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Патент USA US3038428

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June 12, 1962
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H. G. KLEMM ETAL
3,038,419
APPARATUS FOR FORMING PELLETS 0F HAY OR THE
Filed July 15, 1959
LIKE UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
INVENTORS.
\_\‘ HERMAN e. KLEMM,
-
-
\y
WILLIAM A. WATHEN a
7 BY MERLE H. PETERSON
H M VxZ ' M
',477'0/?/V£)".S‘.
June 12, 1962
H. c. KLEMM ETAL
v3,038,419
APPARATUS FOR FORMING PELLETSEOF HAY 0R THE
LIKE UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS
Filed July l5,_ 1959
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
.
INVENTORS.
HERMAN G. KLEMM,
BY WILLIAM A.WATHEN 8:
MERLE H. PETERSON
_
ATTORNEYS‘.
June 12, 1962
-
H. G. KLEMM ETAL
3,038,419
APPARATUS FOR FORMING PELLETS OF HAY OR THE
LIKE UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS
Filed July 15, 1959
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
1
_____ ~_
I
F' . 6
/y
INVENTORS.
HERMAN G. KLEIMM,
BY WILLIAM A. WAT'HEN 8
F-
if?
5
MERLE H. PETERSON
ArmQ/vns.
United States Patent 0
1
C€
3,038,419
Patented June 12, 1962
1
2.
3,038,419
another object to provide a hay pelletizing machine which
is safe to operate and in which all of the moving parts
APPARATUS non FG‘iZR/EENG PELLETS 0i? HAY
OR THE LIKE UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS
Herman G. Klemm, Birmingham, William A. Wathen,
Detroit, and Merle H. Peterson, Livonia, Mich, as
signors to Massey-Ferguson Inca, Racine, Win, a cor
poration of Maryiand
Fiied .l'niy 15, 195?, Ser. No. 827,354
19 Claims. (Cl. 1%)7-3)
may ‘be enclosed, quite unlike the balers in common use.
Finally, it is an object of the invention to provide a
hay pelletizing machine capable of use in the ?eld, either
self-propelled or tractor-drawn, which is durable and long
lived, which consists of a minimum number of simply
formed parts and which may be produced at a cost which
is so low as to justify purchase by farmers operating rela
tively small acreage.
The present invention relates to peiletizing a ?brous
Other objects and advantages of the invention will be
material and more particularly to the pelletizing of hay
come apparent upon reading the attached detailed de
picked up from a windrow.
scription and upon reference to the drawings in which:
The tonnages of hay required in the operation of an
FIGURE 1 is a diagrammatic perspective, simpli?ed
average farm, and the ?uffy nature of hay, has long pre 15 for easy understanding, of a hay pelletizing machine con
sented problems of harvesting, collecting and storage. To
structed in accordance with the present invention;
reduce the bulk in an e?ort to reduce the man hours
FIG. 2 is an enlarged fragmentary top view of the
per ton required from ?eld to manger, the practice of
pelletizing gears and knocker arms;
bailing from the windrow is almost universal. However,
FIG. 2a is an enlarged fragmentary pro?le of the mesh~
the bales are usually dumped back onto the ?eld and 20 ing gears with the relieved pockets therein shown by the
they must later be manually loaded, transported to the
shading;
barn, and stacked for storage. In use, the bales must be
FIG. 3 is an enlarged fragmentary detailed view show
manually unstacked, broken apart, and put into the man
ing a knocker shaft and associated knocker arms taken
ger. It has been suggested in the past that hay be pel
along the line 3—3 in FIG. 2;
I
letized rather than baled. Handling of hay in pellet form 25 FIG. 3a is a vertical fragmentary section taken along
is advantageous because of the possible ‘use of machines
the line 3a-3a in FIG. 2;
to take care of all of the steps mentioned above, including
FIG. 4 is a fragmentary view of the ratio adjusting
the possibility of employing automatic conveyors from
mechanism, with the alternate limit of adjustment indi
the storage bin to the feed rack. However, no machine
cated by the dot-dash outline;
capable of producing pellets of uniform size, shape and
FIG. 5 is a section taken along the line 5-5 in FIG. 4;
density under ?eld conditions, and satisfactory for use on
FIG. 6 is a section similar to FIG. 5 but showing the
an average farm, has been available.
position of the belts in the alternate condition of adjust
Accordingly, it is an object to produce a hay pelletizing
ment; and
machine capable of receiving hay from a windrow and
FIG. 7 is a fragmentary section of the pellet-forming
for producing hay pellets of uniform size and shape and 35 gears and associated timing gears taken along the line
predetermined density on a high production 'basis and
7—~7 in FIG. 2, on a reduced scale.
in spite of wide variations in the amount of the hay in
While the invention is described herein in connection
the windrow.
with a preferred embodiment, it will be understood that
More speci?cally, it is an object to provide a hay pel
I do not intend to be limited to such embodiment, but,
letizing machine capable of operating in the ?eld to pro
on the contrary, intend to cover the various alternative
duce hay pellets which are su?iciently dense and com
and equivalent constructions included within the spirit and
pact as to hold their shape in spite of handling in auto
scope of the appended claims.
mated conveyor equipment but which are nevertheless
Turning now to the drawings, FIGURE 1 shows a pel
suiiiciently tender and spongy as to be palatable to live
letizing mechanism in partially exploded and semi-dia
stock. Tests indicate that livestock actually prefer the 45 grammatic form. While the details are brought out in the
pelletized hay produced by the present machine to the
accompanying ?gures, it will be possible to visualize the
loose ?brous hay from the ?eld or bale.
operation of the machine quite graphically from this
It is a more speci?c object of the present invention to
?gure. The machine, which is intended for use out in the
rovide a hay pelletizing machine in which the charge of
?eld, includes a frame 16 for transport having a number of
50
hay to be formed into a single pellet is automatically
longitudinal elements or rails 11 and supported by suitable
controlled within relatively narrow limits so that su?icient
ground engaging wheels 12 of which only two are shown
plant juices are liberated to bind the compressed ?bers
in the drawing, located on opposite sides of the frame.
together thereby to withstand a reasonable amount of
handling in bulk while, nevertheless, preserving a spongy
texture free of hard spots and which is palatable and in
optimum condition for eating by livestock.
The present pelletizing machine may be either self-pro
pelled or tractor-drawn; in the present instance, it will be
assumed that the machine is self-propelled. with a suitable
driving connection being provided between an engine 15
and the wheels 12.
It is a further object to provide a hay pelletizing ma
chine producing pellets which are well formed and sepa
Mounted at the left, or front, end of the machine is a
hay pick-up device 20 which will be recognized as being of
rate from one another and in which the trailing ?bers are
severed or pinched o?f incident to compressing the pellet 60 conventional type. It includes a reel 21 having sets of
into ?nal shape.
?ngers 22 which extend through slits 23 in a curved apron
24. The reel 21 is rotated by a drive shaft 25 which is
It is still another object to provide a hay pelletizing
driven by a belt 26 coupled to the engine 15 by means to
machine which insures that the hay being fed to the pellet
be described. It will be apparent that as the machine is
forming gears is of substantially constant per~unit density
to enhance the production of uniform pellets in spite of 65 advanced into the Windrow, the hay in the windrow will
be picked up by the ?ngers 22 and passed rearwardly
wide variation in the amount of hay being fed into the
across the apron 24. As the hay moves, it is directed
machine from the windrow.
toward the center by a pair of guide plates 28 to facilitate
It is yet another object to provide a pelletizing machine
which is simple and reliable in operation and which is not 70 feeding to a conveyor at the point of discharge.
Mounted at the rear of the apron 24 and centered with
readily thrown out of kilter by the picking up of some
respect to the guide plates 28 is a conveyor generally indi
foreign object along with the hay in the windrow. It is
cated at 30. This conveyor includes lower apron type con
3,038,419
3
veying means 31 and upper conveying means 32. in the
form of endless, clea-ted belts. The belt 31 is trained
about horizontal rollers 33, 34, respectively, having shifts
35, 36. The upper conveyor belt 32 is trained about
rollers 43, 44 having shafts 45, 46. Such shafts are pref
erably mounted on a pair of downwardly angled arms 47
so that the two conveyor belts 31, 32 are convergent for
which is removed incident to this undercutting or relieving
is indicated in the shading in FIG. 2a.
After the pellets have been knocked out by means to be
described, they are preferably elevated into a storage bin
by means of a conventional elevator 70.
It will be seen that in the above arrangement, the hay is
?rst slightly compressed in the vertical direction by the
convergent conveyor means and then subsequently com
pressed an additional amount in the horizontal direction
In carrying out the present invention, a pair of meshed 10 between the gear cover plates 61, 62 by the crowding
action of the gear teeth as they sweep around into dead
pelletizirrg gears are provided at the output of the con
center position. This compression in two planes insures
veyor 30 for receiving the batt of hay issuing from the
that a fairly dense charge will be fed into the mating gear
conveyor, for severing or “pinching off” charges for in
teeth as they are about to close, so that the ?nal, pellet
dividual pellets, and for compressing such charges to a
degree just sui?cient to liberate the plant juices throughout 15 forming, step is accomplished with only a limited com
reducing the volume occupied by the hay and for forming
it into an integrated stream or “batt.”
the body of the pellet so that the pellet will be palatable
.yet hold together when handled in bulk. In the present
instance, the gears indicated at 51, 52, are arranged hori
pression ratio.
Thus, the space between the mating
Taking the gear 51 by way of example, it is preferably of
produce them, thus cutting down upon the size and weight
hollow construction (FIG. 7) mounted on a shaft 53 on
of the total machine.
In carrying out the present invention, a common source
of rotative power is provided for driving both the con
teeth at the time that the charge is cut off or de?ned may
bear a ratio to the pellet volume of only about 2:1. This
permits the formation of pellets of reasonable size while
zontally in a common plane. For the details of construc
tion of the gears, reference is made to FIGS. 2, 2a and 7. 20 keeping to a minimum the size of the gears required to
antifriction roller bearings 54. The gear 52 is of similar
construction mounted on a shaft 55 and having antifriction
roller bearings 56.
i For the purpose of providing a horizontally convergent
feed chamber 60 at the entry Way of the gears and to pre
vent the hay from simply being extruded upwardly and
25 veyor 30 and the pellet forming gears 51, 52.
Accord
ingly, reference may next be made to the driving means.
Projecting from the engine 15 and rotating at a speed
which is suitably stepped down by gearing (not shown)
associated with the engine, is a drive shaft 71. Such
downwardly as it is compressed, the gears are embraced by
upper and lower cover or guide plates 61, 62 (FIGS. 3a 30 drive shaft engages a belt 72 at its end for driving bevel
and 7) which are suitably anchored to the machine frame.
These cover plates are preferably triangular in shape, ex
gearing 73 which rotates the shaft 45 associated with the
tending from the outlet of the conveyor to a point slightly
beyond dead center.
connect the shaft 45 and the shaft 35 associated with the
lower conveyor so that both of the conveyors are opera
are offset from one another and which seize both sides of
which are in mesh with one another (FIG. 7). These
are preferably in the 'form of “ring” gears bolted or other
upper conveyor.
A twisted belt 74 is employed to inter
In practicing the invention, the batt of hay received 35 tive to propel the incoming hay. The pick-up device 20
is also powered by the same power conveying elements,
from the conveyor undergoes three de?nable steps in con
the belt 26 serving to interconnect the shaft 35 of the
version to pellet form, horizontal compression or density
lower conveyor with the shaft 25 of the pick-up device.
ing, pinching off of individual charges, and ?nal com
For the purpose of driving the pellet forming gears
paction. Thus, referring to FIG. 2, it will be seen that
51, 52, the gears are provided with integral timing gears
the gear teeth which form the convergent “side walls” of
81, 82, respectively, having the same pitch diameter and
the feed chamber 60 act as a series of feed ?ngers which
the advancing mass compressing it horizontally and pull
ing it inwardly toward the dead center position. At this
wise secured to the pellet forming gears. For driving the
time, the hay is in the form of matted ?bers. In accord 45 gear 82, a spur gear 83 is used driven by a speed reducer
84 which, in turn, is driven by belts 85, 86 from the en
ance with one of the aspects of the invention, closely
spaced involute gears are employed to insure cutting off
gine drive shaft 71._
of the trailing ?bers. The involute shape is distinguished
In accordance with the present invention, automatic
means are provided for controlling the speed of the pellet
by the fact that there is sliding “line contact” between the
forming gears 51, 52 in accordance with the amount of
meshing gears as they begin to mesh. Speci?cally, the
hay being fed to such gears. Stated in more speci?c
tip of a tooth on one gear and the wall of a tooth on the
other come together with substantially zero clearance in
terms, means are provided for slightly compressing the
advance of the time that the dead center position is
hay passing through the conveyor means 30 to form a
batt of substantially uniform density, for measuring the
reached. Thus, referring to FIG. 2, it will be noted that
a tooth 63 on the gear 51 cooperates with an adjacent 55 thickness of the batt, and for using the measurement of
tooth 64 on the gear 52 with initial contact taking place
thickness to control the speed of the pellet forming gears.
at 65. This coming together not only de?nes the charge
In the preferred embodiment of the invention, a batt
but severs or pinches off any trailing ?bers which might
of constant per-unit density is formed by providing a con
otherwise cause the pellets to be connected to one an
vergent conveyor arrangement in which one side of the
other. After this pinchin'g 01f occurs, and as the gear 60 conveyor is biased to produce a predetermined compres
teeth move into the dead center position, ?nal compres
sive force upon the passing stream of hay. Thus, as
sion takes place until the pellet occupies minimum volume
shown in the drawings, the upper conveyor is hinged
as shown at 66. As the pressure is released, the pellet will
about the horizontal shaft 45 for bodily swinging move
tend to remain in the space between the teeth as indicated
ment about its inlet end, and the remainder of the con
at 67, and it is one of the features of the present invention 65 veyor is “?oating” so that its weight presses downward
that novel means are provided for knocking out the pellets
ly upon the hay. In other words, the conveyor arms are
free to swing upwardly and downwardly applying a sub
as the gears continue to rotate.
stantially constant compressive force to the hay and with
It will be apparent from what has already been said
the position at any given moment depending upon the
that the pockets for forming the pellets are not produced
simply by spacing apart at the meshed gears by an ap 70 thickness of the batt.
In accordance with one of the aspects of the invention,
propriate amount. On the contrary, the gears are fully
a sensing roller is provided at the outlet of the upper con
meshed with their pitch diameters coincident with one
veyor for more precise measurement of the thickness of
another. The pockets, indicated at 68 in FIG. 2a, are
the batt being fed to the pellet forming gears. In the
formed by undercutting or relieving the gear at the roots
between the adjacent teeth. The portion of the gear 75 present instance, the roller, indicated at 90, is mounted
5
3,038,419
at the ends of the arms 47 which support the conveyor
rollers. For this purpose, the arms 47 may be bent into
dog-leg shape as shown, and antifriction bearings may be
provided at 91 to insure that the roller 90 is freely ro
tatable. Preferably, the sensing roller 90 is so related
to the roller 44 which supports the outlet end of con
veyor belt 32 that the hay reaches maximum density in
the region ‘93 between the sensing roller and the roller 34
6
2 and 3. Thus, taking the gear 51 by way of example,
a knocker arm shaft 130 is provided having a pair of
knocker arms 131, 132 at the end thereof. The knocker
arm shaft 130 is driven from the timing gear 81 via spur
gears 133, 134-. The gear 134 is close coupled to a bevel
gear 135 which engages a bevel gear 136 mounted at the
end of the knocker arm shaft. Thus, rotation of the
timing gear 81 produces rotation of the knocker arm shaft
130 so that the arms 131, 132 thereon sweep through
of the lower conveyor, the two rollers being substantial
ly alined with one another in a vertical direction. If de 10 the space between successive teeth, thereby knocking the
sired, most of the weight of the upper ‘conveyor assembly
pellets between the teeth clear of the pellet forming gears
may be borne by the sensing roller 90. In any event, the
and to a pick-up point at the foot of the conveyor 70. In
position of the sensing roller, and the arms 47 which sup
similar fashion, the pellet forming gear 52 has a knocker
port it, is related directly to the thickness of the batt.
arm shaft 140 having arms 141, 142 thereon. The shafts
For the purpose of adjusting the amount of force ap
130, 140 are coupled together by bevel gears 143, 144 in
plied to the batt, an adjusting spring may be provided
at the lower or movable end of the arms 4-7.
Such a
such a Way that the knocker arms are 90° out of phase
on the two shafts. Because of the positive coupling be
spring, indicated ‘at 95, preferably has a ‘low spring rate
and an adjustable anchoring point provided, vfor example,
tween all of the moving elements, perfect synchronism
by an adjustable screw 96. Such spring may be either in
tension or compression depending upon whether it is de
sired to subtract from ‘or add to, the weight applied to
angle “a” from the horizontal (FIG. 3) so that the
the batt of hay by the force of gravity acting upon the
swingable upper conveyor assembly, thereby to produce
a batt having a desired and substantially constant per
unit density.
is assured.
Preferably the knocker arm shafts are inclined at an
knocker arms have a component of motion in the direc
tion of rotation of the respective pellet forming gears.
Thus each arm tends to follow the movement of the teeth,
25 enabling the arms to be rotated at a reduced speed with
less likelihood of damaging the pellets.
To bring about a change in the speed of the pellet
forming gears while leaving the speed of the conveyor
Resumé of Operation
substantially constant, a ratio-changing device 1013 is in
While
the
operation
of the dew'ce will be apparent
terposed between the engine and the gears. This device, 30
from the above description, it may be summarized brie?y
illustrated in FIGS. 4, 5 and 6, is engaged by the belts
as follows: The machine is driven along a windrow which
85, 86 previously referred to. This ratio changing means
is bodily picked up by the pick-up device 20* and deposited
is of simple construction, employing a compound pulley
on the apron 24. Upon striking the guide plates 28, the
having a ?rst ?xed Wall 131, a second ?xed wall 102, and
a movable central wall 103. All of these elements ro
tate as a unit on a central axle 104. As will be under
stood by one skilled in the power transmission art, the
central or movable wall 103 adopts an axial position of
hay is directed toward the center of the apron 24 and
into the mouth of a conveyor mechanism 30 consisting
of the belts 31, 32 which move in unison with one another.
The conveyors are vertically convergent so that the fluffy
hay is progressively and lightly compressed as it travels
equilibrium depending upon the positioning of the axle
10-‘.- relative to the two belts ‘35, 86. To change the posi 40 along. However, the upper conveyor assembly is ver
tically swingable about the shaft 45, with the assembly be
tion of the axle 1041, the same is mounted on a ratio-ad
ing gravity-biased against the bay to produce a somewhat
justing lever 110' having a fulcrum 111 and a lower or
compacted batt of hay which is of substantially constant
positioning end 112. To preserve the belt tension ‘for
density but which varies in thickness depending upon the
all ratio settings, the lever 110 is floatingly mounted on
amount of hay being received from the pick-up device. It
an auxiliary spring loaded lever 115 having a fulcrum
116 which is supported on the frame of the machine on
a suitable bracket 11?. A spring 118 connected to the
opposite end of the lever 115 produces a counterclock
wise torque about the pivot 116 which in turn acts to
produce endwise thrust along the lever 119 in a direction
to tension both of the belts 85, 86 simultaneously.
For the purpose of linking together the ratio-adjusting
lever 11% and the sensing roller 99 for automatic correc~
tive action, any desired mechanical coupling may be em
ployed. However, for simplicity, I prefer to use a so
called “Bowden” wire control 120 having a flexible wire
121 in a stationarily mounted, ?exible sheath 122. The
ends of the wire 1'21 are anchored by screws 123, ‘124,
respectively, at least one of these screws preferably being
45 is understood that the rate of feed of hay under ?eld
conditions may vary over wide limits depending upon
the yield in the various portions of the ?eld. The hay
is further compacted and its thickness constantly meas
ured by the sensing roller 94} which assumes a vertical
position depending upon the thickness of the batt. The
sensing roller serves to angularly position the speed con
trol lever 110 which establishes a speed ratio in the ratio
changing device 10% with the result that the pellet forming
gears are speeded up when a thick batt is being fed from
the conveyor and slowed down when the batt is of re~
duced thickness, thereby to produce pellets of substantially
constant density.
When the batt is fed into the feed chamber 60 (FIG.
capable of temporary release in order to adjust the rela 60 2) the ?bers are engaged by the teeth of the pellet form
ing gears and compacted horizontally. 'llhe batt is also
tion between the position of the sensing roller and the
divided into successive “charges.” As the teeth of the
position of the ratio-changing lever. It will be under
gears “Wipe” together, line contact is achieved and the
stood that the density of the batt, which is controlled by
trailing ?bers are pinched off. Each charge is thereupon
the adjustment of the spring ‘95, and the relative speed
of the pellet ‘forming gears 51, 52 relative to the batt are 65 compressed into a pellet, and on the output side the pellet
is knocked clear by a rotating knocker arm which rotates
adjustments which are to some extent interrelated, but it
in synchronism with the gear. The pellets may then be
is nevertheless a simple matter ‘for one skilled in the art
to vary both of the adjustments until a condition is
achieved which produces optimum feeding into the pellet
forming gears and optimum density of the pellets.
In accordance with one of the more detailed aspects
of the present invention, knocker arms, synchronized
with the pellet forming gears are provided for knocking
the pellets from between the teeth. To understand the
conveyed by a suitable conveyor into a bin for transport
to the barn. The relative speeds of the: conveyor and
pellet forming gears may be varied by varying the linkage
between the sensing roller and the speed changing mecha
nism, and the density of the batt may be conveniently
varied by varying the force in the auxiliary spring 95.
The pellets produced by the present machine may be
knocker arm arrangement, reference is made to FIGS. 75 stored in bulk and transferred to mangers and feeding
3,038,419
7
stations by suitable automatic conveyors, thereby avoiding
the manual labor involved in the handling and usage of
bales. The present machine may be used successfully
with many different types of hay, and the ?nal product
seems to be more attractive to livestock than the hay in
the non-pelleted condition.
t will be apparent that the above machine employs
a minimum of parts, making it possible for machines of
the present design to be produced at a cost sufficiently low
to enable use on farms of medium and small size.
8
cordance with the cross section of the batt being fed to the
pellet forming means.
5. In a hay pelletizing machine the combination com
prising a transportable frame, upper and lower conveyors
on said frame positioned to receive ‘gathered hay, said
conveyors being convergently arranged with the upper
conveyor being ?oatingly mounted and weighted so that
the gathered hay is slightly compressed to form a batt of
substantially constant density but of variable cross section
How 10 as it is conveyed, pellet forming means on said frame po
sitioned for receiving the batt formed by said conveying
means and for compressing successive portions thereof into
separate pellets, means for constantly measuring the cross
of automated stock feeding apparatus.
section of the batt adjacent the discharge end of the con
We claim as our invention:
1. In a hay pelletizing machine the combination com 15 veyor before it is fed into the pellet forming means, means
for driving the pellet forming means including a source
prising a transportable frame, means including a conveyor
of rotative power, and means included in said driving
positioned on said frame to receive hay and operative
means and controlled by said measuring means for con
for slightly compressing the hay into a batt of substan
tinuously adjusting the speed of the pellet forming means
tially uniform density but of a thickness depending upon
in
accordance with the cross section of the batt formed
the rate of hay received, means including a pair of re 20
ever, the use of pelleted hay is particularly advantageous
on large farms and ranches Where full use may be made
lieved intermeshing pelletizing gears for receiving the batt
by said conveyors.
formed by said conveyor and for compressing the same
in the spaces between the gear teeth to form pellets,
means positioned between said conveyor and said gears
for sensing the thickness of the batt being fed to the
pelletizing gears, means for driving the gears and the
conveyor, and means coupled to said sensing means and
acting on said driving means for controlling the speed
of the gears in accordance with the thickness of the batt
6. In a hay pelletizing machine the combination com
prising a transportable frame, a lower apron type con
of pellets of substantially uniform density.
veyor and an upper apron type conveyor arranged on said
veyor and an upper apron type conveyor arranged on
said frame in superimposed relation with their inlet ends
positioned to receive hay between them, means for hinged
ly supporting the upper conveyor at its inlet end on said
frame while permitting the outlet end thereof to ?oat
with the weight being borne by the hay so that the hay
for production of pellets of substantially uniform density. 30 is lightly compressed into a batt of substantially constant
density but of variable cross section as it is transported
2. In a hay pelletizing machine the combination com
by the conveyor, pellet forming means mounted on said
prising a transportable frame, means positioned on said
frame in position for receiving the batt discharged from
frame to receive hay ‘and operative for slightly compress
the conveyors and for compressing successive portions
ing the hay into a batt of predetermined width but vari
thereof into separate pellets, means including a source
able thickness, means including ‘a pair of registering pellet
of rotative power for driving the conveyors and the pellet
izing gears having intermeshing teeth for receiving the batt
forming means, a variable ratio driving means interposed
formed by said compressing means ‘and for compressing
between the source of rotative power and the pellet form
the same in the spaces between the gear teeth to form
ing means, and means‘ for automatically adjusting the vari
pellets, means positioned ahead of said gears for sensing
the thickness of the batt being fed to the pelletizing gears, 40 able ratio driving means in accordance with the angular
position of the upper conveyor.
and driving means coupled to the sensing means for con
7. In a hay pelletizing machine the combination com—
trol thereby in driving the pelletizing gears at a speed
prising ‘a transportable frame, a lower apron type con
which varies with the thickness1 of the batt for production
3. In a hay pelletizing machine the combination com
prising means for conveying the hay and for slightly com
pressing the hay into a batt of predetermined width and
density but variable thickness, means including a pair of
registering pelletizing gears having intenneshing teeth for
receiving the batt and for compressing the same in the
spaces between the teeth to form pellets, means disposed
adjacent the discharge end of said conveying means for
sensing the thickness of the batt being fed to the pelletiz
ing gears, and driving means for driving the conveying
means and said pelletizing gears including variable speed
mechanism interposed in the drive for said gears and con
trolled by said sensing means to drive the gears at a
speed which varies with the thickness of the batt for pro
duction of pellets of substantially uniform density.
frame in superimposed relation in position to receive hay
between them, means for pivotally supporting the upper
conveyor at its inlet end while permitting the outlet end
thereof to ?oat with the weight being borne by the hay so
that the hay is lightly compressed into a batt of substan
tially constant density but of variable cross section as it
is transported by the conveyors, pellet forming means car
ried by said frame in position for receiving the batt formed
by said conveyors and for compressing successive portions
thereof into separate pellets, means for constantly measur
ing the cross section of the batt formed by the conveyors
before it is fed into the pellet forming means‘, means in
cluding a source of rotative power for driving the convey
ors and the pellet forming means, a variable ratio driving
means interposed between the source of rotative power
and the pellet forming means, and means actuated by said
4. In a hay pelletizing machine the combination com 60 measuring means for automatically adjusting the variable
prising a transportable frame, means supported on said
ratio driving means in accordance with the cross section
frame for receiving and slightly compressing gathered hay
of the batt being fed to the pellet forming means.
to form a batt of substantially constant density but of
8. In a hay pelletizing machine the combination com
variable cross section, pellet forming means on said frame 65 prising a transportable frame, convergent conveyor means
positioned for receiving the batt formed by said compress
supported on said frame in position to receive hay, said
ing means and for compressing successive portions there—
conveyor means including opposed elements inwardly
of into separate pellets, means for constantly measuring
biased against the conveyed stream of hay for compress
ing the hay into a batt of substantially constant density
the cross section of the batt adjacent the point at which
it is fed into the pellet forming means, means for driving 70 but of variable cross section at it is transported by the
conveyor means, pellet forming means supported on said
the pellet forming means, a source of rotative power, a
frame in position for receiving the batt formed by said
variable ratio driving means interposed between the source
conveyor means and for compressing successive portions
of rotative power and the pellet forming means, and
thereof into separate pellets, means for constantly measur
means including a linkage actuated by said measuring
means for adjusting the variable ratio driving means in ac 75 ing the cross section of the batt as it is formed by the
9
3,038,419
1b
conveyor means and fed into the pellet forming means,
the teeth converge upon and capture the leading portion
means including a source of rotative power for driving
of the batt drawing it inwardly and compressing the same,
the pellet forming means and the conveyor means, and
the gears having teeth of involute shape and spaced for
means interposed in the drive for the pellet forming
full meshing so that a substantially closed pocket is
means coupled to ‘the measuring means for adjusting the
‘formed prior to arrival at the dead center position re
speed of the pellet forming means automatically in ac
sulting in the pinching off of trailing ?bers but with the
cordance with the cross section of the batt being fed to
roots of the teeth cut out to de?ne pockets at the dead
the pellet forming means.
center position, means for driving the gears at a rate of
9. In a hay pelletizing machine the combination com~
speed which is dependent upon the rate of feed of hay
prising a transportable frame, convergent conveyors sup 10 in the batt, and means for knocking out the pellets from
ported on said frame in face to face relation positioned
between the teeth as the teeth pass beyond the dead cen
to receive hay between them, a roller on one of the con
ter position.
veyors having means for biasing the same inwardly
14. In a hay pelletizing machine the combination com
against the conveyed stream of hay for compressing the
prising a pair of pellet forming gears having meshed teeth
hay into a batt of substantially constant density but of 15 providing clearance for the formation of successive pock
variable cross section, pellet forming means positioned
ets at the roots of the teeth as the gears revolve, sta
for receiving the batt formed by said roller and for com
tionary upper and lower cover plates arranged ?atly adja
pressing successive portions thereof into separate pellets,
cent the opposite sides of said gears and de?ning with said
means operatively connected with said roller for con
cover plates an inwardly tapering feed chamber, means
stantly measuring the cross section of the batt fed into
for feeding a batt of hay into said feed chamber, and
the pellet forming means, means including a source of
rotative power for driving the pellet forming means and
the conveyor means, and means actuated by said measur
ing means for automatically adjusting the speed imparted
means for driving the pellet forming gears at a rate of
speed which is dependent upon the rate of feed of hay
in the batt for formation of successive pellets having sub
stantially constant density.
to the pellet forming means by said drive means in ac 25
15. In a hay pelletizing machine the combination com
cordance with the cross section of the batt being fed
prising a pair of pellet forming gears having meshed teeth
to the pellet forming means.
providing clearance for the formation of successive pock—
10. In a hay pelletizing machine the combination com
ets at the roots of the teeth as the gears revolve, sta
prising a transportable frame, conveyor means on said
frame positioned to receive hay and operative for convey
ing the hay and for forming the same into a batt of sub
stantially constant density but of variable cross section,
pellet forming means on said frame positioned for receiv
ing the batt formed by said conveyor means and for
forming successive portions thereof into compressed pel
tionary upper and lower cover plates arranged ?atly adja
cent opposite the sides of said gears and de?ning with
said cover plates an inwardly tapering feed chamber,
means for feeding a batt of hay into said feed chamber,
and means for driving the pellet forming gears at a rate
of speed which is dependent upon the rate of feed of
hay in the batt for formation of successive pellets having
lets, common driving means for the conveying means and
substantially constant density, said teeth being of involute
pellet forming means, and means included in said con
shape so that a substantially closed pocket is formed prior
veyor means responsive to the cross section of the batt
to the arrival at the dead center position resulting in the
being fed to the pellet forming means operative to reg
pinching off of trailing ?bers.
ulate said driving means for varying the speed of opera 40
16. In a hay pelletizing machine the combination com
tion of the pellet forming means for the production of
prising a pair of pellet forming gears having meshed teeth
pellets having substantially uniform size and density.
11. In a hay pelletizing machine the combination com
prising a transportable frame having a supporting ground
providing clearance for the formation of successive pock
ets at the roots of the teeth as the gears revolve, sta
tionary upper and lower cover plates arranged ?atly adja
wheel, conveyor means on said frame position to receive 45 cent the opposite sides of said gears and de?ning with said
hay and operative to form the same into a batt of sub
cover plates an inwardly tapering feed chamber, means
stantially constant density but of variable cross section
for feeding a batt of hay into said feed chamber, means
as it is being transported, pellet forming means on said
for driving the pellet forming gears at a rate of speed
frame positioned for receiving the batt produced by said
conveyor means and for forming successive portions
thereof into compressed pellets, common driving means
for the conveying means pellet forming means and
ground wheel, and means controlled in accordance with
the cross section of the batt being fed to the pellet form
ing means for adjusting said drive means to vary the rela
tive speed of operation of the pellet forming means for
the production of pellets having substantially uniform
size and density in spite of variations in ?eld conditions.
‘12. A hay pelletizing machine comprising in combina
which is dependent upon the rate of feed of hay in the batt
for formation of successive pellets having substantially
constant density, and means synchronized with the gears
for knocking out the pellets from between the teeth upon
movement beyond the dead center position.
_
17. In a hay pelletizing machine the combination com
prising a pair of ?at pellet forming gears having meshing
teeth with root clearance de?ning pellet forming spaces,
cover plates on opposite sides of the gears and enclosing
the entryway between said gears to de?ne a feed chamber,
and means including knocker shafts having radial knocker
tion a transportable frame, pellet forming means on said 60 arms at the output side of the gears with the shafts being
frame, means on said frame for conveying hay in a
directly coupled to the gears for knocking out the pellets
stream of substantially constant unit density to said pel
let forming means, means operatively connected to said
conveying means for measuring the ‘rate of flow of hay
formed between the teeth, and means for driving the
gears.
18. In a hay pelletizing machine the combination com
in the stream, and means for driving the pellet forming 65 prising
a pair of ?at pellet forming gears having meshing
teeth
with
root clearance de?ning pellet forming pockets,
ment made by said measuring means so that substantially
cover
plates
snugly embracing opposite sides of the gears
the same charge of hay is compressed into successively
to enclose the pellet forming pockets and to de?ne a feed
formed pellets.
means at a speed which is dependent upon the measure
13. In a hay pelletizing machine the combination com 70 chamber, a knocker arm shaft associated with each of the
gears on the output side, each of said shafts having a
radial arm for swinging between the teeth to knock the
prising a pair of pelletizing gears having meshed teeth,
stationary upper and lower cover plates arranged ?atly
adjacent the opposite sides of said gears and de?ning
with said gears an inwardly tapering feed chamber, means
for feeding a batt of hay into said feed chamber so that 75
pellets therefrom, and means for driving the shafts in
synchronism with the gears.
19. In a hay pelletizing machine the combination com
prising means including a frame for ?eld transport, con
3,0 38,419
11
veyor means supported on saidframe in position to re
ceive hay and de?ning a ?rst feed chamber in which the
hay is compressed in a vertical direction as it is trans
ported, means including a pair of intermeshing toothed
gears de?ning a second feed chamber in which the hay 5
is compressed in a horizontal direction, the teeth of said
pair of pelletizing gears cooperating to form the partially
compressed hay from the second feed chamber into com
pact pellets, driving means for the conveyor and gears,
and means for controlling the speed of rotation of the 10
gears in accordance with the amount of hay passing
through said feed chambers.
12
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,094,320
2,716,317
2,716,318
2,861,610
Evans ______________ __ Apr. 21,
McClellan ____________ .. Aug. 30,
Skromme ___________ __ Aug. 30,
Ramsay ____________ __ Nov. 25,
1914
1955
1955
1958
FOREIGN PATENTS
861,665
Germany ______________ __ Jan. 5, 1953
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