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Патент USA US3039238

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June 19, 1962
c. A. BALMAN
3,039,234
HONING APPARATUS
Filed May 21. 1959
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INVENTOR.
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3,039,234
Patented June 19, 1962
9
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An object of the present invention is to provide a novel
3,039,234
HONING APPARATUS
Clarence A. Balman, La Verne, Calif., assignor to Gen
eral Dynamics Corporation, San Diego, Calif., a cor
poration of Delaware
Filed May 21, 1959, Ser. No. 814,818
12 Claims. (Cl. 51-2)
method and apparatus for abrading, honing or polishing
internal surfaces by the reciprocal ?ow of an abrasive
laden ?uid.
Another object of this invention is the provision of a
method of abrading, honing or polishing internal surfaces
wherein abrasive-laden ?uid is reciprocated by application
of suction and pressure.
It is another object of the present invention to provide
This invention relates generally to methods and appa
ratus for honing, abrading or polishing the internal sur 10 a novel method and apparatus for abrading, honing or
faces of passages; more particularly, it relates to a method
polishing intersecting passages and nonlinear passages by
and apparatus for honing, abrading or polishing the in
ternal surfaces of passages by reciprocating an abrasive
laden ?uid through the passages.
The problems encountered when abrading, honing or
reciprocation of an abrasive-laden ?uid.
Another object of this invention is the provision of a
novel apparatus wherein the velocity and volume of a
reciprocating abrasive-laden ?uid are controllable for
abrading, honing or polishing selected corners of inter
secting passages or selected surfaces of nonlinear (curved)
passages.
polishing the interiors of passages are well known. When
no great degree of smoothness or polish is required, in
terior surfaces can be satisfactorily formed by ‘boring and
reaming. However, in some instances, speci?cations may
Other objects, features and advantages of the present
require that the inner passages of a part be very smooth
and highly polished. An example of such a part is an
invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art
from a consideration of the following description, the
hydraulic manifold containing a network of small, inter
connecting internal passages. Generally, the surfaces of
which:
appended claims, and the accompanying drawings, in
'
FIGURE 1 is an elevational view, partially in section,
bored and reamed interiors can be completely smoothed
and highly polished by the use of bones. However, as is 25 of a preferred embodiment of the apparatus of the present
invention;
well known, hones cannot be readily used in all passages
FIGURE 2 is a perspective view, partially in section,
because of mechanical and structural limitations. It is
showing the recirculator element of the apparatus of
apparent from the foregoing that a method and apparatus
FIGURE 1;
for abrading, honing or polishing the internal surfaces of
FIGURE 3 is a perspective view of a part containing
passages is needed. One known method of treating the 30
intersecting passages to be abraded, honed or polished;
interiors of hollow objects utilizes a spinning mandrel
FIGURES 4 and 5 are illustrations of the abrading, hon
equipped with annular vanes to forcefully propel an
ing or polishing of intersecting passages in accordance
abrasive-laden ?uid against the inner surfaces to remove
with the present invention; and
scale. In this method, the operation must be stopped as
FIGURE 6 is an elevational view, partially in section,
soon as the scale is removed because the abrasive particles
of a modi?ed form of the apparatus according to the
will begin gouging the interior, leaving scarred surfaces.
This method, therefore, is not suitable for abrading, hon
ing or polishing the inner surfaces of bored and reamed
interiors.
In another method, a stream of abrasive-laden ?uid is
forcefully directed from a nozzle against the inner sur
faces of hollow objects. This method is normally used
to remove scale, slag and the like from the interiors of
boilers and furnaces. Since the abrasive ?uid impinges
upon (strikes) the inner surfaces with su?icient force to
remove scale and slag, the operation must be observed
closely and stopped when feasible to limit the amount of
gouging and scarring by the abrasive particles.
This
method, too, is not suitable for honing, abrading or polish
ing the internal surfaces of passages.
In still another method, a helical stream of abrasive
laden ?uid is directed against the inner surfaces of a
present invention.
Referring to the drawings, and particularly to FIGURE
1, a preferred embodiment of the present invention is
shown as including a pair of pumps or pressure transfer
devices 10, 12, each divided into separate’ compartments
14, 16 and 18, 20 respectively, by ?exible diaphragms 22,
24 which are clamped securely by locking rings 26, 28.
The diaphragms 22, 24 are preferably fabricated of elas
tomeric materials. Fluid couplings 30, 32 interconnect
compartments 16, 20 with recirculators 34, 36 respectively,
which are connected by conduits 38, 40 to a workpiece 42
which is positioned in a fixture 44. A tank 46 is con
nected to abrasive slurry compartments 16 and 20‘ through
tubes 48, 50 and control valves 52, 54 respectively. Cylin
der-s 56, 58 are respectively connected to compartments
i4, 13 of the pumps through tubes 60, 62. Valves 64, 66
hollow object by rotation of a helically grooved shaft
are respectively mounted on compartments 14, 18 to per
coaxially positioned within the object.
method is inherently restricted to treatment of compara- '
mit additional or removal of hydraulic ?uid, as required.
Vacuum gages 68, ‘i0 and pressure gages 72, 74 are at
tively straight passages and is not adaptable to abrading
tached to cylinders 56, 58 respectively.
However, this
or honing the inner surfaces of non-linear or intersecting
passages. Further, in order to reverse hte ?ow of abrasive
’
Pistons 76 and 78 are slidably positioned in cylinders
5 6, 80 respectively and both are secured to a rod 82. Also
af?xed to rod 82 is a switch lactuator 84 in contact with
slurry through the passages, the operation must be stopped
60 two limit switches 86 and 88 The vlimit switches are elec
and the position of the work piece reversed.
In another method, a motor-driven helical rotor revolv
ing coaxially within a helical stator maintains a positive
trically connected to a junction box 90 which is con
nected to a standard source of voltage (not shown). A
pressure to force abrasive slurry through the inner passages
of a work piece. Here again, the operation must be
stopped in order to reverse the ?ow of slurry through the
work piece to provide uniform treatment of the inner
surfaces, especially at the corners of intersecting passages.
In this method, either the motor or the work piece may
be reversed to effect redirection of the abrasive slurry.
similar arrangement is provided on the opposite side of
the apparatus shown in FIGURE 1. Pistons 92, 94 in
cylinders 58, 96 respectively, and a switch actuator 98
It is therefore an object of this invention to provide a
106 which connects to a solenoid-operated, 4-way, 2-posi
tion, hydraulic control valve 108 through a ?ow control
valve 110 and a gate valve 112‘ in one branch, and through
new and improved method of abrading, honing or polish
ing internal surfaces.
are a?’ixed to a rod 100. The switch actuator is in con
tact with two limit switches 102, 104 which are elec
trically connected to junction box 90.
Attached to one end of cylinder 80 is a divided conduit
3,039,234.
3
4
a gate valve 114 and a ?ow control valve 116 in another
After the apparatus has been ?lled with abrasive
slurry and hydraulic ?uid it can then be operated in three
different fashions or modes, depending upon certain valve
settings that will be explained later. It can be seen from
branch. Attached to the opposite end of cylinder 80 is
another divided conduit 118 which connects to solenoid
operated valve 108 through a ?ow control valve 120
and a gate valve 122 in one branch, and through a gate
valve 124 and a flow control valve 126 in another branch.
All the gate valves and ?ow control valves are adjustable
to control rate of flow through them. In accordance with
standard practice, the arrow indicators shown with the
FIGURE 1 that upward movement of piston 76 causes a
temporary pressure drop in cylinder 56 that causes dia
phragm 2.2 to move upward, drawing abrasive slurry from
workpiece 42'. Also, when piston 92 moves downward
it causes a temporary pressure increase in cylinder 58
?ow control valves indicate that ?uid ?ow against the 10 that causes ‘diaphragm 2.0‘ to move downward, forcing
arrows is full or free and that ?ow with the arrows is re
abrasive slurry through workpiece 42. As will be seen,
stricted. A hydraulic ?uid return line 128 interconnects
the piston 76 rises when piston 92 is making its downward
one side of solenoid-operated valve 108 to a hydraulic
fluid reservoir 130. ‘From another side of valve 108 a
stroke, and vice versa.
high pressure coupling 132 extends through and adjustable
?ow control-bypass valve 134, to a pump 136 driven
by an electric motor 138. Flow controLbyp'ass valve 134
is connected by coupling 140- to return line 128. Bypass
valve 134 is normally adjusted to pass ?uid below a pre
determined pressure. When the pressure is exceeded, the
?uid is bypassed through coupling 140 into return line
128 to reservoir 130.
A similar arrangement of elements is provided on the
opposite side. Attached to cylinder 96 are divided con
duits 142, 144 which connect to a solenoid-operated,
4-way, 2-position hydraulic control valve 146.
One
branch of conduit 142 extends through a ?ow control
valve 148 and a gate valve 150, and another branch ex
tends through a gate valve 152 and a ?ow control valve
154. A branch of conduit 144 extends through a ?ow
control valve 156 and a gate valve 158, and another
branch extends through a gate valve 160 and a ?ow con
trol valve 162. The gate valves and ?ow control valves
are adjustable to control the rate of ?ow through them.
An hydraulic fluid return line 164 leads from one side of
solenoid-operated valve 146 and interconnects with re
turn line 128 to reservoir 130‘. From another side of
If the drop in pressure causing one diaphragm to be
pulled upward is greater in magnitude than the increase in
pressure causing the opposite diaphragm to move down
ward, then the abrasive slurry is drawn or sucked through
the workpiece. This is one mode of _operation that can
be achieved, and will be referred to as the “suction”
mode. When operating in this mode, the action of the
abrasive slurry is concentrated against the inside radii
of intersecting passages in the workpiece, as shown in
FIGURE 4.
A second mode of operation is that in which one dia
phragm moves down under pressure greater than that
which causes the opposite diaphragm to move up. When
this occurs the abrasive slurry is forced or pushed through
the workpiece, and the abrasive action is concentrated at
the outside radii of intersecting passages in the workpiece
as shown in FIGURE 5. This particular mode of opera
tion will be referred to as the “pushing” mode.
And ?nally, the third mode of operation, the “normal”
mode, is that in which the magnitude of the downward
and upward pressures on the two diaphragms are the
same. When operating in this “normal” mode, the action
of the abrasive slurry is distributed substantially evenly
at the passageway intersections.
valve 146 a high pressure coupling 166 extends through
an adjustable ?ow control-bypass valve 168 and inter
connects with high pressure coupling 132 to pump 136.
Flow control-bypass valve 168 is connected by coupling
170 to return line 164. Bypass valve 168 is adjustable
In order to start the apparatus operating in any of the
above modes however, it is ?rst necessary to activate the
electrical system. This is done by turning on a switch
(not shown) in junction box 90. This turns on motor
138 for pump 136, and applies voltage to the limit
in the same manner as bypass valve 134 described above.
switches 86, 88, 102, 104 and valves 108, 146.
In FIGURE 2, the recirculator 34 of FIGURE 1 is
Now, by referring to FIGURE 1, the action of this elec~
shown in detail. Recirculator 34 which is identical to 45 trical system can be clearly followed. The piston 78 is
recirculator 36, comprises a cover plate 172, a base plate
shown ready for its downward stroke and piston 94 is
174, which are secured together through appropriate bolt
ready for its upward stroke. Reversal of the piston
holes 176, 178v by appropriate bolts (not shown). Cover
strokes, at the ends thereof, is automatically initiated and
maintained by the closing of limit switches r86and 104 at
172 has an inlet hole 180, an outlet hole 182, and an
angularly disposed groove 184. Base plate 174 contains 50 the end of one-half cycle and by the closing of limit
an angled groove 186 and a parallel groove 188.
switches 88 and 102 at the end of the next one-half cycle.
In FIGURE 3 workpiece 42 of FIGURE 1 is shown in
Switch actuators 84 and 98, respectively mounted on rods
detail. The workpiece, or part to be internally honed,
82, 100, move with the piston strokes and are adjusted
has intersecting passages 190. Workpiece 42 is secured
to close the appropriate limit switches at the end of each
by appropriate clamps 192, 194 to ?xture 44. Fluid
stroke by automatic activation of the switch levers. Clos
couplings 38, 40 are shown in operating position.
ing the limit switches completes the electric circuits to
To prepare the apparatus of FIGURE 1 for operation
solenoid-operated valves 108, 146 where the incoming
hydraulic ?uid ?owing through high pressure couplings
in accordance with the method of the present invention,
tank 46 is ?lled with abrasive slurry, preferably water con
132, 166 is alternately directed to opposite ends of cylin
taining abrasive particles. The abrasive-laden ?uid, or 60 ders 80, 96 to drive pistons 78, 94 respectively.
slurry, is supplied to lower compartments 16, 20 of pumps
From this it can be seen that the operation of the elec
10, 12 through tubes 48, 50 by opening valves 52, 54,
trical system and hydraulic system are closely integrated
respectively. Slurry also ?lls ?uid couplings 30, 312,
and dependent on each other. Only the hydraulic sys
recirculators 34, 36 and conduits 318, 40. Valves 52, 54
tem, however, is varied to prescribe the particular mode
are closed when the ?lling operation is completed.
, of operation that will be followed, i.e. “suction,” “push
Suitable hydraulic ?uid is injected into upper compart
ing” or “normal.” This will be seen from the following
ments 14, 18 of pumps 10, 12' through opened ?ll and
description of the hydraulic system operation.
bleed valves 64, 66 from any convenient source (not
In response to electric motor 138, pump 136 forces hy
draulic ?uid through high pressure coupling 1132 into inter
shown). When compartments 14, 18 become ?lled, the
hydraulic ?uid ?ows upward through tubes 60, 62 into 70 connecting high pressure coupling 166, and through ?ow
cylinders 56, 58 respectively. When the ?lling operation
control-bypass valve 168 to solenoid operated valve 146.
is completed, valves 64, 66 are closed.
Reservoir 130‘, cylinders 80, 96 and all hydraulic
couplings connected thereto are also ?lled with suitable
hydraulic ?uid from any convenient source (not shown).
Valve 146 is energized by closed limit switch 104, caus
ing the hydraulic ?uid to ?ow into divided conduit 144.
At the same time, high pressure coupling 132 has carried
hydraulic fluid to solenoid operated valve 108. Valve
3,039,234
5
108 is energized by limit switch 86, causing hydraulic
?uid to ?ow into divided conduit 106. Thus, at this
point, piston v78 is ready to start down in response to ?uid
from divided conduit 106, and piston 94 is ready to start
up in response to ?uid from divided conduit 144.
Now, it is to be recalled that the “suction” mode of op
13
achieved by having the valves in the lower divided con
duits 144 and 118 set so that ?uid ?ow into their respec
tive piston cylinders is “unrestricted.” At the same time,
the valves in the upper divided conduits 142 and 106 are
set so as to “restrict” ?uid ?ow into their respective piston
cylinders. Fluid ?ow from the cylinders in returning to
eration can be achieved by having each piston subjected
the reservoir is through both paths of the respective di
to more pressure on its upstroke than the opposite piston
is subjected to on its downstroke. Therefore, in the in
stant situation, ?uid conduit 144 must supply more pres
sure to piston 94 than conduit 106 supplies to piston 73.
vided conduits.
If the “pushing” mode of operation is now recalled, it
will be remembered that it requires the pressure pushing
This is accomplished by having gate valve 112 of divided
one piston down to be greater than the pressure pushing
the other piston up. To accomplish this the valves in the
upper divided conduits 106 and 142 are set so as to per
conduit 106 set to close when ?uid attempts to ?ow into
mit ?uid to ?ow into their respective cylinders unre
cylinder 80, and gate valve 114 set to remain open con
tinually. Thus the ?uid in divided conduit 106 can only 15 stricted. The valves in the lower divided conduits are set
to restrict ?uid ?ow into their respective cylinders. The
?ow “into” cylinder ‘80 through ?ow control valve 116
gate valve settings for this “pushing” mode of operation
and open gate valve 114. The position of the arrow for
are thus as follows: Gate valves 160 and 124 set to let
110W control valve 116 indicates that any ?ow “into” cylin
?uid pass “from” their respective piston cylinders but not
der v80 will be restricted. As a result, ?uid ?owing into
“into” their respective piston cylinders. Gate valves 158
cylinder 80‘ to cause piston 78 to move downward is re
and 122 continually open; gate valves 150 and 110 con
stricted, or impeded.
tinually open; and gate valves 152 and 114 set to let ?uid
At the same time, the gate valve 158 of divided conduit
pass “from” their respective piston cylinders but not
144 is set to close when ?uid attempts to ?ow “into” cylin
der 96. Fluid ?owing into cylinder 96 thus passes through
?ow control valve 162 and gate valve 160, which is set to
remain open continually. The arrow of ?ow control valve
162 shows that such ?ow into cylinder 96, causing piston
94 to move upward, is unrestricted. Since the ?uid sup
plied to both pistons comes from the same source, i.e.
pump 2136, and since the ?ow causing one piston to move
down is restricted, and the ?ow causing the other piston
to move up is ‘unrestricted, the pressure on the upward
“into” their respective piston cylinders.
And the third mode of operation, the “norma ” mode,
is produced by having the pressure pushing one piston
down equal the pressure pushing the other piston up.
There are a number of gate valve settings or adjustments
which will produce the “normal” mode, which settings
should now appear obvious from the previous descrip
tion of operation of the apparatus.
It is also apparent from the previous description of
moving piston is greater than the pressure on the down
operation that the action of the abrasive slurry can be
wardmoving piston. This produces the “suction” mode
of operation previously described.
proper mode of operation. As an aid to the abrading or
To completely describe one whole cycle of this mode,
however, the motion of pistons 94 and 78 will be followed
until they have returned to their positions as shown in
FIGURE 1. Thus, as piston 94 moves upward in response
to unrestricted ?uid ?ow from conduit 144, the ?uid 4 0
above piston 94 returns to the reservoir through conduit
164, solenoid controlled valve 146, and the upper divided
conduit 142. Gate valve 150, just like gate valve 112,
is set to let ?uid ?ow from the cylinder but not into the
cylinder. Gate valve 152, just like gate valve 114, is set
to be continuously open. The ?uid ?owing from cylin
der 96 thus follows two paths, one restricted and the other
unrestricted.
When piston 94 reaches the end of its upward stroke,
limit switch 102 is activated and it, in turn, switches valve
146 so that pressurized ?uid will be supplied to the upper
divided conduit, conduit =142. Piston 94 is now ready to
start a downward stroke.
At the same time, piston 78 has moved downward and
is ready to start an upward stroke. In moving down, pis
ton 78 caused ?uid to return to the reservoir via line 1218,
concentrated at certain points merely by selection of the
honing action of the slurry, the recirculators 34 and 36
have been provided. They are positioned as the lowest
elements of the slurry system, where the abrasive par
ticles in the slurry may settle when the apparatus is
stopped. When the apparatus is restarted, the settled
particles are rapidly remixed with the slurry ?uid, which
is reciprocatingly swirled through the recirculators. This
action can best be understood by referring to FIGURE 2.
Slurry ?uid, urged by movement of the diaphragms
of pumps 10, 12, ?ows downwardly through inlet hole
180 in cover plate 172 to angled groove 186 in base plate
174 where abrasive particles have accumulated. The
particles are remixed with the incoming slurry ?uid and
the resultant mixture ?ows upwardly to angularly dis
posed groove 184 in cover 172.
From groove 184 the
swirling mixture is directed downwardly to angled groove
188 where additional abrasive particles have accumulated.
The slurry mixture recombines with the particles and then
?ows upwardly through outlet hole 182. During alter
nate half cycles of the apparatus of FIGURE 1, ?ow is
reversed through the recirculators. The mixture then
?ows downwardly through hole 182 to groove 188 in base
plate 174 where it is directed upwardly to groove 184 in
solenoid operated valve 108, and divided conduit 118.
The gate valve 122, just as gate valve 158, is set to close
when ?uid attempts to flow “into” the piston cylinder but
cover ‘172. From groove 184 the mixture is directed
remains open when ?uid is ?owing out of the cylinder. 60 downwardly to ‘groove 186 and thence upwardly through
The gate valve 124, just as gate valve ‘160, is set to be
hole 180 in the cover. The recirculators 34 and 36 thus
open continually. Fluid ?owing from cylinder 80 on the
provide a means for keeping the abrasive particles dis
piston’s downward stroke therefore returns to the reser
tributed through the slurry, independent of the mode of
voir through both passages of divided conduit 118, one
operation of the apparatus.
passage being restricted and the other being unrestricted. 65
As to one of the modes of operation, FIGURE 6 shows
At the end of the piston stroke limit switch 88 is activated
a modi?ed form of the apparatus capable of operating
and it, in turn, switches solenoid operated valve 108 so
only in the “normal” mode. In this ?gure the apparatus
that pressurized ?uid will be supplied to piston 78 through
is shown as including the pumps 10, 12, each divided,
as previously explained, into separate compartments 14,
divided conduit 118.
With the pistons in this position, i.e. piston 78 down 70 16 and 18, 20 respectively, by ?exible diaphragms 22,
24 which are clamped securely by locking rings 26, 28.
and piston 94 up, they will repeat the second half of the
cycle, again with the upward moving piston (now 78)
Fluid couplings 30, 32 interconnect compartments 16,
20 with workpiece 42 which is positioned in ?xtures 44.
Fluid couplings 200, 202 are attached to compartments
To recapitulate, this “suction” mode of operation is 75 14, 18 respectively and also connect to the ends of cylin
being subjected to the greater pressure, until their posi
tions as shown in FIGURE 1 are attained.
3,039,234
8
der 204. Piston 206, slidably positionedin cylinder 2%,
is a?ixed to a rod 208 which engages an arm 216 attached
workpiece, and means connected to the second compart
men-ts of said pumping chambers for alternately and
to an electric motor 212.
To prepare the apparatus of
simultaneously applying pressure and suction to said'
FIGURE 6 for operation, abrasive-laden ?uid, or slurry,
is supplied to compartments 16, 20 of pumps 10, 12 re
spectively, from any convenient source (not shown).
Slurry also ?lls ?uid couplings 3t), 32 to workpiece 42.
diaphragms, thereby causing reciprocal movement of said
Cylinder 204, ?uid couplings 269, 202, and compartments
abrasive slurry through said selected passage of said
workpiece.
'
3. An apparatus for ?nishing the interiors of passages
in a workpiece, said apparatus comprising two pumping
chambers, a diaphragm disposed in each pumping cham
14, 18 of pumps 10, 12 respectively, are ?lled with suita
ble hydraulic ?uid from any convenient source (not 10 her, said diaphragms separating each pumping chamber
shown). Operation is commenced ‘by activating a switch
(not shown) to start motor 212.
Operating at a prede
termined speed, the motor actuates arm 21th attached to
rod 208 and drives piston 206 back and forth in cylinder
204. Moving toward ?uid coupling 200, piston 206
forces hydraulic ?uid through coupling 200 into com
partment 14 of pump 10. Flexible diaphragm 22 is thus
deformed, or lowered, thereby urging abrasive slurry
from compartment 16 through coupling ‘30 and work
piece 42. Simultaneously, in the present cycle, the move
ment of piston 206 urges hydraulic ?uid from compart
ment 18 of pump 12 through coupling 292 into cylinder
204. Flexible diaphragm 24 of pump 12 is thus stretched,
or raised, drawing slurry through workpiece 42 into cou
pling 32 and compartment 20. Thus, a pushing force and
an equal coacting suction force have been effected to
urge abrasive slurry through the workpiece.
When piston 2% reverses and moves toward ?uid
coupling 202 during the alternate cycle, hydraulic ?uid
is forced with equal pressure through coupling 202 into
chamber 18 of pump 12. Flexible diaphragm 24 is thus
deformed, or lowered, thereby urging abrasive slurry
from compartment 29 through coupling 32 and workpiece
42. Simultaneously, as in the cycle previously explained,
into a ?rst compartment for containing an abrasive slurry
and a second compartment for containing a ?uid, a tankv
for containing abrasive slurry, said tank connected to
each said ?rst compartment ‘by conduits, valves associated
with said conduits for controlling ?ow of abrasive slurry
from said tank to said ?rst compartments, said ?rst com
partment of each pumping chamber connected ‘by indi
vidual slurry conduits to a selected passage of said work
piece, at least one of said slurry conduits containing an
abrasive particle settling trap recirculator member, and
means connected to the second compartments of said
pumping chambers for alternately and simultaneously
applying pressure and suction to said diaphragms, thereby
causing reciprocal movement of said abrasive slurry
through said selected passage of said workpiece.
4. An apparatus for ?nishing the interiors of passages
in a workpiece, said apparatus‘ comprising two pumping
chambers, a diaphragm disposed in each pumping cham
her, said diaphragms separating each pumping chamber
into' a ?rst compartment for containing an abrasive slurry
and a second compartment for containing a ?uid, each
of said ?rst compartments connected to a selected pas
sage of said workpiece, two piston ‘cylinders for con
taining ?uid, said second compartments each having a
the movement of piston 206 urges hydraulic ?uid from
?uid connection to one of said piston cylinders, said sec
compartment 14 of pump it} through coupling 200 into
cylinder 2%. Flexible diaphragm 22 is thus stretched,
ond compartments connected to different piston cylinders,
a pumping piston disposed in each piston cylinder, each
or raised, drawing slurry through workpiece 42 into cou
pling 3t) and compartment 16.
It will thus be appreciated that a uniform reciprocating
?ow of abrasive slurry is e?ected by the apparatus of
FIGURE 6 to abrade, hone or polish the internal pas
sages of the workpiece.
‘pumping piston adapted for movement in ‘a pressure
stroke to force ?uid into the second compartment con
The recirculators 34 and 36 are not incorporated in the
apparatus of FIGURE 6 but could ‘be easily inserted if
desired. This only points up the fact that although spe
ci?c embodiments of the present invention have been de
scribed and illustrated, it is understood that the same are
by way of illustration and example only; and it is also
understood that the invention is not limited thereto, as
many variations will be apparent to those versed in the
art and the invention is to be given its broadest possible
interpretation within the terms of the following claims.
I claim:
1. An apparatus for ?nishing the interiors of passages
nected to its respective piston cylinder, each pumping
piston adapted for movement in a suction stroke to draw
‘?uid iirom the second compartment connected to its re
spective piston cylinder, and actuating means connected
to said pumping pistons for alternately and simultane;
ously moving one pumping piston in a pressure stroke
and the other pumping piston in a suction stroke.
5. The apparatus of claim 4 in which the actuating
means comprises a source for ?uid, ?uid pressure pro
ducing means connected to said source for ?uid, ?rst
and second 4-way 2-position electrically responsive con
'trol valves connected to said pressure producing means,
?rst and second primary piston cylinders each having a
?rst and second end, the ?rst and second ends of said
?rst primary piston cylinder connected to said ?rst elec
trically responsive control valve, the ?rst and second
ends of said second primary piston cylinder connected
to said second electrically responsive control valve, ?rst
and second primary pistons disposed within the respec
tive primary piston cylinders, linking means connecting
and a second compartment, said ?rst compartment of 60 said ?rst primary piston to one of said pumping pistons,
linking means connecting said second primary piston to
each pumping chamber connected to a selected passage
in a workpiece, said apparatus comprising two pumping
chambers, a diaphragm disposed in each pumping cham
ber, said diaphragms separating each pumping chamber
into a ?rst compartment for containing an abrasive slurry
of said workpiece, and means connected to the second
the other pumping piston, and electrical means for con
into a ?rst compartment for containing an abrasive slurry
and a second compartment for containing a ?uid, said
?rst and second end, the ?rst and second ends of said
trolling said electrically responsive control valves where
compartment of each pumping chamber for applying pres
by pressurized ?uid ?ow to said primary piston cylinders
sure and suction to said diaphragms thereby causing
movement of said abrasive slun'y through said selected 65 is controlled.
6. The apparatus of claim 4 in which the actuating
passage of said workpiece.
means comprises a source for ?uid, ?uid pressure pro—
2. An apparatus for ?nishing the interiors of passages
ducing means connected to said source foT?uid, ?rst
in a workpiece, said apparatus comprising two pumping
and second 4-way 2-position electrically responsive con
chambers, a diaphragm disposed in each pumping cham
trol valves connected to said pressure producing means,
ber, said diaphragms separating each pumping chamber
?rst and second primary piston cylinders each having a
?rst primary piston cylinder connected to said ?rst elec
?rst compartment of each pumping chamber connected
trically responsive control valve, the ?rst and second
by individual slurry conduits to a selected passage of said 75 ends of said second primary piston cylinder connected
3,039,234
?uid, a low pressure ?uid outlet line, ?rst and second
?uid control valves connected to said means for» supply
ing pressurized ?uid and to said low pressure ?uid outlet,
conduits connecting said end ports of said ?rst primary
piston cylinder to said ?rst ?uid control valve, conduits
piston ends to said ?uid pressure producing means in
response to electrical signals, ?rst and second primary
pistons disposed within the respective primary piston
cylinders, linking means connecting said ?rst primary
piston to one of said pumping pistons, linking means
connecting said second primary piston to the other pump
ing piston, said pumping pistons caused to move in ac
cordance with said primary pistons by said linking means, 10
and electrical means for causing said electrically re
10
cordance therewith, means for supplying pressurized
to said second electrically responsive control valve, said
control valves selectively connecting said ?rst and second
connecting said end ports of said second primary piston
cylinder to said second control valve, said control valves
adapted to selectively connect one port of each primary
piston cylinder to said means ‘for supplying pressurized
?uid and one port of each primary piston to said low
pressure ?uid outlet, and means associated with each
sponsive control valves to alternately and substantially
conduit connected between a control valve and primary
simultaneously connect the ?rst end of one primary piston
piston cylinder for selectively restricting ?ow of ?uid
cylinder and the second end of the other primary piston
cylinder to said ?uid pressure producing means.
15 therethrough.
9. An apparatus for ?nishing the interiors of passages
7. An apparatus for ?nishing the interiors of passages
in a workpiece, said apparatus comprising two pumping
in a workpiece, said apparatus comprising two pumping
chambers, a diaphragm disposed in each pumping cham‘
chambers, a diaphragm disposed in each pumping cham
her, said diaphragms separating each pumping chamber
into a ?rst compartment for containing an abrasive slurry
and a second compartment for containing a ?uid, each
of said ?rst compartments connected to a selected pas
sage of said workpiece, two piston cylinders for contain
her, said diaphragms separating each pumping chamber
into a ?rst compartment for containing an abrasive slurry
and a second compartment for containing a ?uid, each
of said ?rst compartments connected to a selected passage
of said workpiece, two piston cylinders for containing
?uid, said second compartments each having a fluid con
ing ?uid, said second compartments each having a ?uid
connection to one of said piston cylinders, said second 25 nection to one of said piston cylinders, said second com
partments connected to different piston cylinders, a pump
compartments connected to different piston cylinders, a
pumping piston disposed in each piston cylinder, each
pumping piston adapted for movement in a pressure
stroke to force ?uid into the second compartment con
ing piston ‘disposed in each piston cylinder, each pump
ing piston adapted for movement in a pressure stroke to
force ?uid into the second compartment connected to its
nected to its respective piston cylinder, each pumping
respective piston cylinder, each pumping piston adapted
piston adapted for movement in a suction stroke to draw
?uid from the second compartment connected to its re
for movement in a suction stroke to draw ?uid from the
spective piston cylinder, ?rst and second primary piston
second compartment connected to its respective piston
cylinder, ?rst and second primary piston cylinders each
having a ?rst and second end portion, said end portions
cylinders each having a ?rst and second end portion, said
end portions each containing a fluid port, a primary 35 each containing a ?uid port, a primary piston disposed
piston disposed in each primary piston cylinder, said
in each primary piston cylinder, said primary pistons
primary pistons adapted for movement in response to
pressurized ?uid admitted to their respective primary
piston cylinders through said ?uid ports, each said pump
mitted to their respective primary piston cylinders through
said ?uid ports, each said pumping piston connected to
ing piston connected to a primary piston to move in ac
40 a primary piston to move in accordance therewith, means
cordance therewith, means for supplying pressurized
?uid, ?rst and second ?uid control valves connected to
said means, said ports of said ?rst primary piston cyl
inder connected to said ?rst control valve, said ports of
adapted for movement in response to vpressurized ?uid ad
for supplying pressurized ?uid, a low pressure ?uid outlet
line, ?rst and second 4-way 2 position electrically re
sponsive ?uid control valves connected to said means for
supplying pressurized ?uid and to said low pressure ?uid
said second primary piston cylinder connected to said 45 outlet, ?uid conduits connected between each end port
of said ?rst primary piston cylinder and said ?rst con
second ?uid control valve, and said ?uid control valves
trol valve, ?uid conduits connected between each end port
adapted to selectively connect one port of each primary
of said second primary piston cylinder and said second
piston cylinder to said means ‘for supplying pressurized
control valve, said control valves selectively connecting
?uid and one port of each primary piston cylinder to a
50 said ?uid conduits to said ?uid pressure producing means
low pressure ?uid line.
and said low pressure ?uid outlet line in response to elec
8. An apparatus for ?nishing the interiors of passages
trical signals, and electrical means for directing said con
in a workpiece, said apparatus comprising two pumping
trol valves to alternately and substantially simultaneously
chambers, a diaphragm disposed in each pumping cham
connect the ?uid conduit of said ?rst end port of ‘one
ber, said diaphragms separating each pumping chamber
into a ?rst compartment for containing an abrasive 55 primary piston cylinder ‘and the ?uid conduit of said sec
ond end port of the other primary piston cylinder to said
slurry and a second compartment for containing a ?uid,
?uid pressure producing means while the other end ports’
each of said ?rst compartments connected to a selected
?uid conduits are connected to said low pressure ?uid out
passage of said workpiece, two piston cylinders for con
let line.
taining ?uid, said second compartments each having a
10. The apparatus of claim 9 in which each of the
?uid connection to one of said piston cylinders, said sec 60
?uid conduits connected between a control valve and a
ond compartments connected to ditferent piston cylinders,
primary piston cylinder port is divided into ?rst and sec
a pumping piston disposed in each piston cylinder, each
ond branches, each branch of each ?uid conduit includ~
pumping piston adapted for movement in a pressure
stroke to force ?uid into the second compartment con
ing a ?ow control valve ‘and a gate valve, said ?ow con
?uid from the second compartment connected to its re
piston cylinders ‘than “into” said “second” end ports there
of, and said ?ow control valves and gate valves concur
nected to its respective piston cylinder, each pumping 65 trol valves and gate valves arranged to permit greater
?uid ?ow “into” said “?rst” end ports of said primary
piston adapted for movement in a suction stroke to draw
spective piston cylinder, ?rst and second primary piston
rently arranged to permit substantially unrestricted ?ow
cylinders each having a ?rst and second end portion, said
end portions each containing a ?uid port, a primary 70 of ?uid “from” said ports of said primary piston cylinders.
11. The apparatus of claim 9 in which each of the
piston disposed in each primary piston cylinder, said
?uid conduits connected between a control valve and a
primary pistons adapted for movement in response to
primary piston cylinder port is divided into ?rst and sec
pressurized ?uid admitted to their respective primary
ond branches, each branch of each ?uid conduit includ
piston cylinders through said ?uid ports, each said pump
ing piston connected to a primary piston to move in ac 75 ing a ?ow control valve and a gate valve, said ?ow control
11
3,039,234
11;‘?
valves ‘and gate valves arranged to permit greater ?uid
flow “into” said “second” end ports of said primary piston
cylinders than “into” said “?rst” end ports thereof, ‘and
tialiy the same ?uid ?ow “into” said “?rst” end ports of
said primary piston cylinders as “into” said “second” end
ports thereof, ‘and said ?ow control valves and gate valves
said ?ow control valves and gate valves concurrently ar
concurrently arranged to permit substantially unrestricted
[ranged to permit substantially unrestricted ?ow of ?uid 5 ?ow of ?uid “from” sai'd't-ports' of said primary piston
“from” said ports of said primary piston cylinders.
cylinders.
12. The ‘apparatus of claim 9 in which each of ‘the
?uid conduits connected between a control valve and a
primary piston cylinder port is divided into ?rst and sec
ond branches, each branch of each ?uid conduit includ- 10
ing ‘a ?ow control valve and a gate valve, said ?ow con
trol valves and gate valves arranged to permit substan
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,415,844
2,419,687
Perkins ______________ __ Feb. 18, 194-7
Luckey ______________ __ Apr. 29, 1947
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