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Патент USA US3038520

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June 12, 1962
Filed Aug. 12, 1960
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
82 67
‘wag; '
I27 (I24 (I26
Patented June 12, 1962
Dwight Vorkoeper, 143 York Ave., and Morrough
at one end thereof, and is also made leakproof by a pack
ing 18 and a packing nut 19 on the barrel 13.
The plunger 14 is connected ‘by a pin 21 to an actu
ating socket 22, open at both ends. An operating lever
23 is slidably received in the socket, being endwise mov
Q’Brien, 643 Qragmont Ave, both of Berkeley, Calif.
Filed Aug. 12, 1960, Ser. No. 49,286
2. Claims. (0. 144—193)
able into any selected position and being retained by
with logs lying at virtually any attitude, and for the pur
pose of splitting the logs.
Another object of the invention is to provide a log
ing movement of the lever 23 the plunger 14 is easily
reciprocated within the barrel 13, this motion being ac
enlargements 20 and a removable pin 25. The socket
I22 is connected by a pivot pin 24 to a link 26, in turn
Our invention relates to means primarily useful in the
connected to the head 11 by a pivot pin 27 spanning a
splitting of lumber such as logs, and is designed for indi 10 head
recess 28.
vidual use in driving asunder adjacent or previously
transport, and under various conditions, the han
joined members such as the ?bres in a log or stump.
dle 23 or lever is retracted through or, after removal
An object of the invention is to provide a log splitter
of the pin 25, is removed from the socket 22, but in
which is readily portable by an individual and is useful
use the lever 23 is inserted ?rmly into the socket 22 or
by him either in the Woods or elsewhere and in connection
is projected to its maximum extension so that upon swing
companied by slight swinging of the link 26.
splitter which is effective upon the application of rea
movement of the plunger 14 within the barrel
sonable manual effort to produce a relatively high force 20 13 The
to move hydraulic ?uid. The piston 8 is tubu~
effective to split the desired log.
lar and encloses a chamber 31, utilized as a reservoir.
Another object of the invention is to provide a log
Separating the chamber 31 from a chamber 32 within
splitter which is substantially self-contained and of a sim
the cylinder 7 is a composite piston head 33, including
ple mechanical nature so that it can readily be used over
protracted periods under rugged surroundings.
Another object of the invention is to provide a log
splitter which can readily be engaged with virtually any
kind of log under virtually any conditions and can serve
25 a plug 34 which is secured within the piston 8 and serves
as an anchor for fastenings 36. These secure a packing
cup 37 in position through the intermediary of an annulus
38. The packing cup 37 is in part backed up and the
piston S is afforded an improved bearing by a band 41
subsequently to spread apart or to split the log.
of anti-friction material surrounding and tightly engaging
Another object of the invention is in general to pro 30 the
piston 8 and in sliding engagement with the interior
vide a mechanism for moving materials apart comparable
wall of the cylinder 7.
to the splitting of the portions of a log.
Since the chamber 31 is utilized as a reservoir for
An additional object of the invention is in general to
hydraulic actuating ?uid, a hydraulic feed tube 43 ex
provide an improved log splitter.
into the chamber '31 and to the head 11. The inlet
Other objects, together with the foregoing, are attained ‘ tends
end of the tube 43 adjacent the outboard end of the cylin
in the embodiments of the invention described in the
der 7 is provided with a ?tting 44 having an intake pipe
accompanying description and illustrated in the accom
projecting downwardly therefrom in the normally
panying drawings, in which:
utilized attitude of the parts. Hydraulic ?uid within the
FIGURE 1 is a side elevation of one form of log splitter
chamber 31 can be Withdrawn from near the bottom of
fabricated pursuant to the invention and in extended posi 40 the reservoir. The hollow ?tting 44 is preferably thread
tion on a split log.
FIGURE 2 is a cross section on an axial plane through
the log splitter of FIGURE 1, with the parts in their
ed onto the end of the tube 43 and can conveniently
be oriented in the proper direction upon assembly.
The other end of the intake tube 43 is fastened to a
retracted or compact position.
?tting 47 screwed into the head 11 and continuing com
FIGURE 3 is a detailed section comparable to a por
munication to a passageway 48 in the head 11 and open
tion of FIGURE 2, and showing some of the parts of
the hydraulic mechanism in a special location.
ing into a valve body 49 seated with appropriate gaskets.
The valve body 49 is disposed within the same bore in
FIGURE 4 is an end elevation of the structure shown
head 11 that receives the barrel I3 and is clamped
in FIGURES 1, 2 and 3.
in position when the barrel 13 is screwed home. The
FIGURE 5 is in part a cross section, in part a side 50 valve body 49 has a passage 51 alternately opened and
elevation and in part a diagram illustrating a modi?ed
closed in accordance ‘with differential pressure upon a
form of log splitter in its retracted or compact position.
ball check 52 serving as an inlet valve. The valve body
The log splitter pursuant to the invention can be em
bodied in a number of different variations, depending
primarily upon the precise environment in which it is to
be utilized, and can take on various con?gurations and
sizes dictated by the precise nature of the work to be
1.19 also has a chamber 53 serving as an outlet under con
trol of a ball check 54 urged toward closed position by a
spring 55.
With this arrangement, and considering that the inlet
tube 43 is freely open, reciprocation of the lever 23
causes the plunger 14 and barrel 13 with their attendant
Considering ?rst the embodiment disclosed in FIG
URES l to 4 inclusive, there is provided a hydraulic jack 60 valves 52 and 54 to act as a force pump, withdrawing
hydraulic fluid from the chamber 31 and expelling it
6 including a cylinder 7 and a hollow, cylindrical piston
under pressure into the chamber 32. This transfer of
8. The piston 8 is freely slidable Within the cylinder 7
liquid correspondingly displaces the piston head 33 and
along an axis 9, being movable to and fro quite freely.
The cylinder 7 at one end is preferably closed by a cyl
the piston 8 along the axis 9 relative to the cylinder 7.
inder ‘head 11 conveniently fabricated of a block of metal 65
Should the pressure at any time within the chamber 32
appropriately secured to the cylinder 7.
become excessive-that is, exceed a predetermined val
A hydraulic pump 12 is incorporated with the cylinder
ue—rneans are provided for reducing it to a set value.
head 11. The pump includes its own barrel 13 with a
For that reason, intersecting the chamber 53 is a relief
plunger 14 reciprocable therein. The barrel 13 is pref
passage 61 opening into a bore 62 carrying a relief valve
erably screwed into the head 11 and is sealed with a 70 body 63. The body is sealed by a ring 64 and is thread
packing ring 16. The plunger 14 has a packing cup 17
edly engaged with the head 11. At one end 66 the
a 7 038,510
body 63 has a cross bar handle 67 so that the body can
be turned until it occupies any desired axial position.
Within the body as is located a relief plunger as urged
toward the staked end of the body 63 by a spring as.
also with projections or roughnesses 19%. The extent of
the secondary separator 1G7 is such that when nested it ?ts
in and under the striking surface 164 of the primary sepa
rator. The piston 8 can rotate in the cylinder 7 and it
Also opening into the bore 62 is a second relief passage Cl may sometimes be necessary manually to turn the sec
ondary separator into registry with the primary separator
71 extending to an annular recess 72 around the body
for maximum. piston retraction.
49 and thus opening into the inlet passageway 48. Thus,
The secondary separator 1117 is provided with a remov
when the pressure ‘within the chamber 32, and so upon
able ?ller plug 111 having a washer 112 thereon and af
the plunger 68, is excessive or is su?icient to cause de
?ection of the spring 69, the needle valve 63 is forced 10 fording convenient access to the reservoir 31, so that when
the tool is tipped up and the closure 111 is removed, the
open and excess hydraulic liquid bypasses through the
chain er 31 can be ?lled (leaving some air space) with
relief passage 71 back to the inlet.
hydraulic ?uid or, by inversion, hydraulic ?uid can be
By rotating the body 63 by hand or with a tool, it is
drained therefrom.
possible to set the body in any desired rotated or axial
In the use of this structure, the parts are positioned
position to aiford the requisite spring pressure so that 15
especially as shown in FIGURE 2 adjacent a log to be split.
the desired relief pressure is established. If at any time
With the operating lever 23 out of the way, the primary
it is desired to drain the chamber 32 back to the reser
and secondary separators in nested position can be driven
voir 31, it is merely necessary to open the valve 68 by
withdrawing the body 63, the staked portions of the
leading edge of the body carrying the valve 63 to open
When the piston head 33 has been su?iciently translated
in an expanding direction along the axis 9, it is preferably
automatically precluded from travelling farther in the
same outward direction.
For that reason, the intake tube
43 at a covenient point is provided with an interior sleeve
81 making a reasonably tight ?t at its enlarged ends 32
and v83 and having a central bore 84‘ which continues free
communication within the tube 4.13. However, the sleeve
has a reduced peripheral portion to provide an annular
recess 86 to establish communication between a pair of
apertures 87 and ‘88 through the tube 43.
When the piston 33 has translated to a position sub
stantially between the openings 87 and 88, there is im
mediately provided a hydraulic bypass around the pis
ton from the interior of the chamber 32 through the open
ing 87 and through the annular passage 86 and out the
other opening 88 into the chamber 31. This precludes
any further addition of hydraulic ?uid to the chamber 32
and precludes further translation of the piston, thus
serving as a limit stop.
The motion of the piston in one direction (to the right
in FIGURE 1) is accompanied by compression of a re
turn spring 91 conveniently disposed Within the hollow
piston 8 and at its ends reduced to bear at one end
against the piston head 33 and at the other end against
the ?tting 4-4. Thus as the piston is moved outwardly of
the cylinder, the spring 91 is correspondingly compressed.
The spring urges the piston back to a nested or com
pact position within the cylinder, but this cannot be ac
complished until such time as the valve 6% is manually
opened by rotation of the body 63 to permit return by
pass of the hydraulic ?uid.
There is thus provided a
jack mechanism for hydraulically expelling the piston
into the log by blows upon the striking surface 194. These
blows transmit force to the entire implement and espe
cially tend to distribute the forces about equally to the
primary and secondary separators so that they are driven
home. If desired the log to be split can be preconditioned
by having a saw laerf or the like initially provided therein,
and then it is merely necessary to lay the extensions 1132
and 168 into the kerf.
After the log splitter has been so positioned, the opera
tor places the lever 23 in extended position in the socket 22
and manipulates the lever 23 to transfer oil or other hy
draulic ?uid from the reservoir 31 into the chamber 32.
By the exertion of only reasonable manual force, the pis
ton 55 is thus urged to project from the cylinder 7.
If the
pressure is built up hydraulically to an extent suf?cient to
open the safety valve 68, the log is not split by the force
35 available but the mechanism is protected. But if there is
su?icient force available before the valve 63 opens, then
the primary and secondary separators are urged apart, thus
splitting the log. If the log splits far apart, the pressure
within the device is abruptly reduced, so that there is no
further tendency to spread the primary and secondary
separators. If the log at ?rst splits only a short distance
and some pressure remains, the spreading motion con
tinues but only until the piston overruns the aperture 87.
After the operation has stopped with the two separators
spread apart, the unit is removed from the split log and
the body 63 is rotated to permit bypass or return of the
hydraulic ?uid. The spring 91, in relaxing, restores the
parts to their original condition. If the piston has rotated
more or less within the cylinder so that the secondary sepa~
rator does not line up exactly with the primary separator,
it is easy to turn them into precise alignment so that they
nest, as shown in FIGURE 2, ready for a subsequent
In the modi?ed form of the device shown in FIGURE
5, there is provided an exterior cylinder 112 having a pri
from the cylinder, but only to a certain limit, and a 55 mary separator 113 secured thereto and provided with a
striking surface 114. Within the cylinder 112 a hollow
piston 116 is reciprocable. The piston itself has a sec
The jack mechanism is utilized in connection with a
ondary separator 117 with its own striking surface 118.
separating structure. Firmly mounted on the cylinder
Normally, the primary and secondary separators are
7 is a primary separator 101 extending generally laterally
nested with the striking surfaces adjacent as shown in FIG
or transversely of the axis % on both sides of the cylin
URE 5, so that they both can be simultaneously driven into
der. The primary separator 101 has a tapering extension
a log to be split. In this instance, both the cylinder 112
162 and is preferably provided on the outer surface with
and the piston 116 are away from hydraulic ?uid and are
a roughness 103 or scari?cation. The primary separator
grease lubricated.
has a striking surface 104 conveniently of considerably 65 To provide the actuating or expanding force, a hydrau
greater axial extent than the main body of the primary
lic jack 119 is incorporated into the piston cylinder assem
separator itself. The primary separator serves as a
bly. A standard hydraulic jack 119 is provided with a
mounting for a ‘wiping washer 106 to keep dirt and mis
threaded portion .121 which engages a collar 122 secured to
cellaneous material which would otherwise adhere to the
the cylinder 112. The plunger 123 of the jack 11? is con
exposed piston from entering into the cylinder '7.
70 nected by a pin 124 to a boss 126 secured to the secondary
Firmly ?xed on the piston 15 is a secondary separator 167
separator 117. Preferably the plunger 123 is ?attened
extending generally transversely or laterally of the axis 9
and ?ts within a bifurcated end 127 and tightly against the
boss 126. The jack 11% is connected by a ?exible conduit
alongside the primary separator. The extended portion
131 to a hydraulic pump 132 having an actuating
108 of the secondary separator is contoured very much like
that of the primary separator and is conveniently provided 75 handle 133.
mechanism for restoring the piston to its original posi<
tion nested within the cylinder.
With this arrangement, the jack mechanism is positioned
on a log to be split either by having the primary separator
113 and the secondary separator 117 driven into place or
is positioned in a previously provided slot, for example,
the back cut in a tree to be felled.
The pump 132 is
situated at any convenient adjacent location, and the
handle 133 is actuated. The primary and secondary sepa
rators thus are urged apart by hydraulic pressure. This
laterally extending separator on said piston rod aligned
with said primary separator, means for closing the other
end of said cylinder, a pump in said closing means and
connected to said reservoir and to said pressure chamber,
and means for controlling the transfer of hydraulic ?uid
between said pressure chamber and said reservoir.
2. A log splitter comprising a hydraulic jack including
a relatively movable cylinder and piston and extending
pressure increases and imposes an increasing strain on the
laterally to one side thereof, a primary separator ?xed on
engaged members until the split or motion occurs. The
said cylinder, a secondary separator ?xed on said piston,
mechanism is then removed and is returned to initial posi 10
tion by forcing the plunger back into the jack manually
after the manipulation of a valve 134 or by operating the
handle 133 after reversing the valve 134.
In both forms of the invention there is provided a log
splitter Which is effective to split a log or to move apart 15
comparable elements under hydraulic pressure generated
easily by an operator and under his control, there being
provided adequate safeguards to prevent the mechanism
from being overloaded or from over-travelling.
What is claimed is:
1. A log splitter comprising a hydraulic cylinder, a pri
extending laterally thereof in alignment With said primary
separator and movable into close proximity to said pri
mary separator, a striking member secured to one of said
separators on the other side of said cylinder and extending
over and into substantial contact with an adjacent portion
of the other of :said separators When said separators are in
close proximity, means mounted on said cylinder for hy
draulically moving said cylinder and piston to separate
said primary and secondary separators, and means for
inactivating said moving means.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
mary separator ?xed on said cylinder and extending
laterally therefrom, a hydraulic piston reciprocable in
said cylinder and dividing said cylinder into a pressure
chamber and a reservoir, :1 piston rod on said piston 25
and extending from one end of said cylinder, a secondary
Schwarz ______________ __ Oct. 18, 1960
Denmark _____________ __ Dec. 21, 1942
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