since the contacts 03 and
04 are opened in this moment. At the same time the ter
minal 103 receives earth potential if the switch S2 is closed
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,401,372
2,783,672
2,855,816
R-ienstra ______________ _._ June 4, 1946
Hanert _______________ __ Mar. 5, 1957
Olson _______________ __ Oct. 14, 1958
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