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Патент USA US3038419

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June 12, 1962
3,038,409
G. E. EDGERLY ETAL
EDDY CURRENT MAGNETIC LIQUID METAL PUMP
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
Filed April 15, 1960
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June 12, 1962
e. E. EDGERLY ETAL
3,038,409
EDDY CURRENT MAGNETIC LIQUID METAL PUMP
Filed April 15, 1960
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INVENTORS
‘GLENN E- EDGERLY
HENRY R- HAHN
SIDNEY
AUSLENDER
ATTORNEY
3,038,409
1
United States Patent 0 "ice
1
3,038,409
EDDY CURRENT MAGNETIC LIQUID
METAL PUMP
Glenn E. Edgerly, Meriden, and Henry R. Hahn, Port
land, Conn., and Sidney Auslender, Baltimore, Md.,
assignors to United Aircraft Corporation, East Hart
ford, Conn., a corporation of Delaware
Filed Apr. 15, 1960, Ser. No. 22,436
11 Claims. (Cl. 103-1)
This invention relates to apparatus for pumping elec
trically conductive ?uid and has as one of its objects to
provide apparatus of this sort which is more e?icient and
Patented June 12, 1962
2
formed of good magnetic material and an intermediate
portion 56 which is of nonmagnetic material. The ad
jacent ends of shaft portions 52 and 54 have integral
?anges 58 and 60 provided with beveled shoulders 62 and
64. ‘Intermediate sha?t portion 56 has radial ?anges 66
and 68, which are connected to similar radial faces of
?anges 58 and 60 by bolts 70, as shown in FIG. 2. The
bolts 70 also secure two pole pieces 72 against beveled
shoulders 62 and 64. Each pole piece 72, as shown most
10 clearly in FIG. 1, comprises a circular disc having six
radial arms extended outwardly from the disc. Each arm
is provided with an integral right angle pole tip 74, the
pole tips of like arms of the two pole pieces being tapered
and inwardly directed toward each other and terminating
Another object of this invention is to provide a pump 15 in spaced rectangular pole faces 75, as shown in FIG. 5,
between which an annular tube cell 76, rectangular in
of this type utilizing a tube cell rectangular in cross sec
cross section, is closely received (FIGS. 2 and 3).
tion and of high electrical resistance.
The annular tube cell 76 is made in two complemental
A further object of the invention is to provide a much
parts, each having an inner ring 78 and an outer ring 80
lighter magnetic circuit weight than has been possible
20 connected by a narrow web 82 so located that, when the
hitherto in liquid metal pumps.
two-ringed members are located side-by-side, a long nar
A further object of this invention is to provide a pump
row annular cell passage 84, rectangular in section, is
which is adapted for production in large sizes.
provided for the ?ow of the liquid metal to be pumped.
A further object is to provide elongated rectangular
As shown most clearly in FIG. 3, the tube cell ring
pole faces having their length arranged perpendicular to
the ?ow direction in a tube cell of rectangular cross 25 mount assembly 36 includes radial ?anges ‘86 and 88,
which are spaced apart a suitable distance to receive the
tube cell therebetween. Radial ?anges 8'6 and 88 have
A still further ‘object of the invention is to provide a
annular tube cell mounting plates 90 and 92 secured
liquid metal pump with a minimum number of rotating
thereto by screws 94. These plates have radial slots 96
parts presenting a minimum of rotating weight.
A further object is to provide a rotating pole unit 30 in which the heads of screws 98 and the shanks of screws
which is much lighter in weight than prior devices.
.
,
section.
which acts as a centrifugal blower to reduce convection
98 are free to move radially. An annular row of screws
98 is extended through the slots in each tube cell mounting
plate and is threaded into the outer rings 80 of the tube
cell, thus providing a ?oating connection for the tube cell
These and other objects and advantages of the pump 35 on the frame-carried ‘mounting ring. The outer periphery
of the tube cell is surrounded by a ring 100 which is se
of this invention will be pointed out in connection with
cured between the cell mounting plates 90 and 92 in ?xed
the following detailed description of a preferred embodi
position by a plurality of spaced longitudinal ribs 102
ment shown in the accompanying drawings. In the
(FIG. 6). Between each pair of ribs 102 is provided a
drawings:
FIG. 1 is a plan view of the pump in ope-rating position, 40 longitudinal row of balls 1104 located in radial passages '
in ring 100. The balls are constantly biased by springs
with parts broken away;
106 against the outer peripheral ring 80 of tube cell 76,
FIG. 2 is a sectional view taken on line 2—2 of FIG. 1;
the springs 106 being enclosed by caps 108 which are
FIG. 3 is a sectional view taken on line 3-3 of FIG. 1;
heating of the magnetic circuit.
A yet further object is generally to improve the con
struction and operation of liquid metal pumps.
threaded to sleeves 110 secured to ring 100 over the ball
FIG. 4 is a sectional view through the ?ow divider of
45 receiving passages. The two-part cell 76 is welded to
the tube cell taken on line 4-—4 of FIG. 2;
gether about the periphery of the inner and outer rings 78
FIG. 5 is a section on line 5-5 of FIG. 1 showing the
and 80 to provide a unitary structure. The liquid metal is
shape of the pole tips;
introduced into the tube cell by means of a flow divider
FIG. 6 is a section on line 6-—6 of FIG. 3; and
shown in FIG. 4, which as shown, provides an inlet pas
FIG. 7 is a radial sectional view through a tube cell
50 sage 112 and an outlet passage 114 with an integral di
of modi?ed contruction.
vider 116 forming a barrier in the annular cell passage
Referring particularly to FIGS. 1 through 3, the im
v84 between the inlet and outlet passages. A slot is milled
proved pump of this invention includes an annular frame
at a suitable place in the annular cell to receive the ?ow
10 in which an axial shaft 12 is mounted for rotation on
divider which is then made an integral part of the cell
bearings 14 and :16. It will be understood that the pump
is adapted to be operated with the shaft in a vertical 55 by welding.
The magnetic shaft portion 52 is surrounded by a sleeve
120 of good magnetic material which occupies the annu
lar space between the shaft and the mounting sleeve 26.
Sleeve 120 is axially positioned between ring 38 and the
rings include inwardly directed ?anges 22 and 24 with
tubular mounting sleeves 26 and 2-8 welded thereto which 60 ?ange of a ring 122 screw-fastened to tubular mounting
sleeve 26. The magnetic shaft portion 54 is provided with
are spaced from shaft 12. The rings 18 and 20 also have
position, although it is not required.
The frame 10 includes a mounting ring 18 at the bottom
end and a similar ring 20 at the top end. The mounting
outwardly oblique stringers 30 and 32 at spaced points
a similar sleeve 124 of magnetic material.
Two radial sets of electromagnets 125 are provided,
one about each shaft portion 52 and 54. As herein
cell mounting ring assembly 36 which is generally paral
lel with the shaft. Tubular mounting sleeves 26 and 28 65 shown there are six electromagnets in each set, and each
has a radial core 126 of good magnetic material having
have rings 38 and 40 welded to their adjacent ends (FIG.
its inner end adjacent the shaft threaded into one of the
2). These rings are connected to the tube cell ring
about the periphery of the frame which support the tube
mounting assembly by struts 42 and 44, webs 46 and 48
being provided between struts 42, 44 and the adjacent
sleeves 120, 124 in equally spaced relation about the
periphery of the sleeve. It will be noted that these cores
frame members, as shown in FIG. 3. These webs are 70 126 of the electromagnets extend through openings in
the mounting sleeves 26, 28, thus positioning them rigidly
provided with suitable lighter holes 50 in a usual manner.
on the frame and preventing their rotation. The mag
Shaft 12 comprises end portions ‘52 and 54 which are
3,038,409
3
4
netic circuit is completed by six bars 128 of good mag
stationary, the interaction with the wall should be kept to
netic material, one of which is provided between the
a minimum. This is accomplished by making it of a
outer end of corresponding cores 126 of the two sets
material with as large an electrical resistivity as is prac
of electromagnets. These bars are secured in good ?ux
conducting relation to the cores by cap screws 130, which
extend through the bars and are threaded axially into
tical. The energy absorbed by the tube wall is equal to
the resistance heating of the wall multiplied by the eddy
current ?owing in the wall. Although the tube cell is
the outer ends of the cores.
stationary, the liquid metal inside the cell can move, and
the force of interaction between the two magnetic ?elds
132 against which the bearing 14 abuts. A reduced
and the induced currents will cause the liquid metal to
threaded portion 134 is provided to receive a nut 136 on 10 ?ow around the loop. There will, of course, be some re
the other side of the hearing. A closure member 138 is
sistance heating in the liquid metal being pumped.
provided between the annular member 122 and the shaft,
From the above description of one embodiment of the
suitable sealing means being provided between this mem
invention, it will be evident that a liquid metal pump
ber and the shaft.
has been provided which is light in weight and in which
At the lower end of the pump an annular ?ange mem 15 there is a minimum of rotating Weight due to the station
ber 140 is provided which is similar to member 122 at
ary coils.
the upper end of the pump. Flange member 140 is screw
It will also be evident that because of the fact that
fastened to tubular mounting sleeve 28 of mounting ring
there are no rotating parts except the shaft and the two
20. The bearing 16 is seated against suitable shoulders
pole pieces, the pump is adapted to be built in large sizes
on ?ange member 140 and shaft portion 54, and is held 20 without becoming cumbersome.
The shaft is provided at its upper end with a shoulder
in place by a nut 142 which is threaded on a portion of
As a result of the novel tube cell and pole piece design,
reduced diameter on the shaft at 144. A cap 146 threaded
it has been possible to greatly increase the efficiency of
to member 140 provides a closure for the shaft at the
the pump. The gain which has been made in pumping
lower end of the pump.
action is a result of making the longest length of the
In FIG. 7, a tube cell 26a is shown, which differs from 25 rectangular pole faces perpendicular to the ?ow direc
the tube cell described above in connection with FIGS.
tion and in making the cell rectangular to increase the
1 through 6, by having an annular recess 147 provided
flow path area with an actual decrease in the ?ux air
in the outer ring 80a and a similar recess 148 provided in
gap length. The narrow pole gap also increases the
the inner ring 78a. The recesses 147 and 148 are adapted
peripheral length of changing ?ux with respect to the
to contain silver. Suitable closures 150 and 152 are pro 30 length of constant ?ux.
vided for the recesses which may be welded to the tube
While only one embodiment of the invention has been
cell after the introduction of the silver.
In the operation of the pump, the coils are energized
by a suitable D.-C. current, not shown. Magnetic flux
generated in cores 126 by the coils of electromagnets 125 35
of the right-hand set of coils (FIG. 2) is fed into the
sleeve 124 surrounding the shaft portion 54. The flux
jumps the gap between sleeve 124 and shaft portion 54,
this gap being maintained as small as possible, and enters
the shaft. It travels along the shaft and, since it can
illustrated and described, it will be understood that vari
ous changes may be made in the construction and ar
rangement of the various parts without exceeding the
scope of the accompanying claims.
We claim:
7,
1. Apparatus for pumping electrically conductive ?uid
comprising a stationary frame, a shaft journalled for rota
tion in said frame, an annular tube cell for the ?uid to be
pumped carried by said frame, said cell having a ?ow
not ?ow through the nonmagnetic section 56, it ?ows
passage of rectangular cross section, said section having
outwardly through the pole piece 72 attached to shaft
its greatest dimension perpendicular to the axis of said
portion 54. The ?ux then jumps the gap between the
shaft, two pole members ?xed on said shaft including like
pole faces 75 and in so doing passes through the liquid
radially extending pole pieces having confronting rectangu
metal in the tube cell. The flux then ?ows along the
lar pole faces on opposite sides of said tube cell, said
shaft portion 52, jumps the gap into sleeve 120, ?ows 45 pole faces having their greatest length perpendicular to the
through the cores 126 of the left-hand set of electro
?ow path through said cell, a set of stationary electro
magnets, and then flows through bars 128 to the cores
magnets adjacent each pole member, each of said mag~
126 of the right-hand set of coils, thus completing the
nets having a radially extended core, and means including
circuit. The pole unit is smoothly faired and rounded
said shaft for completing the electromagnetic circuits
to reduce magnetic loss, and is entirely chrome plated
through said radial cores and said radial pole pieces.
to reduce heat transfer by radiation from the tube cell
2. Apparatus for pumping conductive ?uid comprising
to the poles.
a frame of nonmagnetic material, a shaft journalled for
Tube cell 76 is rectangular in shape and can be made
rotation in said frame having end portions of magnetic
entirely of a poor conductor, such as stainless steel,
material and an intermediate portion of nonmagnetic ma
as shown in FIGS. 1 through 6. In either form it will 55 terial, a pole member mounted on each end portion of
be noted that large bosses are provided on the fuel cell
said shaft and rotatable therewith, each including a plural
to carry the current. The rectangular cross section is
ity of radially projecting pole pieces terminating in
advantageous because of the fact that ?eld strength varies
inwardly directed tips, said pole tips having confronting
inversely as the square of the distance separating the
rectangular faces having their longest dimension disposed
poles. The rectangular section allows a much greater 60 radially of said shaft axis, an annular tube cell carried
?ow area with a small air gap as compared with previous
con?gurations.
The relative motion of a pole piece and therefore of a
?ux concentration past a section of the tube cell induces
by said frame and disposed between said pole faces, said
cell being rectangular in cross section with its longest
cross-sectional dimension located radially of said shaft
eddy currents in that section. Their amplitude is di 65 axis, a sleeve of good magnetic material on each of said
shaft portions, a series of electromagnets surrounding
rectly proportional to the rate of change of ?ux and in
each
of said sleeves, each electrom-agnet having a radial
versely proportional to the electrical resistivity of the
core threaded into its sleeve, and a plurality of longitudinal
materials in that section. The eddy currents are so
bars of good magnetic material connecting the outer ends
oriented that the magnetic ?ux caused by these currents
of cores of corresponding magnets in said series.
interacts with the primary ?ux ?eld in such a manner as
3. In a liquid metal pump, a frame, a shaft rotatable
to produce a force which opposes, or tends to reduce, the
in said frame, said shaft comprising three axially aligned
relative motion between the tube cell and the pole piece.
Induced currents ?owing through the cell also by inter
connected sections, the end sections ‘being formed of good
action with the primary ?eld tend to move the ?uid along
magnetic material and the intermediate section being
the tube passage 84. Since the wall of the tube cell is 75 formed of nonmagnetic material, [a series of radially dis
3,038,409
6
posed stationary coils surrounding each end section, each
netic material connecting the outer ends of the cores of
corresponding coils of the two series, a pole member car
tried by each shaft end section and rotatable with said
radial core, the inner end of which terminates closely
adjacent its associated magnetic shaft portion, and an
annular tube cell having its periphery supported on said
frame and in the space located between said pole faces,
said cell having a ?ow passage rectangular in cross section
and having the direction of liquid metal flow therein per
shaft, each of said pole members having a plurality of
pendicular to the greater cross-sectional dimension of said
radially projecting pole pieces terminating in rectangular
pole faces.
coil having a core the inner end of which terminates
closely adjacent its shaft end, longitudinal bars of mag
.
7. In a liquid metal pump, a frame, a shaft journalled
end faces, the faces of adjacent pole pieces of the two
series being inwardly directed toward each other into 10 in said frame, said shaft having two portions of magnetic
material and an intermediate portion of nonmagnetic
spaced confronting relationship, an {annular nonmagnetic
material, a pole member carried by each magnetic por
tube cell located between said confronting pole faces, and
tion having radially extended pole pieces, said pole pieces
means including ‘a cell mounting ring carried by said
having spaced confronting rectangular pole faces, means
frame and surrounding said cell for supporting said tube
cell.
15 for establishing a magnetic ?eld in the space between each
pair of confronting pole faces including a set of electro
4. In a liquid metal pump, a frame of nonmagnetic
magnets carried by said frame, each set having a magnet
material, a shaft journalled on bearings in said frame, said
associated with each of said magnetic shaft portions, each
shaft having end portions of good magnetic material and
electromagnet having a radial core, the inner end of which
an intermediate connecting portion of nonmagnetic mate
rial, a sleeve of good magnetic material on each end por-, 20 terminates closely adjacent its associated magnetic shaft
portion, an annular tube cell supported at its periphery
tion, a series of stationary electromagnets arranged about
on said frame and having a rectangular passage for the
each of said sleeves, each magnet having a radially dis
?ow of liquid metal located in the ?eld between said pole
posed core threaded into its sleeve, said frame having a
faces, said rectangular pole faces having their greater
coil mounting sleeve surrounding each of said ?rst-men
tioned sleeves, said coil mounting sleeves having apertures 25 cross-sectional dimension perpendicular to the direction
of ‘liquid metal ?ow in said tube cell, and means for
therein through which said cores extend, pole members
completing the magnetic circuit through said pole
carried by the adjacent ends of said shaft end portions,
said pole members having radially extended pole pieces,
the pole pieces of said pole members terminating in in
members.
8. In a liquid metal pump, a frame, a shaft journalled
wardly directed pole tips having confronting rectangular
faces, said rectangular faces having their longitudinal
of magnetic material connected by a portion of non
dimensions disposed radially of said shaft axis, an annular
magnetic material, a pole member carried by each mag
for rotation in said frame, said shaft having two portions
netic portion having radially extended pole pieces, the
tube cell of rectangular cross section located between the
corresponding pole pieces of said pole members having
confronting end faces of said pole pieces, means for sup:
porting the periphery of said tube cell resiliently on said 35 mutually inwardly directed pole tips terminating in spaced
frame for limited radial movement, means carried by
said frame for guiding said tube cell accurately during
said radial movements, and a plurality of bars of magnetic
material parallel with said shaft for connecting the outer
confronting pole faces rectangular in cross section, and
means for establishing a magnetic ?eld in the space be
tween each pair of confronting pole faces including a
pair of electromagnets carried by said frame, each electro
ends of corresponding cores of said series of magnets 40 magnet having a radial core the inner end of which ter
minates closely adjacent a dilferent one of said magnetic
to complete the magnetic circuits through said cores and
said pole pieces.
5. In a liquid metal pump, a frame, a shaft journalled
shaft portions, and an annular tube cell supported at its
periphery on said frame having a lliquid metal ?ow passage
in said frame, said shaft having two portions of magnetic
rectangular in cross section, said rectangular Pole faces
material and an intermediate portion of nonmagnetic ma? 45 having their greater cross-sectional dimension perpendicu
lar to the direction of ?ow of said liquid metal in said
terial, a pole member carried by each magnetic shaft por
?ow passage, said tube cell having inner and outer annular
tion having radially extended pole pieces, corresponding
pole pieces of said pole members having mutually in
wardly directed pole tips terminating in spaced confront
bosses which overlie said inwardly directed pole tips.
9. In 1a liquid metal pump, a frame of nonmagnetic
ing pole faces, means for establishing a magnetic ?eld in 50 material, a shaft journalled for rotation in said frame
having two magnetic portions and a connecting non
the space between pairs of confronting pole faces including
stationary electromagnets carried by said frame, said
magnetic portion, pole members carried by each magnetic
electromagnets having cores arranged radially about said
portion and rotatable with said shaft, each member having
a plurality of radially extended pole pieces, the corre
magnetic shaft portions, the inner ends of each core ter
minating closely adjacent its ‘associated magnetic shaft 55 sponding pole pieces of said pole members having mutu
ally inwardly directed pole tips terminating in spaced
rectangular pole faces, and means for establishing a mag
located between said pole faces through which liquid
portion, an annular tube cell rectangular in cross section
netic ?eld in the space between said pair of confronting
pole faces including a pair of electromagnets carried by ‘
providing inlet and outlet connections to said cell, said
cell having its greater cross-sectional dimension radially 60 said frame, each electromagnet having a radial core the
inner end of each terminates closely adjacent a different
disposed with respect to the axis of said shaft.
metal is to be pumped, and a ?ow divider in said cell
6. In a liquid metal pump, a frame, a shaft journalled
one of said magnetic shaft portions, an annular tube cell
having -a liquid metal ?ow passage which is rectangular
in said ‘frame, said shaft having two portions of magnetic
in cross section, and means for supporting said tube on said
material and an intermediate portion of nonmagnetic
material, a pole member carried by each magnetic shaft 65 frame with its rectangular ?ow passage in the space be
portion having radially extended pole pieces, correspond
ing pole pieces of said pole members having mutually
tween said pole faces including an annular frame member
surrounding said tube cell having radial passages spaced
about its periphery, and spring-‘biased means projecting
through said passages and engaging the periphery of said
inwardly directed pole tip terminating in spaced con
fronting pole faces which are rectangular and which have
their greatest cross-sectional dimension disposed radially 70 annular cell.
10. Apparatus for pumping electrically conductive ?uids
of the axis of said shaft, means for establishing a magnetic
comprising a stationary frame, a shaft journalled for
?eld in the space between each pair of confronting pole
rotation in said frame, said shaft having end portions of
faces including a set of electromagnets carried by said
magnetic material and a connecting intermediate portion
frame, each set having a magnet associated with each of
said magnetic shaft portions, each electromagnet having a 75 of nonmagnetic material, two pole members mounted in
l
3,035,409
1
; spaced relation, one on each shaft end portion for rotation
plurality of radially extended pole pieces having confront
therewith, each ~pole member including a plurality of radi
ing pole faces, :an annular tube cell rectangular in cross
section located between said pole faces, a plurality of
stationary electromagnets carried by said frame having
ally extending pole pieces, the corresponding pole pieces
on each shaft end portion having mutually inwardly di
rected free ends terminating in rectangular confronting
pole faces, a stationary ‘annular tube cell for the ?uid to
be pumped rectangular in cross section located between
cores, and means for completing the magnetic circuits
through said cores and said pole pieces including sleeves
of good magnetic material surrounding said shaft end por
said pole faces, and two sets of stationary electromagnetic
members, each set having ‘a plurality of radially extended
tions into which the inner ends of the cores of said elec
tromagnets are threaded and bars of magnetic material
cores terminating at their inner ends close to a different 10 connecting the outer ends of the cores of corresponding
one of said shaft end portions, and means comprised of
electromagnets.
good magnetic material connecting the outer ends of cor
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
responding radial cores of said two electromagnetic sets.
11. Apparatus for pumping electrically conductive ?uids
UNITED STATES PATENTS
comprising a stationary frame, a shaft journalled for
rotation in said frame having end portions of magnetic
material and an intermediate portion of nonmagnetic ma
terial, two pole members carried by said shaft end portions
respectively and rotatable with said shaft, each including a
15
2,847,936
2,915,973
2,928,349
2,940,393
Richter ______________ __ Aug. 19,
Findlay _______________ __ Dec. 8,
Findlay ______________ .._ Mar. 15,
Baker ________________ __ June 14,
1958
1959
1960
1960
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